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journal  of  tije  College  of  ^reeeptors. 


From  January  to  Dece'mber,   1909. 




PRINTED    BY    C.    F.    HODGSON    4    SON, 



Adams,  Prof.  J.,  on  Illustration  : 


Teaching,  241. 

Adamson,  Prof.,  on  the  History  of  Educa- 
tion, 489.  , 

Addis.  W.  J.,  on  Head  Masters  and 
Assistant  Masters,  206.  . 

American  National  Education  Association, 

6«.  ,  „„ 

Anglais,  Les,  dans  !e  Sud-Ouest,  453. 
Anthropology  and  Political  Science.  448. 
Appointments  and  Vacancies,  22,  63,  124, 

167  204,  235,  280,  316.  374,  416,  457,  499. 
Assistant  Master  in  French  Schools,  319. 
Assistant  Masters  m  Secondary  Schools- 
Conference,  2S2.  ^      . 
Bagnall    Mme,  on  "  Mouvement  Femin- 

iste  eii  Angleterre,"  199. 
Bird,  C,  on  the  Teaching  of  Handwork, 

Bowen,  the  late  H.C.,  195. 
British  Association  at  Winnipeg,  409,  448. 
Brown,  "VV.  C,  on  the  Relations  between 

Heads  of  Schools  and  Parents,  459. 
Canivet,  A.,  on  Madame  Tallien,  283. 
Charles,  R.  P.,  on  the  Educational  Value 

of  Play,  168. 
CoLLKOE  OF  Preceptors  :— 

Evening  Meetings ;  see  below. 

General  Meeetings,  64,  311. 

Meetings  of  Council.  27,  66, 120, 160,  199, 
233,  276,  312,  411,  448,  501. 

Pass  Lists : — 
Teachers'     Diploma    Examination. — 
Christmas,  1908,  127;    Midsummer, 
1909,  451. 
Certificate  Examination.— Christmas 

1908,  85,  129, 161 ;  Midsummer,  1909, 
335,  412. 

Professional     Preliminary     Examina- 
tion.— March,  1909,  160;   September 

1909,  411. 

Lower  Forms   Examination. — Christ- 
mas, 1908,  95,  131 ;  Midsummer,  1909, 

Certificate  of  Ability  to  Teach,  161, 464. 
Confi^rences  Francaises,  27,  161,  199,  245 

283.  453,  494. 
Coquelin,  Les,  494. 
Correspondence  :— 
Head  Masters  and  Assistants  :  A  Second 

Master,  274 ;  Thomas  Wyles,  320. 
Moral  Education  League  :  H.  Johnson, 

Registration  of  Teachers  in  Secondary 
Schools :  J.  O.  Bevan,  236. 
Current  Events,  21,  61,  123,  165,  203,234, 

279,  315,  373,  415,  455,  497. 
De   Lup6,  Mile,   on  "  Une    Femme   du 

Second  Empire,"  161. 
Duckworth,  J.,  on  the  Development  of 

Initiation,  378. 
Duhamel.  J.,  on  England  through  French 

Glasses,  245. 
Education,  History  of,  489. 
Educational  Ladder,  16.  66,  131,  160,  198, 

233,  274,  309,  369,  447,  502. 
Educational  Wastage,  463. 
Elle  et  Lui,  27. 
Endowments  and  Benefactions,  22.  62, 124, 

166,  203,  234,  280.  316,  374,  416.  456,  498. 
Eneland  thi-ough  French  Glasses,  245. 
Equal  Pay  for  E'lual  Work,  419. 
Evening   Meetinqs  at  the   College   of 
Preceptors,  Papers  read  at : — 
On  the  Government  of  Children :  Prof. 

Findlay,  116. 
Educational  Value  of  Play :  R.F.Charles 

Relations  between  Head  Masters  and 

Assistant  Masters  :  W.  J.  Addis,  206 
Dangers      of      Illustration     in      Class 

Teaching:  Prof.  J.  Adams,  241. 
Relations  between  Heads  of  Schools  and 

Parents  :  W.  C.  Brown,  459. 
History  of  Education  as  a  Professional 
Study :  Prof.  J.  W.  Adamson,  489. 
Pemrae  du  Second  Empire,  161. 
Findlay,  Prof.,    on   the   Government   of 

Children.  116, 
Fixtures,  21,  61, 123,  165,  203,  234,  279,  315, 

373,  415,  455,  497. 
German  Higher  Schools,  321. 
German  in  Secondary  Schools,  493. 
Government  of  Children,  116. 
Grammatical  Terminology,  161, 
Greek,  Pronunciation  ofVl32. 
Handwork,  Teaching  of,  237. 
Hanks,  F.  G.,  on  the  Assistant  Master  in 
French  Schools,  319. 

Hayward,  Dr.  F.  H.,  on  a  Budget  of 
Controversies,  24,  67. 

Head  Masters  and  Assistant  Masters,  206. 

Head  Mistresses  and  the  Franchise,  382, 

Heads  of  Schools  and  Parents,  459. 

Herculaneum,  Treasures  of,  311. 

Honours,  21,  62,  123, 165,  203,  234,  279,  315, 
373,  416,  456,  497. 

Illustration  in  Class  Teaching,  241. 

Imperial  Aid  for  Education,  313, 

Initiation.  The  Development  of,  378. 

Jackraan,  M.,  on  Imperial  Aid  for  Educa- 
tion, 313, 

Karpinski,  L.  C,  on  the  Teaching  of 
Mathematics,  380. 

Latin  in  the  Schools,  132. 

Latour,  Mme,  on  "  Les  Coquelin,"  494. 

Leading  Articles  :— 

Christmas  Card  for  Mr.  Runciman,  11. 

Circulation  of  Teachers,  109. 

Compulsor.y  Continuation  Schools,  305. 

Education 'in  Japan,  267. 

Education  in  Russia,  403, 

For  Private  Profit,  51, 

Hegel  as  Educationist,  363. 

How  to  Te  ich  Geometry.  193. 

Not  how  to  Teach  Foreign  Languages, 

Registration  in  Delay,  153. 

Regulations  for  Secondary  Schools,  485. 

Religion  in  Schools  of  the  Future.  441. 
Literary  Items,  23,  63,  125,  168,  205,  236, 

231,  318,  375,  417, 458,  500. 
Local  .Vuthoritie-  and  Private  Schools,  125. 
London  Mathematical  Society,  38,  80, 142, 

182,  219.  258,  294,  514. 
Magnus,  Sir  P.,  on  Practical  Instruction 

in  Elementary  Schools,  133. 
Marguer6, 1'Abbe,  on  "  Elle  et  Lui,"  27. 

Mathematical  QnEsxioxs  and  Solu- 
tions : — Aiyar,  M.  S.  V.,  330 ;  Aiyar, 
S.  N.,  35,  141 ;  Aiyar,  V,  Ramaswami, 
473,513;  Anderson,  Bey.  W.,  392,  512; 
Archibald,  R,  C,  328;  Ball,  W.  W. 
Rouse,  328;  Barniville,  J.  J.,  180,  257  ; 
Bateman,  H.,  471;  Bates,  G.  N.,  428; 
Beard,  W.  F.,  79,  180,  255,  330,  393,  471, 
473;  Berwick,  W.  E.  H.,  427,  512;  Biddle, 
D.,  78,  139,  329,  429 ;  Blaikie,  J.,  139,  216, 
256,  257,  291,  330,  472;  Blythe,  W.  H., 
181 ;  Bdcher,  Prof.,  292 ;  Brown,  F.  G. 
W.,  139,  256,  292,  513 ;  Carr,  G.  S.,  393 ; 
Chartres,  R.,  37,  393,  473,  512 :  Chaundy, 
T.  W.,  393,  471,  512;  Chepmell,  Major 
C.  H.,  36 ;  Christie,  R.  W.  D.,  35,  257  ; 
CliHord,  Prof.,  473;  Cochez,  Prof.,  330, 
427;   Cunningham,  Lt.-Col.,  35,  37,  78, 

140,  179,  217,  257,  292,  300,  331,  427,  472, 
512;  Dakin,  A.,  139;  Dallas,  R.  J.,  392: 
Daniell,  V.,  77;  Davis,  R,  F.,  78,  140, 

141,  181,  218,  255,  300,  393.  427  ;  De  Long- 
champs,  Prof.,  511;  Dick,  Hon.  G.  R., 

140,  292 ;  Dobbs,  W.  J.,  392  ;  Dudeney, 
H.  E.,  329,  392 ;  Eckenstein,  O.,  391 ; 
Edwardes,  D.,  35;   Escott,   E.    B.,  78, 

141,  179,  331,  471;  Finlay,  F.  C,  139; 
Francois, 217;  Fudge,  J.  H.,78;  Gallatly, 
v.,  218,  473;  Ganguli,  S.,  37,  218,  255, 
472;  Gardner,  R.,  218,  330;  Genese, 
Prof.,  181,  256;  Gillson,  A.,  256,  292, 
393,  512;  Gould,  S.  C,  472;  Grace, 
J.  H..  392 :  Greenstreet,  W.  J.,  140, 
181,  218,  472  ;  Griffiths,  J.,  180  ;  Hardy, 
G.  H.,  179;  Hernandez,  Prof.  E.,  78, 
218,  256,  513;  Hippisley,  Col.  R.  L., 
180;  Hudson,  Prof.,  330;  "Inquirer," 
291,  473;  Isserlis,  L..  181;  Johnston 
J.  v.,  393;  Kelkar,  D.  M.,  140;  Lai 
Manohar,  256:  "Aju,"  257;  Lemoine, 
Prof.,  36;  Lindfleld,  T.  E.,  256:  MaC- 
niillan,  J.,  218;  McVicker,  C.  E.,  256, 
513:  Madhavarao,  v.,  330;  Marks,  Con- 
stance I.,  256  ;  Marks,  F.  C,  139  ;  Ma^r, 
W.  L.,  392,  393 :  Martin.  Artemas,  37, 
291;  Morlev,  Prof.,  77,  140,  428:  Jlorri- 
son,  Edith  J.  D.,  330,  512 :  Muir,  T., 
329 ;  Nanson,  Prof.,  37,  77,  79,  139,  141, 
179,  180;  Nai-aniengar,  M.  T.,  77,  180, 
181,  255,  291,  328,  330,  331,  428,  472,  473, 
512,  513;  Narayana,  M.  S.,  330:  Nara- 
yanan, S..  255.  256, 291,  472,  513 ;  Nesbitt, 
A.  M.,  35,  140,  181,  215,  293,  394,  473, 
512;  Neuberg,  Prof.,  183,  217.  256,  512; 
Orchard,  Prof.  L.,  139;  Pal,  Jagat 
Chandra,  330  ;  Prasad,Prof.  512  ;  Prosper, 
V.  R.,  511;  Purushotham,  S..  472; 
Bamamurty.  S.  V.,  292 ;  Rao,  C.  M.,  180 ; 
Redgrove,  'H.  S.,  180 ;  Reeves,  F.  W., 
512;  Relton,  F.  E.,392;  Riddell,  H.,  36, 
139, 140,  292 ;  Rigbv,  W.,  77,  78,  291,  392  ; 

Mathematical  Questions  and  Solu- 
tions {continued)  : — 
Ross,  C.  M.,  79,  139,  181,  216,  217,  292, 
500,  427,  512:  Sanj:lna,  Prof.,  35,  36, 
77,  78,  140,  181,  257,  292,  428,  472,  512: 
Sarkar,  Prof.,  292;  Satvanai-ayana,  M., 
139;  Sergeant,  E.  P..  139:  Shovelton, 
S.  T.,  330  ;  Sih,  Prof.,  471 ;  Sleigh,  W.  A., 
181,257,293,330;  Seal.  S.  G.,  140, 428, 472; 
Solidus,140;  Stuart,  T.,  78, 179, 427;  S.vl- 
vester.  Prof.,  329:  Tate,J..328;  Tavani, 
F.,37;  Taylor,  H.M., 216;  Ti-achtenberg, 
H.  L.,  37,  471,  513:  Varadarajan,  D.  P., 
139  ;  Venkataraman,  T.  K..  73,  141,  218, 
330;  Walker,  J.  J..  181 ;  WaUis,  B.  C, 
73,  217,  255.  256.  257.  291,  472 ;  Watson, 
G.  N.,  78.  216,  256.  292,  330,  427 ;  Wert- 
heim.  P.,  256  ;  Wolstenholme,  Prof.,  77  ; 
Woodall,  H.  B,  139.  393,  471;  Young- 
man,  C.  E.,  35,  36,  79,  139,  267,  291,  328, 
428,  472,  473. 

Mathematics,  The  Humanizing  of.  275. 

Mathematics,  The  Teaching  of,  380. 

Memories  of  a  Girls'  High  School,  171. 

Mouvement  Feministe  en  Angleterre,  199. 

Myres,  Prof.  ,on  Anthropology  and  Political 
Science,  448. 

N.U.T.  Annual  Conference,  200. 

New  Public  School,  418. 

Notes,  12,  52,  110,  154,  194,  228,  268,  306, 
364,  404,  442,  486. 

Open  Court  —  Budget  of  Controversies  : 
Dr.  P.  H.  Hayward,  24. 67;  Humanizing 
of  Mathematics  :  G.  Spiller,  275. 

Oxford  and  the  Workers,  28. 

Pious  Benefactor,  An  Opportunity  for,  322. 

Play,  Educational  Value  of,  168. 

Practical  Instruction  in  Elementary 
Schools,  133. 

Prizes,  How  to  Distribute,  370. 

Registration  of  Teachers  Conference,  492. 

Rigaud.  G..  on  "  Les  Anglais  dans  le  Sud- 
Ouest,"  453. 

Scholarships  and  Prizes,  22,  62,  124,  166, 
204,  235,  280,  316,  374,  457,  500. 

Science  Teaching  in  Public  Schools,  313. 

Scientific  Method  in  Study  of  Education, 

Spender,  C.  M.,  on  Memories  of  a  Girls' 
High  School,  171. 

Spiller,  G.,  on  the  Humanizing  of  Mathe- 
matics, 275. 

Strong,  Prof,,  on  the  Teaching  of  Latin, 

Summary  of  the  Month,  14,  54,  112,  156, 

196,  230.  270.  308,  366,  406,  444,  487. 
Swedish  Schools,  Private  Initiative  in,  493. 
Tallien,  Madame,  283. 

Teachers'  Registration  Council,  26, 173. 
Thornton,  J.  S.,  on  Swedish  Schools,  493. 
Tudor  Education,  Part  II,  375. 
Underwood,  T.   H.  J.,    on    Educational 

Wastage,  463. 
Universities  and  Colleges,  15,  57, 115,  158, 

197,  231,  271,  308,  368,  408,  445,  488, 
Waldstein,  Prof.,  on  Herculaneum,  311. 
Watson,  Prof.  Foster ,on  Tudor  Education, 

Part  II,  375. 
Winbolt,  S.  B.,  on  the  Pronunciation  of 

Greek,  132. 
Women  as  Teachers,  201. 

Askwith's  Conic  Sections,  211. 
Atkinson's  History  of  Germany,  283. 
Barbour's  The  Bruce  (MacKenzie),  210. 
Bateson's  Mendel's  Heredity,  420. 
Bevan's  Genesis  of  the  Soul,  382, 
B6cher's  Integral  Equations,  324. 
Bromwicli's  Infinite  Series,  384, 
Bryan  and  Pinkertou's  Geometry  of  the 

Conic,  284, 
Burstall's  American  Education,  247. 
Caine's  My  Story,  72. 
Cambridge  English  Literature,  Vol,  III, 

Cambridge  Modem  History,  Vol,  II,  174. 
Clerigh's  History  of  Ireland.  29. 
Colet,  John,  Life  of  ( Lupton) ,  323. 
De  Garmo's  Secondary  Education,  71. 
Hardy's  Pure  Mathematics,  465. 
Hayward's  Primary  Curriculum,  133. 
Hilton's  Theory  of  Groups,  421. 
Jackson  and  Roberts'  First  Dynamics,  503, 
Johnstone's  Life  in  the  Sea,  29, 
Leadam's     England  —  Queen    Anne    to 

George  II,  384. 
MacColl's  Man's  Origin.  174. 

McMurray's  Special  Method  in  Arithmetic, 

Mathews'  Algebraic  Equations,  324. 
Moncrieft's  Heart  of  Scotland,  210. 
Political  History  of  England,  Vol.  IX, 384. 
Risk's  America  at  College,  247. 
Scott's  Analytical  Conies,  234. 
Spiller's  Moral  Instruction,  248. 
•rucker's  Natural  History  of  Language, 

Welton  and  Blandford's  Moral  Training, 

White's  Mathematical  Scrap  Book,  72. 
Wilson's  An  Empire  in  Pawn,  323. 
Woods  and  Bailey's  Mathematics,  Vol.  I, 


Genekal  Notices. 
Aeschylus  in  Verse  (Way),  Part  III,  30. 
Alfred's  Proverbs  (Skeat),  250. 
Allen's  Building  Construction,  325. 
Arabian  Nights  (Constable).  32. 
Aristophanes'  Acharnians  {Rennie),  385. 
Aristophanes'  Knights  (Neil).  211. 
Aristotle's  Ethics,  Bk.  VI  (Greenwood), 

Aristotle's  Rhetoric  (Jebb  and  Sandys), 

x\rnold's  Basis  Lat'na,  Part  1, 175. 
Arnold's  English  Texts.  386. 
Arnold's  First  Friends  in  Litemture,  286. 
Arnold's  Merope  (Collins) ,  286. 
Arnold's  Reports  (Marvin),  326. 
Arnold  and  Marshall's  Nursery  Rh,ymes, 

Audrey's  Awakening,  506. 
Baden- Powell's  Calculator,  75,  390. 
Bailey  and  Coleman's  Biology,  74. 
Baillv's  The  Divine  MinstVels  (Barnes), 

Baker  and  Bourne's  Mensuration,  285. 
Ballads  of  Famous  Fights,  508. 
Balzac's  M^decin  de  Campagne  (Payen- 

Barnard  and  Child's  New  Algebra,  Vol.  I, 

Barnard  and  Child's  New  Geometry,  74. 
Battifol's   Marie  de  M^dicis   (King  and 

Davis) ,  32. 
Bans'  Lo  Positive  (Harry  and  Salvio),  31. 
Bausor's  Inorganic  Chemistry.  466. 
Beaumont  and  Fletcher's  Works  (Waller), 

Vols.  V  and  VI,  31. 
Beith's  Stuart  Period,  504. 
Bell's  Literature  Readers,  286. 
Beresford's  Text-book  of  Esperanto,  285. 
Bergen's  Essentials  of  Botany,  212. 
Berry's  Professions  for  Girls,  423. 
Bevan's  The  Education  Question,  250. 
Bible,  The  Authorized  Version  (Wright), 

Binn's  Century  of  Education,  390. 
Binns  and  Marsden's  Woodwork,  467. 
Bird  Book,  508. 

Black's  Coloured  Wall  Pictures,  288. 
Black's  Maps  of  Old  London,  386. 
Blackie's    Children's    Annual,  510;    Red 

I,etter  Library,  510 ;  Stories  to  be  Read, 

Book  of  Wild  Things,  508. 
Bo- Peep,  510. 

Borchardt's  Elementary  Statics,  325. 
Boy's  Book  of  Battleships,  508. 
Brackenbury's  Bookkeeping,  136. 
Breul's  Teaching  of  Foreign  Languages, 

Bridge's  From  Island  to  Empire,  423. 
Bridgett's    Experimental    Trigonometry, 

Bridgett  and  Hyslop's  Trigonometry,  135. 
Brightwen,  Eliza  (Chesson) ,  424. 
Britannic  Historical  Geography,  135. 
British  Museum  Greek  and  Roman  Lite, 

Brown's  Guide  to  Librarianship,  390. 
Brown's  Modern  Education,  467. 
BrnwTiinir's  Strafford  (George),  422, 
l!n(lL-cl,  'nic.  390. 

lliiiL-.^s^  'I'll.'  Organ,  467. 

Buller  >  Cluiiacters  (Waller),  31. 

Butler's  Ten  Great  and  Good  Men,  490. 

Caesar's  Gallic  War  ( Holmes) ,  249. 

Call  of  the  Homeland,  31. 

Cambridge  Bible  — 'Wisdom   of   Solomon 

(Gregg),  250. 
Cambridge  Bible  for  Schools— Kings,  326  ; 



Cambridge  Classics,  31. 
Cambridge  Greek  Testament — Colossians 

Cambridge  Literature  for  Schools,  386. 
Cambriole,  135. 



Canipbell's  Modern  Electrical  Theory,  30. 
Cassell's  Encyclopa'dic   Dictionary.   136 ; 

German  Dictionary.  466 ;  People's  Lib- 
ran',    422:    The    King's    Empire,  178; 

Wo'rld's  Great  Pictures,  178. 
Castle's  Arithmetic  and  Mensuration,  421. 
Catchpool's  Text-book  of  Sound,  212. 
Caver  s  Botany  for  Matriculation,  285. 
Century  Bible — Deuteronomv,75 ;  Exodus, 

423  ;  'Isaiah,  •\'ol.  II,  423 ;  Proverbs,  75. 
Century  Bible  Handbook.  388. 
Ceppi's  French  Lessons,  466. 
Chambers's  Narrative  Readers,214 ;  Stand- 
ard Author  Readers,  214. 
Chaucer's  Prologue,  &c.  (Slather),  286. 
Children's  Fairv  Book,  214. 
Chillagoe  Charlie,  468. 
Chisholm's  Commercial  Geography,  135. 
Chitty's  Things  seen  in  China,  34. 
Christabel  in  France,  508. 
Cicero  de  Finibus  ( Hutchinson) ,  175. 
Cicero's  Philippics  (King),  30. 
Cinq  Langues,  252. 
City  of  London  Directory.  1909,  252. 
Classical  Association  Proceedings,  212. 
Clough  and  Dunstan's  Elementary  Science, 

Cohu's  Gospels  and  Modern  Research,  466. 
Conquest  of  Claudia,  506. 
Cooper  and  Westell's  British  Trees,  136. 
Country  Home,  32. 
Coverley  Papers  (Myers),  286. 
Crabtree's  Theory  of  Spinning  Tops,  249. 
Crees's  Claudian,  286. 
Crew's  Principles  of  Mechanics,  74. 
Cross's  Choosing  a  Career,  423. 
Cruise  of  the  Thetis,  504. 
Dante,  Lectures  on  (Pei  ini).  466. 
Davidson's  Told  Simply,  214. 
Davison's  Algebra,  324. 
Dent's  Language  Sheets,  288;    Scientific 

Primers,  285. 
Dick  Ti-awle,  505. 
Dickens,  The  Children's,  508. 
Dickinson    and  Andrews's    Orogl-aphical 

Map  of  Europe,  288. 
Dicksee's  A  B  C  of  Bookkeeping,  136. 
Dobbs's  Elementarv  Mechanics,  74. 
DoUikin  Dutch,  508. 

Donald's  Historical  Drawing  Cards,  135. 
Driault's  Histoire  de  la  Nation  Francaise, 

Dryden,  Selections  from  (Hadow),  286. 
Du'mmelow's  Commentary  on  the  Bible, 

Early  American  Writers  (Cairns),  325. 
Eastwood  and  Lightfoot's  Arithmetic,  135. 
Edgar's  Treasury  of  Verse,  32. 
Edmunds    and    Spooner's    Readings    in 

English  Literature,  286. 
Elliot's  Botany  of  To-day,  468. 
Elton's  Modern  Studies,  31, 
Empire  Annual  for  Boys,  510. 
Empire  Annual  for  Girls,  510. 
Engineering  Wonders  of  the  World,  212. 
Epicure  Director.v,  178. 
Faery  Queen  and  her  Knights,  506. 
Failure  of  a  Hero,  468. 
Pair  Haven,  470. 
Fairies'  Fountain,  470. 
Farm  Babies,  508. 
Fenton's  Chemistry,  Part  I,  386. 
Fieldhouse's    Commercial    Bookkeeping, 

Filon's  Projective  Geometry,  465. 
Fingerpost,  The,  424. 
First  Friends  in  Literature,  286. 
Five  Little  Peppers  Midway,  470. 
Fleming's     Common-sense     Needlework, 

Fletcher's  Historical  Portraits,  178. 
Fletcher's  History  of  England,  Vols,  III 

and  IV,  325, 
Fletcher's  Poetical  Works  (Boas),  249. 
Florian's  German  Oral  Teaching,  325. 
Ford  of  H.M.S.  Vigilant,  505. 
Foster's  Editor's  Chair,  504. 
Franks'  Esperanto,  285. 
Frobenius"  Childhood  of  Man  (Keane),  34. 
Frog  who  would  a-wooing  go   (Blackie), 

Fursdon's  French  and  English  Parallels, 

Garrett's  Periodic  Law,  466. 
Ga-scoigne's  Works  (Cunlille),  Vol.  I.  31. 
Gateway  to  Romance,  505. 
Gibson's  Biology,  285. 
Gibson's  Romance  of  Manufacture,  468. 
Gilliat's  Heroes  of  Modern  India,  468. 
Gillies  and  Cumming's  Empire  Latin,  465. 
Girl  who  wouldn't  make  Friends,  508. 
Girls'  School  Yearbook,  326, 
Gladstone's  Manual  of  Harmony,  467. 
Godfrev's  Elementary  Chemistry,  466. 
Godfrey  and  Siddon's  Modern  Geometry, 

Godley's  Aspects  of  Modern  Oxford,  470. 
Gore's  Astronomical  Curiosities.  468. 
Goven's  Advanced  Arilhiiietic,  324. 
Grace's  Tales  from  Spenser,  32. 
Green's  Bolany,  285. 
Gregory's  Geography,  250. 

Grimm's  Tales  (Frowde),  508  ;  (Blackie), 

Gutierrez'  El  Trovador  (Vaughan),  31. 
Hachette's  Gift  Books,  32. 
Hakluyt's   Elizabethan  Seamen  (Payne), 

Hiikluvfs  Vovagesof  Drake  (Payne),  422. 
Halls  Vciini:  Kngineer,  74. 
Hall  :iiul  st.-vins's  School  Arithmetic,  30. 
Hapi'v  Honk.  508. 

Hardie's  Latin  Prose  Composition,  30. 
Harding's  Lurk,  506. 
Hardwick's  Old  Testament  History.  466. 
Harris's  Harmonizing  Melodies,  Book  II, 

Harry  Escorabe,  505. 

Hartley's  Stories  from  Greek  Legends,  465. 
Hastings'  Dictionary  of  the  Bible,  135. 
Hawthorne's  Wonder  Book,  &c.  (Unwin), 

Hazell's  Annual,  32. 
Healey's  First  Book  of  Botany,  422. 
Ht'bei-t's  French  Pronunciation.  325. 
Hebrew  Prophets   (Woods  and  Powell), 

Vol.  1,136. 
Heineiiiann's  Every  Child's  Library.  214. 
Helps's  Poetry  for  Upper  Classes,  32. 
Henderson's  Jamaica,  510. 
Herbert  Strang's  Annual,  510. 
Herbert  Strang's  Library,  508. 
Hero  of  Sedan,  504. 
Hidden  Nugget,  505. 
Hobson's  The  Daisy,  508. 
Holidays  Abroad,  327, 
Holland's  Development  of  the  European 

Nations,  32. 
Homer's  Iliad,  Books  IX  and  X(Blakeney), 

Hoi'ace's  Satires,  Book  II  (Gow) ,  465. 

How  they  went  to  the  Seaside,  608. 

Howden's  Locomotives,  506, 

Hvrst's  Arctic  Regions,  468. 

In  Days  of  Danger,  504. 

In  the  New  Forest,  504. 

International  Art  Congress  Transactions, 

Irish  Fairy  Book,  506. 

Islanders,  605. 

Jerrold's  Highways  and  Byways  in  Mid- 
dlesex, 468. 

Joerg's  Modern  German  Reader,  503. 

John  Bargre.ave's  Gold,  505. 

Johnson's  Age  of  the  Enlightened  Despot, 

Johnston's  (R.)  Scholars'  Atlas,  388. 

Jones's  Modern  Arithmetic,  Parts  I  and 
II,  212. 

Jones's  Practical  Physics,  325. 

Jones's  Primer  of  Ethics,  467. 

Jones  and  Blomfield's  Mathematics,  74. 

King  Arthur,  The  Children's,  508, 

King's  Classics,  249. 

Kingsley's  Water  Babies  (Horace-Smith), 

Kingsley's  Water  Babies  (Blackie),  506. 

Kingsley's  Westward  Ho  !  (limes),  286, 

Kinsman  and  Namesake,  504. 

Knight's  Elementary  Geometry,  386. 

Knight's  Over-Sea  Britain,  176. 

Kriiger's  The  Papacy  (Batchelor  and 
Miles).  423. 

Lads  of  the  Light  Division,  504. 

King's  Fair.v  Books.  Stories  from.  505. 

Lang's  Gateway  to  Shakespeare,  32. 

Lang's  Red  Book  of  Heroes,  468. 

Lankester's  Extinct  Animals,  468. 

Larken's  Leisure  Hours  with  Nature,  468. 

Laurel-Crowned  Letters,  422. 

Leathems  Symmetrical  Optical  Instru- 
ment, 421. 

T.eighton's  Intermediate  Geometry,  325. 

Leo  of  Mediolanum,  468. 

Lester's  Public  School  Chemistry,  285. 

I^tts's  Diaries,  504. 

Lightfoot's  Theory  of  Music.  178. 

Linacre,  Thomas  (Osier),  424. 

Little  French  People,  508. 

Lloyd's  Uganda  to  Khartoum,  250. 

Lock's  Stiidv  of  Variation.  386. 

Lodge  s  Knti  of  the  Middle  Ages,  250. 

l.onL'l.n.iw's  Hiawatha  (Hamip),  286. 

I.nii-niiuis'  Finrv  Books,  505. 

Liu  y  |-liishM|iirs  Fairy  Book,  214. 

Lvdon's  Preliminary  Geometry,  249. 

McDougall's  Girls'  Arilhmetic,  Book  I 

McDougaU's  Social  Psychology,  466. 

Mackav  and  Curtis's  French  Books  Hand- 
book' 285. 

Maclean's  School  Law,  326. 

Maciiiillan's  Bov's  Book  of  Poetry,  32; 
KiiL'hsli    iliissic-s,  422;    French    Rapid 

K.ihlinL-  S,  U.S.  285. 
M:iJ;iiii  \\..n-  .  508. 
Mnikss  i:riirli~li  I'iistoral  Drama,  176. 
Marquis's  Heir,  468. 
Marriage  of  Jabcz  Alford,  508. 
Marshall's  True  Tales  for  my  Children,  214, 
Martial's  Epigrams  (Bridge  and  Clarke).73. 
Martin's  Examples  in  Arithmetic,  Part  11, 

Mason's  Book  of  British  Ships,  6C6, 

Maviiadier's  The  .\rthur  of  the  Poets,  176. 

Miivor  s  R.-;i(lings  from  the  Psalms,  75. 

Metliiu-us  SiMiphfled  German  Texts,  250. 

Jll.ldv  and  Knsign,  505. 

Jlighty  Hunters.  505. 

Miller's  Sermons,  First  Series,  327. 

Mistress  Nanciebel,  506. 

Mitton's  Book  of  the  Railway,  506, 

Monkhouse's  Practical  Precis  Book,  136. 

Monteverde's  Spanish  Technical  Terms, 

More's  Utopia  (Rusk),  386. 

Murray's  Differential  and  Integral  Cal- 
culus, 503. 

Myers'  Jewish  People,  Vol.  I,  423. 

Nathalie's  Sister,  508. 

National  Society's  Depository's  Tales,  470. 

National  Songs  Wall  Sheets,  288. 

Navy  League  Annual,  504. 

Neil  s  British  Mineials,  249. 

New  Line  upon  Line,  510. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne  Education  Catalogue, 

Newell's  Inorganic  Chemistry,  422. 

Nicest  Girl  in  School.  506. 

Northumbrian  in  Arms,  504, 

Norwell's  Applied  Mechanics,  285. 

Notes  of  Lessons  on  History,  503. 

Old  Man's  Beard,  508. 

Open  Road  Library,  214. 

Orpheus  with  his  Lute,  510. 

Osgood's  Differential  and  Integral  Cal- 
culus. 284. 

Our  Sons  and  their  Start  in  Life.  424. 

Oxford  Books  for  Children,  508;  Hymn 
Book,  136;  Story  Readers,  214. 

Palm  Tree  Island,  505. 

Park's  Educational  Woodworking,  326. 

Parker's  Highways  and  Byways  in  Surrey, 

Paton's  List  of  Schools  and  Tutors,  390. 

Peaker's  Citizenship,  390. 

Pensamiento  Infantil— Sexta  Parte,  503. 

Pereda's  Pedro  Sanchez  (Bassett).  30. 

Peron's  English  Educational  Legislation, 

Philips'  British  Empire  Globe,  388;  Com- 
parative Maps,  288 ;  Comparative  Outline 
Maps,  388;  County  Council  Atlas,  388; 
Diagram  Hand  Atlas,  388  ;  Geographical 
Pictures,  288 ;  Graphic  Globe,  75  ;  Polar 
Regions,  386;  Self- Rolling  System,  288  ; 
The  World,  386, 

Philips'  Romance  of  Modern  Chemistry, 

Photographic  Annual,  467. 

Pierce  the  Ploughman's  Creed  (Skeat).  250. 

Pierpoint's  Elements  of  Geometry,  Parts 
I  and  II,  212. 

Pitman's  Shorthand  Yearbook,  504. 

Poincar6's  Electricity,  30. 

Pollard's  The  British  Empire,  176. 

Pope's  Rape  of  the  Lock  ( Holden) ,  286. 

Potter's  Concurrent  Geometry,  Part  1, 176 ; 
Parts  I  and  II,  465. 

Public  Schools  Y'earbook,  1909,  178. 

Quest  of  the  Blue  Rose,  506. 

Raflety's  and  Sharp's  The  Nation's  Income, 

Rainbow  Book,  470,  508. 
liambles  through  Normandy.  327. 
Rjmke's    Latin    and    Teutonic    Nations 

(Dennis),  286. 
Rankine's  School  Gardening,  326. 
Ravenhill's  Food-Values  Diagrams,  388. 
Reich's  Atlas  Antiquus,  284. 
Reid's  Manual  of  Moial  Instruction,  423. 
Remy's  Spanish  Composition,  31. 
Reuben  the  Fisherman,  470, 
Richmond's  Co-education  Pamphlets,  326. 
Rita  la  Gitane  (Charlieu),  32. 
Rival  Treasure  Hunters,  505. 
Riverside  Literature  Si-ries,  286. 
Roberts's  True  Stories  from  History,  508. 
Robinson  and  Beard's  Modern  Europe,  74. 
Robinson  Crusoe  (Frowde),  510. 
Rosebud,  The,  470, 
Ross's  Elementary  Algebra,  503, 
Rotron's  Saint  Genest  (Crane),  250. 
Round  the  Clock,  508. 
Roval  Road,  468. 
S;inil«i,  505. 

Siinds'  Client  Princes  of  Rome,  286. 
Sam-ster's  Happy  School  Days,  506. 
Saturday's  Children,  506, 
School  across  the  Road,  506. 
School  Hygiene   Congress   Transactions, 

Schoolmasters  Yearbook,  1909, 178. 
Secret  of  the  Sargasso,  468. 
Seignobos'  Contemporary  Civilization,  326. 
S,ij.-,H,l«,s'  Media-val  Civilization,  326. 

S.  :'!.  ■  -   :,lnl  SrOUtS,  505. 

s  chambers),  423. 

s  I      .  Meiklejohn's  Series),  423. 

^Ii.h.  -1  .  11.  Iliissics  (Gollancz),  325. 
Sliak,s],.arH,  The  Children's,  508. 
Shakespeare,  The  School  (Houghton),  422. 

Shakespeare's     Hamlet     (Crook),     422; 

Shakespeare's  King  Lear  (Frost),  422. 
Shakespeare'sMerchantof  Venice(Gcggin). 

422;   (Oxford),  423. 
Shakespeare's  Sonnets  (Walsh),  212. 
Shakespeare's  Tempest  (AA'eekes),  422. 
Shakespeare's   Winter's  Tale    (Hudson), 

Sharp's  Folk  Songs  from  Somerset,  Fifth 

Series,  178. 
Shaw's  Air  Currents,  212. 
Sheaves  of  Gold,  508. 
Shepperton  Slanor,  468. 
Siepmann's  Primary  French  Course,  Part 

Silver  Lattice,  510. 
Six  Ages  of  European  History,  250. 
Six  Girls,  34. 

Smith's  Nature  Poetry  Book,  214. 
Smoking  Chart .  388. 

Sophocles'  Electi-d  (Jebb  and  Davies).  465. 
Speight  and  Nance's  Britain's  Sea  Storv, 

Sport  and  Athletics  in  1908,  32. 
Squirrel  Hall,  508. 
Stackhouse's  Relief  Map  of  Ingleborough, 

Statius'  Silvae  (Slater).  211. 
Step's  By  the  Deep  Sea,  468. 
Stewart's  Sheaf  Catalogue,  390. 
Stewart  and  Clarke's  Book  Select  imi,  MO. 
Stickphast  Cement ,  136. 
Story  of  the  Little  Merman,  506. 
Susanna  and  Sue.  508. 
Swift  and  Sure,  505. 
Swiss  Family  Robinson  (Blackie),  508. 
Synge's  Social  Life  in  England,  75, 
Tacitus'  Annals,  Books  XI-XVI(Ramsay), 

Talbot's  Arithmetic  of  Commerce,  249. 
Tales  and  Talks  for  Nursery  Land,  508. 
Taylor's  Colour-sense  Training,  326. 
Technical  and  Art  Schools  and  Colleges, 

Temple  Continuous  Readers,  214. 
Terence's  Comedies  (Ashmore) ,  73. 
Thackeray's  Grammar  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, 284, 
Thackeray's  Rose  and  the  Ring  (Chatto), 

Thomas  k  Kempis  (Chatto  &  Windus),  136. 
Thomas  and  Harvey's  German  Reader,  30. 
Thomas's  German  Literature,  250. 
Thomson's  History  of  England,  Part  VII, 

Thonison's  Poems  for  Junior  Schools,  214. 

Thouaille's  Colloquial  French,  Second 
Course,  30. 

Three  Girls  in  Mexico,  506. 

Through  the  Heart  of  Tibet,  505. 

Tildetf  s  Chemistry,  285. 

Told  through  the  Ages  Series,  214. 

Told  to  the  Children,  214. 

Tourist  Guide  to  the  Continent,  252. 

Trades  for  London  Girls,  423. 

Trefle  Rouge.  135. 

Treleaven's  Mechanical  Drawing,  422. 

Trought's  Correlated  Arithmetic,  Books 
III  and  IV,  285. 

Tucker's  Foreign  Debt  of  English  Litera- 
ture, 325. 

Tumbull's  Elementary  Algebra,  422. 

Turner's  Aerial  Naviiration,  506. 

Turner's  Graphics,  176. 

Unwin       >l       I     i:    S,.ries,  32;    Series  of 

Bi...k  II.  32. 

Vecehi'i  ^  I    h,^:.-..  Iijiparato  da  .Se.  325. 

Vignv's  Chatlcrtou  ( i jiuvriere) ,  135. 

Voueiir.  I.e,  136. 

Voyage  of  the  Sesame,  505. 

Wall  Pictures  of  Farm  Animals,  288. 

Walters  and  Conway's  Linien,  385. 

Ward's  Familiar  Plants,  34, 

Watson's  Grammar  Schools  to  1660,  388. 

Westlake's  Constructions  in  Geometry,  30. 

When  Kill.  «:isy.iinis,  508. 

Whcth:inis  III  rifii  I'hvsical  Science,  38b. 

Who's  w  li.i,  r'.  ',  130.  ■ 

Who's  W  h..  'i..,Mli.H.k,  1909,136. 

Wilkinson's  Piano  Solos,  First  Series,  467. 

William  the  Conqueror  (Stenton),  135. 

Williams's  Victories  of  the  Engineer,  34. 

Winims's  Introduction  to  Psycliology,  467. 

Wood's  "  The  Dwellers  "  Series,  214. 

WooUatt's  Laboratory  Arts,  467. 

Workman    and    Cracknell's     Geometry, 

Part  II,  74. 
Worthington's  Polyglot  Phrases,  2^. 
Writers'  and  Artists'  Yearbook,  1909,  136. 
Year's  Work  in  Classical  Studies,  74 
Yonge's  Book  of  Golden  Deeds  (Nelson), 

Yonge's  Little  Duke  (Frowde),  508, 
Y'oung  Mrs.  Harris,  508, 

First  Glances.  34.  76, 138,  178,  215,  252, 
288,  327,  390,  424, 470. 


0;V.    '^^X       THE 


:1>oiirnal    of   tijr   ColUgf   of  ^rffcptori^. 

Vol.  LXII.]  Nevr  Series,  No.  573.  .         JANUARY  1,  1909. 

I  PnUhhed  Movfhhj,  price,  to  Non- 
"■  ii/yfra.  6f/. ;  by  Piist,  Id. 
ription.  Is. 

I  .4ii,ni,il  Suhsc 






The  Half-Yearly  General  Meeting  of  the  Members  of 
the  Ctorpoiution  will  be  held,  at  the  College,  Bloomsbury 
Square,  W.C,  on  Saturday,  the  23rd  of  January,  1909, 
at  3  p.m. 


The  Members'  Dinner  will  take  place  at  the 
Hotel  Cecil,  Strand,  W.C,  on  Saturday,  the  23rd  of 
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6s.  each.  Members  who  intend  to  be  present  are  re- 
([uest«d  to  send  early  notice  to  the  Secretary.  Mem- 
bers may  obtain  tickets  for  their  friends. 


The  First  Course  of  Lectures  (Thirty-seventh  Annual 
Series),  by  Prof.  J.  Adams,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  F.C.P.,  on 
"  The  Psychological  Bases  of  Teaching  and  Educa- 
tion," will  commence  on  Thursday,  February  4th.  at 
7  p.m. 

The  purpose  of  the  Course  is  to  give  teachers  an 
opportunity  to  study  at  first  hand  the  principles  that 
underlie  the  practice  of  their  profession.  The  lecturer 
will  treat  his  subject  in  such  a  way  as  to  fit  in  with  the 
requirements  of  the  College  in  connexion  with  the  ex- 
aminations for  the  Associateship,  the  Licentiateship, 
and  the  Fellowship ;  but  his  main  purpose  will  be  to 
present  the  matter  in  such  a  way  as  to  make  it  of  practi- 
cal service  to  the  teacher.  The  reading  of  the  students 
MTill  be  guided,  and  problems  set  for  their  exercise.  All 
the  illustrations  iu  the  lectures  will  be  drawn  from 
.ictual  experience  in  the  schoolroom,  and  will  includ 
the  results  of  current  experimental  methods.  The  Fee 
for  the  Course  is  Half-a-Guinea.  The  Lectures  will  be 
delivered  on  Thursday  Evenings  at  7  o'clock,  at  the 
College,  Bloomsbury  Square,  W.C.  For  Splhibus,  se 
paffe  6. 


Diploma.s — The  next  Examination  of  Teachers  fo: 
the  Diplonms  ot  the  College  will  commence  on  \\u 
30th  ot  Angnst,  1909. 

Practical  Examination  for  Certificates  of 
Ability  to  Teach. -The  next  Practical  Examina- 
tion will  be  iieW  IU  February,  1909. 

Certificate  Examinations.— The  Midsummer 
Examination  tor  Certificates  will  commence  on  the 
.!9th  of  June,  1909. 

Lower  Forms  Examinations.- The  Midsum- 
mer Examination  will  commence  on  the  29th  uf  June, 

Professional  PreliminaryExaminations.  -  Examinations  are  held  in  March  and  September. 
The  SprinK  Examination  in  1909  will  commence  on  the 
2nd  of  March. 

Inspection  and  Examination  of  Schools. 
—Inspectors  aiui  Examiners  are  appointed  by  the 
College  for  the  Inspection  and  Examination  of  Public 
and  Private  Schools. 

The  Regulations  for  the  above  Examinations  can  be 
obtained  on  application  to  the  Secretary. 

C.  R.  HODGSON,  B.A.,  Secretary. 
Bloomsbury  Square,  W.C. 




The  attention  of  Candidates  is  drawn  to  the  Ordinary 
and  Honours  Diplomas  for  Teachers,  which  are  strongly 
recommended  as  suitable  for  those  who  are  or  intend  to 
be  teachers. 

Examinations  are  held  at  Aberdeen,  Birmingham, 
Blackburn,  Brighton.  Bristol,  Cardiff.  Croydon,  Devon- 
port,  Edinburgh,  Glasgow,  Hull,  Inverness,  Leeds, 
Liverpool,  London,  Manchester,  Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
Norwich,  Nottingham.  Oxford,  St.  Andrews,  Sheffield, 
Swansea,  and  several  othei  towns. 

information  regarding  the  Examinations  may  be  ob- 
tained from  the  Sbcretary,  L.  L. A.  Scheme,  The 
University.  St.  Andrews. 



Warden  : 

UNIVERSITY    HALL,    for    Women 
students,  was  opened  in  1896.  under  the  govern- 
ment of  the  University  of  St.  Andrews. 

The  usual  Course  of  Study  at  University  Hall  is  in 
preparation  for  the  Degree  Examinations  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  St.  Andrews,  of  which  all  the  Classes  and 
Degrees  in  Arts,  Divinity,  Science,  and  Medicine  are 
open  to  women  on  the  same  terms  as  to  men. 

The  Sessions  of  Residence  are  the  two  University 
Sessions,  viz.  the  Winter  Session,  October  to  March 
the  Summer  Session  (Optional),  April  to  June. 

University  Hall  fees  for  residence— Winter  Session 
£30-£50  ;  Summer  Session,  £15-£25. 

Matriculation  and  Class  Fees  average  £10  for  the 
Winter  Session. 

For   further    information,    applv  to    the    Warde 
University  Hall.  St.  Andrews.  Fife. 

Biploma  Correspondence 
Colleae,  Xtt). 

Principal— 3.  W,  Knife,  L.C.P.,  F.R.S.L. 
Vice-Principal— S.  H.  Hooke,  b.A.,  Hons.  Lond. 

Specially  arranged  Courses  for 


B.A.,  B.D.,   B.Sc, 

A.C.P.,    L.C.P.,    &c. 


on  application  to  the  t>ECKETART. 





Training  College  for  Women  Secondary  Teachers. 
Principal  — Miss   Catherine  I.    Dodd,   M.A.    (late 
Lecturer  in  Education  in  the  Manchester  University). 

TIMES  "for  Pebraary  will  contain  the  GLASS 
LIST.S  OF  CANDIDATES  who  have  passed  at  the  recent 
CHRISTMAS  E.\.AMINATIONS  of  the  College  of  Pre. 

The  Volume  for  1908  is  now  read.y,  price  7s.  6d.  Gasea. 
for  binding  the  Volume  may  also  be  had,  price  Is.  6d. ; 
by  post.  Is.  8d. 

Students  are  prepared  for  the  Oxford,  the  Cambridge 
and  the  London  Teacher's  Diploma.  Special  arrange- 
ments made  for  Students  to  attend  the  School  of  Geo- 
g  aphy. 

Two  Scholarships  of  £40  each  are  offered  students 

ith  a. degree  entering  Cherwell  Hall  in  January  1909. 

Kxhihitious  and  Scholarships  awarded  in  December 
and  July.— Apply  to  the  Pkincipal. 

(    ONDON    COLLEGE    OF    MUSIC. 

L>  (Incorporated.) 

Great  Marlborough  Strbbt,  London,  W., 

Patron:  His  Grace  the  Duke  op  Leeds. 

Dr.  F.J.  Karn.  Muh.  Bac.  Cantab.,  Principal. 

G.  Augustus  Holmes.  Esq..  Director  of  Examinations. 


PLAYING,  SINGING,   THEORY,  and  all  branches 

of  Music  will  be  held  in  London  and  400  Provincial 
Centres  m  April,  when  Certificates  will  be  granted 
to  all  snccessful  candidates. 

The  Higher  Exammations  for  the  Diplomas  of  Asso- 
ciate  (A.L.C.M.),  Licentiate  (L.L. CM.),  the  Teachers' 
Diploma,  L.C.M.,  and  Fellowship  (P. L. CM.)  take  place 
in  July  (Juxe  for  Scotland  and  Ireland)  and  Decem- 

Gold  and  Silver  Medals  and  Book  Prizes  are  offered 
for  competition  according  to  the  ReKiilatlons. 

Local  School  Centres.— Full  particulars  with  refer- 
ence to  the  formation  of  these  Centres  will  be  forwarded 
to  Principals  of  Schools  upon  application. 

SYLLABUS  for  1909,  together  with  Annual  Report, 
is  now  ready,  and  may  be  had  of  the  Secretart. 

In  the  Educational  Department  students  are  received 
and  thoroughly  trained  under  the  best  Professors  at 
moderate  fees.     The  CoUeife  is  open  10  a.m  to  9.30  p.m. 

A  COURSE  of  TRAINING  in  Pianoforte  and  Singing 
for  Teachers  is  h^-ld  at  the  College. 

VACATION  LESSONS  for  Teachers  and  others  are 
given  at  Easter,  .Auffu-^t.  and  Christmas. 

T.  WEEKES  HOLMES,  Secretary. 





(UnitjerBttj  Correeponbence 





To  Matriculation,  and  Guides  to  the 
Higher  Examinations  of  London  Uni- 
versity, post  free  from  The  Skcretart,  Bur- 
lington House,  Cambridge;  or  from  the  London 
Oltice  of  University  Correspondence  College, 
32  Red  Lion  Square,  Holborn,  AV.C 


[Jan.  1,  1909. 



OF  THB  R.A.M.  AND  R.C.M. 

Patron  :  His  Majesty  the  Kino. 
President:  H.R.H.  the  Prince  op  Wales,  K.G. 

Examinations  in  Theory  at  all  Centres  in  March  and 
November;  in  Practical  Subjects  at  all  Centres  in 
March-April,  and  in  the  London  District  and  certain 
Provincial  Centres  in  November-December  also.  En- 
tries for  the  March-April  Examinations  close  Wednes- 
day, February  10th,  1909. 

Held    three    times  a  year,    viz..  March-April,  June- 
July,  and  October-November.     Entries  for  the  March- 
April   Examinations  close  Wednesday,  February  3rd, 

Specimen  Theory  Papers  set  in  past  years  ( Local  Centre 
or  School)  can  be  obtained  on  application.  Price  3d. 
per  set,  per  year,  post  free. 

Syllabuses  A  and   B,  entry  forms,  and  any  further 
information  will  be  sent  post  free  on  application  to— 
JAMES  MTIR,  Secretary. 

15  Bedford  Square,  London,  W.C. 
Telegrams:  "Associa,  London." 

KING'S       COLLEGE,       LONDON. 
Theory,  Practice,  and  History  of  Education : 
J.  W.  Adamson,  B.A.,  Professor  of  Education  (Head  of 
the  Department). 
Rev.  A.  Caldecott,  D.Lit.,  D.D.,  Professor  of  Mental 
and  Moral  Philosophy. 

The  Course, which  includes  pi-actical  work  in  Secondary 
Schools,  extends  over  one  academical  year,  beginning  in 
October  or  January-  It  is  suitable  for  those  who  are 
preparing  to  take  the  Teacher's  Diploma,  University  of 
London,  or  the  Certificate  of  the  Teachers'  Training 
Sradicate,  University  of  Cambridge. 

'The  fee  is  £20  for  the  .year,  if  paid  in  advance,  or 
8  guineas  per  term  (three  terms  in  the  year). 

Application  should  be  made  to  Prof.  Adamson,  King's 
College,  Strand,  W.C. 


ING'S       COLLEGE,       LONDON. 


Courses  are  arranged  for  the  Intermediate  and  Final 
Examinations  for  the  B.A.  and  B.Sc.  Degrees  of  the 
University  of  London.  Students  taking  the  full  Course 
pay  Composition  Fees  and  rank  as  Internal  Students  of 
the  University.  .    , 

EVENING  CLASSES  are  also  held  for  Mechanical 
and  Electrical  Engineering,  Architecture  and  Building 
Construction,  Drawing,  Mathematics,  Physics,  and  all 
Science  Subjects. 

For  full  information  and  Prospectus  apply  to  the  Dean 
(Mr.  R.  W.  K.  Edwards!  or  to  the  Secretary, King' 
College,  Strand,  London,  W.C. 


ING'S       COLLEGE,       LONDON. 

Individual  Tuition  in  all  subjects  required  for  the 
Examinations.      Fee    for  Half-yearly   Course    £3   3s. 
Students  may  join  at  any  time  at  proportional  fees. 

Apply  til  the  Secretary,   King's  College,  Strand, 

York  Place,  Baker  Street,  London,  W. 
Principal— ^Vks  M.  J.  TCKE,  M.A. 

The  Lent  Term  begins  Thursday,  J.anuary  141h. 
Lectures  aie  given  in  preparation  for  all  examinations 
of  the  University  of  London  in  Arts,  Science  and 
Preliminary  Medicine,  for  the  Teacher's  Diploma, 
London,  the  Teacher's  Certificate,  Cambridge,  and  for 
the  Cambridge  Higher  Local  Examination. 

There  is  a  special  course  of  Scientific  Instruction  in 

Six  Laboratories  are  open  to  students  for  practical 

Students  may  attend  the  Art  School  who  are  not 
taking  other  subjects  at  the  College. 

A  single  course  in  any  subject   may  be   attended. 

Regular  Physical  Instruction  is  given  free  of  cost  to 
students  who  desire  it  by  a  fully  qualified  woman 

Students  can  reside  in  the  College. 

Full  particulars  on  application  to  the  Principal. 

Head  of  the  Department  .—Miss  Mary  Morton,  M.A. 

Students  are  .admitted  to  the  Training  College  in 
October  and  January. 

Entrance  Scholarships. 

Applications  should  be  sent  to  the  Head  of  the 

Principal— W\ssM.  H.  Wood,  M.A.,  Lit.D., 
Girton  College,  Cambridge  Classical  Tripos. 
A  residential  College  providing  a  year's  professional 
training  for  Secondary  Teachers. 

Preparation  for  the  London  and  the  Cambridge 
Teachers'  Diploma.  Ample  opportunity  for  practice 
in  teaching  science,  languages,  mathematics,  and  other 
subjects.  Fees  £65  to  dlb.  Admissions  in  January  and 

For  piirticulars  apply— The  Princital,  Training 
College,  Cambridge. 


Students  are  prepared  for  the  London  and  Cambridge 
Teachers'  Diplomas  and  the  Higher  Certificate  of  the 
National  Froebel  Union. 

SCHOLARSHIPS  of  from  £15  to  £25  offered  to 
Gniduutes  in  January.  1909.  For  further  particulars  as 
to  jVIiddlesex  Scholarships,  Hall  of  Residence,  &c., apply 
to  the  Principal,  ^liss  Alice  "Woods,  at  the  College, 
Salushury  Road,  Brondesbury,  London,  N.W. 





This  College  provides  a  year's  Professional  Training 
for  educated  women  who  intend  to  Teach. 

The  Course  is  supervised  by  the  Edinburgh  Provincial 
Committee  for  the  Training  of  Teachers  and  is  recog- 
nized b.v  the  Scotch  Education  Department  and  by  the 
Cambridge  Teachers'  Training  Syndicate. 

Prospectus  and  further  particulars  from  the  Principal, 
Miss  M.  R.  Walker,  5  Melville  Street,  Edinburgh. 




Chairman  of  the  Committee— Sir  W.  Mather,  LL.D. 

Treasurer— Mr.  C.  G.  Montefiore,  M.A. 

Secretary— Mr,  Arthur  G.  Symonds,  M.A. 


p  R  E I G  H  T  O  N      MEMORIAL 

V.''     LECTURESHIP,  founded  in  memory  of  the  late 
Dr.  Mandell  Creigiiton,  Bishop  of  London. 

for  the  year  1908-9  will  be  delivered  at  King's  College, 
Strand,"W.C.,on  Tuesdav,  January  19th,  1909,  at  5  p.m., 
by  Dr.  G.  W.  Protmero.  l.itt.D..  LL.D.,  M.A.,  F.B.A., 
Hon.  Fellow  of  Kini:\  1  'nll.-L-i-.  I  ■aiiibridge. 



Crown  8vo,  348  pages,  price  3s.  6d. 

MAR.      Translated  and  edited   by  Frederick 
Fkancis  Hodgson,  89  Farringdon  Street,  London,  E.C. 


Principal— M\:is  E.  Lawrence. 

Head  Mistress— Miss  A.  Yelland. 


Tutorial    Institute, 


Most  successful  preparation  by  Correspondence  for 
L.C.P.  and  A.C  P.  Education  Diplomas  of  Cimbridpe 
and  London  Vniversities.    J^iplotna  Guide  Fret-. 

B.A.  and  B.8c.,  IntermediatefArtsand  Science), 
Matriculation  for  all  Universities.     Guide  Free. 

Higher  Locals  and  Froebel  Examinations 
New    Fra4^tical   Guides   now  readi/. 

ORAL  CLASSES  for  L.L.A,,  Froebel*  Matric, 
Evenings  and  Saturdays.    Moderate  Fees. 

Principal-J.  F.  EWEN.  M.A., 

Honours  in  Mathematics  and  Physics. 

Lecturers  and  Tutors— 
J.  W.  HoRROCKS,  D.Lit.,  M.A.  London, 

Fellow  of  the  Royal  Historical  Society 
R.  J.  Dallas,  M.A.  t  ambndge,  Wrangler, 

late  Scholar  King's  College,  Cambridge. 
R.  B.  Lee,  B.A.,  B.Sc.  London. 
V.  Stranders,  M.A.  London,  Honours. 
P.  Duffy,  B.A.  Classical  Honours. 
"\V.  Clare,  A.B.C.S..  Natioual  Scholar  in  Biology. 
H.  W.  Mayo.  B.A..  B.Sc,  L.C.P.  Prizeman.       " 
S.  Kahlesberg.  Ph.D.  Leipzig  University. 
A.  Fitzpatne,  Higher  Froebel  Certificate,  &c. 

FiiU    information    on   onij    Exnin.  hy    return. 


Breams  Buildings,  Chancery  Lane,  E.C. 

Principal— G.  Armitage-Smith,  D.Lit.,  M.A. 

The  College  provides  approved  courses  of  Instruction 
for  the  Degrees  of  the  University  of  London  in  the 
Faculties  of  Arts,  Science,  Economics,  Laws,  under 
Recognized  Teachers  of  the  University. 

Well  appointed  Laboratories.    Facilities  for  research. 

New  Session  commenced  on  Monday,  2Sth  September. 

Full  particulars  on  application  to 

H.  AVells  Eames,  Secretary. 


74  GowER  Street,  Lonmun,  AV.C. 

(Under  the  iii:in:iiniiii'iit  of  a  Committee  appointed  by 
the  Teacli.i.s  (;iiiM.  College  of  Preceptors,  Head 
Mistresses'  .\--s'k-i:i1  mn.  Association  of  Assistant 
Mistresses,  jiml  Wilsli  County  Schools  Association.) 

THIS  Agency  has  been  established  for 
tlie  purpose  of  enabling  Teachers  to  find  work 
without  unnecessary  cost.  All  fees  have  therefore 
been  calculated  on  the  lowest  basis  to  cover  the 
working  expenses. 

?Co  Registration  Fees  are  charged  to  members  of  tlie 
above  Associations, and  their  Commissions  are  reduced. 

Hours  for  Interviews : 

11  a.m.  to  1  p.m.,  and  3  to  5  p.m. : 
Saturdays,  11  a.m.  to  1  p.m.,  and  2  to  3  p.m. 
When  possible,  special  appointments  should  be  ar- 
'^^^  ■       Reoistra)%U\^s  ALICE  M.  FOUNTAIN. 

Students  are  trained  for  the  Examinations  of  the 
National  Froebel  Union  and  other  Examinations. 

TWO  SCHOLARSHIPS  of  £20  each,  and  two  of  £15 
each,  tenable  for  two  years  at  the  Institute,  are  offered 
annually  to  Women  Students  who  have  passed  certain 
recognized  Examinations. 

Prospectuses  can  be  obtained  from  the  Prtncipax. 

Full  preparation  for  Public  Examinations. 
British  College  of  Physical  Education :   EngUsh  and 
Swedish  systems.    Massage  and  Remedial  Work, 
Board  of  Education :  Science. 
Swimming  and  Sports. 

Schools  supplied  with  fullyqualifled  Sports  Mistresses 

For  particulars  apply— Miss  E.  Spelman  Stanqer 

Trevena,  Sunray  Avenue,  Denmark  HiU,  London.  S.E. 


23  Southampton  Street,  Bloomsbury  Square,  W.C. 

Managed  by  a  CommiUee  of  Representatives  of  the 
following  Bodies  :  — 








Re!j<.<:trar:    Mr.    E.    A.  VIRGO. 

The  object  of  this  Agency  is  to  render  assistance 
at  a  minimum  cost  to  Masters  seeking  appointments. 
The  lowest  possible  fees  are  therefore  charged. 

A  PROSPECTUS  will  be  sent  ON  APPLICATION, 

Interviews  (preferably  by  appointment)  12  p.m,-l,30p,m., 

and  3  p.m.-5,30  p.m.    Saturdays,  12  p.m,-l  p.m, 

Telephone-City  2257, 

Jan.  1,  1909.] 



55   AND   56   Chancery   Lane. 


SCIENCE,  B.A..  and  B.Sc.  Classes  (small)  Day  and 
Evening.  M.A.  Classes.  B.A.  Honours  Classes.  Ele- 
mentary Greek  Class. 

Classes  and  Tuition  for  Leg'al  and  Medical 
Preliminaries,  Aoconntants',  Soholarslilp 
'Qxamlnationa,  Prevlons,  Bespouslons,  and 

Papers  Corrected  for  Schools.    Vacation  Tuition. 

Private  tuition  for  all  Examinations. 

Prospectus  and  full  details  on  application  to  R.  C,  B. 
Kbbin.  B.A.  Lond.,  First  of  First  Class  Classical 
Honours.  Editor  of  "  Phaedo,"  "  Pro  Plancio."  &c. 


1892-1908.— London  Matric,  155;  Inter.  Arts,  Sc,  and 
Prel.  Sci..  155.  6  in  Hens. ;  B.Sc,  1896-1908,  25  ;  B.A., 
1891-1908.  111.  18  in  Hons.  :  Medical  Prelim..  274;  Res- 
ponsions  and  Previous,  78;  Law  Prelim.,  75;  other 
Successes,  430. 

M.A.  CI.ASSICS,  10. 

The  Principals    of  the   Normal  Correspondence 

College  have,  through  the  courtesy  of  the  College 

of  Preceptors,  issued  the  following 

Free  Guides. 

1.  A.C.P.  100  pages. 

2.  L.C.P.  84      „ 

3.  F.C.P.  75      „ 
And  have  also  published  the  following  Guides, 

4.  PREL.  CERT.  120  pages. 
6.  CERTIFICATE.  92      ,, 

6.  MATRICUUTION.  84      ,, 

7.  IRISH  UNIVERSITY.  60      „ 

8.  OXFORD  &  CAMBRIDGE  LOCALS  100       „ 

These  Guides  are  supplied  gratis  to  all  who  men- 
tion this  paper  and  state  they  intend  sitting  for 

'*They  are  written  by  experts  whose  advice  is  the 
best  procurable."— -BfiMCfl^jona/  News. 

"Will  undoubtedly  help  greatly  towards  suc- 
cess."— Schoolmistress. 


47  Melfobd  Road,  East  Dulwich,  S.E.,  and 
110  AvosDALB  Square,  London,  S.B. 

Classes  or  Private  Lessons  in  all  Subjects  for  all 
Examinations,  &c.,  at  moderate  fees.  Special  tuition 
for  Medical  Prelims,  and  Diploma  Exams.  Many 
recent  successes,  —  F.  J.  Borland,  B.A.,  L.C.P.  {Science 
and  Math.  Prizeman),  Victoria  Tutorial  College, 
28  Buckingham  Palace  Road,  S.W. ;  and  Stalheim. 
Brunswick  Road,  Sutton,  Surrey. 
Schools  visited  and  Examinations  conducted. 

WALTER  J.  DICKES,  Bi.(Lond.) 




can  accept  Engagements  at  Schools  and  Collef<fs  for  his 


now  being  officially  given  with  great  success  on  behalf 

of  Lord  Roberts's  Veterans'  Relief  Fund  under  the 

patronage  of  His  Majesty  the  King  and 

Field-Marshal  Earl  Roberts. 

The  Recital,  comprising  selections  from  Siiaite- 
speare,  Longfellow,  Tennyson,  &c.,  interspersed 
witti  humorous  pieces. 

For  terms  and  vacant  dates  address— Eric  Williams. 
c/o  Educational  Times,  89  Farrinsdon  Street,  London. 

Illniversit^   tutorial 

{Affiliated  to  Unicersiti/  Correspondence  College.) 


Annually ,  for  the  last  nine  years,  about  100  students 
of  University  Tutorial  College  have  passed  London 

Morning,  Afternoon,  and  Evening  Classes  in  prepara- 
tion for  the  Matriculation  Examination  of  the  University 
of  London  commence  Monday,  January  25th,  and  meet 

In  the  Compulsory  Subjects  and  the  more  important 
Optional  Subjects  the  Morning  Class  is  divided  into 
Senior  and  Junior  Sections.  These  Sections  work  simul- 
taneously, so  thit  a  student  who  attends  the  Senior 
Section  in  his  stiojiirt  r  siiiii'-cts  may  at  another  time 
pay  special  attention  \<\  ;,  w.-ak  subject  in  the  Jimior 
Section.  The  Leniins  air  'vni)plemented  by  Exercise 
Classes  and  frequent  Tesi  Kxaminations,  and  a  strict 
record  is  kept  ot  each  student's  progress. 

Classes  are  also  held  for  the 

QoiicQC  Ot  iprcccptors* 

and  tlie 

Citg  anO  (BuUDs  JEntrancc  Bjamination. 

All  communications  should  be  addressed  to 

University  Tutorial  College, 

32  Red  Lion  Square,  Holbom.  W.C. 




Principal -Mr.  J.  CHARLESTON,  B.A. 

(Honours  Oxon.  and  Lond.) 

TUTORS.— The  Stall  includes  Graduates  ot  I.ondon, 
t)xford,  Cambridge,  and  Royul  Universities. 

METHOD.— Thoroughly  individual  system,  which 
ensures  the  closest  attention  to  the  needs  of  each 

Rapid  Preparation  for  : — 


Intermediate       Arts      and 

Intermediate    Science   and 

L.L.A.  (St.  Andrews), 



Burlington  Correspondence  College, 




gbucafionaC  Jlgcnfs, 

158    to    162     OXFORD     STREET, 
LONSON,    W. 

Telegrams- "TOTOEESS,  LONDON.' 
Telephone-No.  1136  Oity. 

This  Agency  is  under  distinguished patronage% 

including  that  of  the  Principals  of 

many  of  our  letuling  Schools, 



duce University  and  other  qualified  ENGLISH 
Schools  and  Private  Families. 


duce University,  Trained,  and  other  qualified 

to  Girls'  and  Boys'  Schools. 

(lii.)  LADY      MATRONS      AND      HOUSE- 

duce well  qualified  and  experienced  LADY 
MISTRESSES  to  Boys'  and  Girls  Schools. 

No  charge  is  made  to  Principals,  and  no  charge 
of  any  kind  is  made  to  candidates  unless  an  en- 
gagement be  secured  through  this  Agency,  when 
the  terms  are  most  reasonable. 


A  separate  Department,  under  the  direct 
management  of  one  of  the  Principals,  is  devoted 
entirely  to  the  nefjotiations  connected  with 
the  Transfer  of  Schools  and  Introduction  of 

in  close  and  constant  communication  with  the 
Principals  of  nearly  all  the  chief  Girls'  and 
Boys'  Schools  in  the  United  Kingdom,  to  many 
of  whom  they  have  had  the  privilege  of  acting 
as  Agents,  and  having  on  their  books  always  a 
large  number  of  thoroughly  genuine  Schools 
for  Sale  and  Partnerships  to  negotiiite,  as  well 
as  the  names  and  requirements  of  numerous 
would-be  purchasers,  can  offer  unusual  facilities 
for  satisfactorily  negotiating  the  TRANSFER  of 
SCHOOLS,  and  arranging  PARTNERSHIPS. 

No  charge  is  made  to  Purchasers,  and  there  is 
no  charge  to  Vendors  unless  a  Sale  or  Partner- 
ship be  effected  through  this  Agency. 

All  communications  and  enquiries  are  treated 
in  the  strictest  confidence. 


a  carefully  organized  Department  for  the 
introduction  of  Pupils  to  Schools  and  other 
Educational  Establishments.  No  charge  is 
made  for  registration. 

Any  negotiations  entrusted  to  MESSRS.  TRUMAN  & 
KNIGHTLEY  receive  prompt  and  careful  attention, 
every  effort  being  made  to  save  clients  as  much 
time  and  trouble  as  possible. 

FkU  particulars  will  be  forwarded  on   application. 


[Jan.  1.  1909. 


The  Self-Filling  and  Self-Cleaning  Perfection  Fountain  Pen  worth  15  - 
to  Teachers  for  4-  only,  or  3  Pens  for  10/6. 

Tins  saiuiilviTtiseiririitnllVr.iiiiilwilll.r  witliilniwrisliortly. 


Money  returned  if  not  fully  satisfied.    Guaranteed  for  2  years. 

Description;— Xoii  I. Mk^il.l.'.  lill^  :in(l  clciiiis  its,-lf  in  a  iiioiiifnt-a,  a  till — lifted  witii  \tirge  14-carat  jrold  nib,  iridium  tipped,  guaran- 
teed to  last  for  \ears.  No  other  Pen  like  it  for  reliability,  steady  flow 
and  smooth  writing.     Every  Pen  a  pleasure. 


THE  RED  LION  MANUFACTURING  CO.,  Ltd., 71  High  Holborn,  London,W.C. 

No  nted  to  buy  any  other  Pen  while  this  offer  lasts. 

To  ohlain   this  advantage,  mention  "  The  Educationnl  Times" 



undertakes  every  description  of  Letterpress 


Estimates  furnished.     Enquiries  solicited. 

s—      GEORGE    OVER,    Printer,    Rugby. 


Cours    Pratique  et   raisonne    de    Phonetique 

Les   coin's 
Pour  renseignements,  s'ac 
Square,  W.C. 

idroiit    le  SUu-di.  2   Fevnor. 

a  Jl.  B.lHi.ET.  Sackville  Ho\ise,  8.V  Red  Li 



Revised,  Corrected, and  Augmented  by  aMemberof  the  Universilyof  Cambridge. 

Post  Sro,  cloth,  price  7s. 

THE   STATIONERS'  CO.MPANY,  Stationers'   Hall,  London. 


AS    C8ED    BY    THB 

GOIjI-.EC3-E    OIF    noEGEI'TOR/S. 

In  strict  aooordanoe  with  the  OoUege  requirement;,  and  each  Sheet 
bears  their  Watermark, 

Packed  In  Beams  of  480  Sheets per  Beam,    3s. 

„  „  960        „        „  4s. 

Bookkeeping  Paper,  mied  for  Ledger,  Oash  Book,  and  Jonnial,  Is.  per  100  Sheete. 

Masio  Paper,  Is.  per  100  Sheets. 

Remittance  should  accompany  Order, 

F.  W.  SHELBOURNE  &  CO.,  Wholesale  and  Retail  Stationers. 

63   HIGH    HOLBORN.    LONDON,   W.O. 


iThive    times    a    year    only) 

The    "DUST-ALLAYER"    CO.'S 

ODOURLESS   or   powerful   GERMICIDAL 


(,\    ReoistekED    X.4M1.:    snfrjresteii    by     l'l.Ocil;Hvr,tEN-E) 


Art   Gallery,   Library,    Museum,   and   other   Floors — 

Either  Wood,  Concrete,  Stone.or  Polished;  also  Linoleuius,Cork-Mattings,&c. 



(See  the  Ollicial  Jlemoranduni  on  the  Cleansing: and  Disinfectingof  Schools), 

Purines  atmosphere,    aids  prevention  of  diseases  and  throat  irritations, 

preserves  lloois.     frreatly  reduces  labour. 

Hygienic,  economical,  easily  and  quickly  used  by  the  unskilled, 
and  each  application  lasts  for  2  to  4  months,  according  to  wear. 

Scrubbing  (unless  imferred)  also  injurious  and  other  sprink- 
ling of  floors  are  entirely  dispensed  with. 

Not  sticky,  but  dust  and  dirt  alisorli  "Floriffene"  from  impregnated 
lloors  and  iiercnie  "  weisrhted"  floors  can  be  cleaned  daily  with  an 
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To  be  delivered  by  Professor  J.  ADAMS,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  F.C.P.,  Professor  of  Edu- 
cation in  the  University  of  London. 

The  First  Course  of  Lectures  (Thirty-seventh  Annual  Series)  will  commence  on 
Thursday,  February  4th,  at  7  p.m. 

The  purpose  of  the  Course  is  to  give  teachers  an  opportunity  to  study  at  first  hnnd 
the  principles  that  underlie  the  practice  of  their  profession.  The  lecturer  will  treat 
liis  subject  in  such  a  way  as  to  fit  in  with  the  requirements  of  the  College  in  con- 
nexion with  the  examinations  for  the  A^soeialeship,  the  Licentiateship,  and  the 
Fellowship ;  but  his  main  purpose  will  be  to  present  the  matter  in  such  a  way  as  to 
make  it  of  practical  service  to  the  teacher.  The  reading  of  the  students  will  be 
guided,  and  problems  set  for  their  exercise.  All  the  illustrations  in  the  lectures 
will  be  drawn  from  actual  experience  in  the  schoolroom^  and  will  include  the 
results  of  current  experimental  methods. 


I.  (Feb.  4.)  The  Data  of  PsuchnJomi :  unique  character  of  consciousness: 
eeneric  consciousness:  insulation  ol  tlie  ludividuul  consciousness  :  polarity  of  con- 
sciousness :  the  objective  and  the  subjective:  the  self  and  the  ego  :  nature  of  the 
soul:  evolution  of  personality  :  interplay  of  personalities  :  self-realization  as  goal  of 
education:  the  tea,cher's  lever. 

II.  (Feb.  11.)  Psiicliology  as  an  Educational  Instrument :  prev»lent  misunder- 
standing: Miinsterberg's  theory:  nature  of  hypostasis:  the  exploded  faculty 
psychology  :  distinction  between  soul  and  soul  content :  education  as  »  process  of 
assimilation  of  and  by  tlin  ex  einal  world  :  apperception  :  dynamic  view  of  know- 
ledge :  Herbert  Spencer's  view  of  ihe  educational  value  of  knowledge. 

III.  (Feb.  18.)  Preftentafional  Processes :  Sensation  and  the  senses  :  the  "  p  e- 
ferred  sense  " :  practical  applications  of  the  theory  of  preferred  sense :  the  training 
of  the  senses  :  distinction  between  sensation  and  perception:  meaning  and  limits 
of  observation  and  experiment:  the  "gaping  point'*:  the  area  of  observational 
activity;  distinction  between  observation  and  inference:  the  movable  inference 

IV.  (Feb.  25.)  Representational  Processes :  distinction  between  gathering  and 
elaborating  material :  conception:  ttie  static  and  dynamic  view  of  ideas:  ideas  as 
forces:  changes  in  the  activit.v  of  a  given  idea:  copresentation  and  interplay  of 
ideas  :  hierarchy  of  ideas  :  the  fixed  idea  :  marginal  and  focal  ideas :  the  possibility 
if  the  subconscious  influence  of  ideas. 

V.  (March  4.)  Soul-bnHdinff :  nature  and  scope  of  association :  usual  limitation 
to  idea- :  really  of  general  application  :  association  makes  habi' a  possible:  advan- 
tages and  disadvantages  of  habit  forming  :  the  "growing  point" :  accommodation 
and  co-ordination  :  the  old  and  the  new  laws  of  the  association  of  ideas :  Paulhan's 
view :  manipulation  of  association  in  teaching. 

VI.  (March  U.)  Memory:  relation  to  personal  identity:  physical  basis  of 
memory  :  possibility  of  improving  memory  as  a  natural  power  :  the  associati  e  and 
the  rational  memory :  mnemonics  and  the  wemor/a  technicn  :  mediate  and  imme- 
diate recall :  temporary  and  permanent  memory  :  the  natur  of  i  he  memory  implied 
in  "  cram  "  :  rote-learning :  relation  between  memory  and  general  intelligence. 

VII.  (March  18.)  "  The  Busy  Faculty" :  unjustified  depreciation  of  the  imagina- 
tion: differentiation  from  mem  ry  :  lesthetic  and  practical  spheres  f  imagination  : 
"day-dreaming":  need  to  imagine  processes  as  well  as  results  :  mislejiding  use  of 
the  word  "  ideal"  :  the  need  for  clearly  imaged  ends  in  practical  life:  application 
to  the  teaching  of  Geography,  History,  Arithmetic,  and  Geometry  :  imaginatiun  as 
a  drag  on  thought. 

VIII.  (April  29.)  Re'/ulation  of  Cunsciotisness :  nature  rf  attention:  relation 
to  interest:  teachers' distrust  of  interest :  confusion  with  pleasure :  interest  and 
iittention  as  cause  and  effect:  various  classifications  of  the  kinds  of  attention: 
the  physiological  basis  of  attention  :  th--  alternation  between  concentration  and 
diffusion  :  possibility  of  degrees  of  attention. 

IX.  (May  6.)  Reason ino :  technical  distinction  between  judgment  and  reason- 
ing: both  included  in  popular  term  thinking:  fundamentally  an  adaptation  of 
.  eans  to  ends  on  the  ideational  plane:  thinkmg  m'ly  be  called  the  purposive  aspect 
of  apperception:  laws  of  thought  as  thought:  the  most  fundamental  law  of  all 
thinKing:   induction,  deduction,  and  fallacies. 

X.  (May  13.)  Feelings  and  Emotions  :  the  pleasure-pain  tone  that  accompanies 
tlie  activities  of  the  soul  :  unjustifieil  depieciation  of  the  emotions:  tlriving  power 
of  spu-itual  life:  relation  to  ideas:  expression  of  the  emotions,  and  the  various 
theories  c-<mnected  with  it :  practicjil  applicjitions  to  school  work  :  control  of  the 
emotions  :  relation  between  feeling  and  desire. 

XI.  {'^\ny  20.)  Desire  and  Will:  activity  of  desire:  relation  to  possibility  of 
nttainmeiit:  expectation  of  success:  evolution  of  will  out  of  desire:  nature  and 
function  of  motive:  fallacy  of  "tin  ^innL-.  ■•(  ni'live"  theory:  subjective  and 
objective  :ispects  of  the  will;  wh;il  i  :  >  '  i  m  iriiii!-' the  will  and  breaking  the 
will:  the  problem  of  the  free  will  ol  -  li      i  n  i  ^   huantl. 

XII.  (^Iay27.)  Temperament  a  ml  '  ,-r  <  \arious  meanings  attached  to  the 
term  temper'tmrnt  in  ancient  and  modern  times:  ;iccei>ted  classifications:  physical 
characteristics  of  the  teiiiiK'iameuts  :  permanency  of  temperament :  possible  iiioiii- 
fications  :  the  time  element  :  infiuence  of  temperament  on  chanicter :  character 
types  and  their  classilii^ation  :  use  and  abuse  of  schemes  of  chissifying  characters. 

The  Fee  for  the  Course  of  Tweive  Lectures  is  Haif-a-Guinea, 

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the  Course. 

By  A.  K.  ISBIVIER,  M.A.,  LL.B 

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Messrs.  LONGMANS  &  CO.'S  LIST. 


Late  Regius  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  University  of  Cambridge. 



By  U.  G.  aud  J.  KENNEDY,  and  H.  WILKINSON,  .M.A.     Crown  8ro,  Is.  Od. 

A  KEY,  for  the  »«.■  of  Masters  oh///,     '^s.  !>a.  iivl.  post  frei-. 

By  T.  K.  ARNOLD,   M.A. 

Practical  Introduction  to  Latin  Prose  Com- 
position. Kdited  l\v  G.  Granville  Bradley,  D.D.,  formerly  Dean  of  "West- 
minster.   5s. 

A  KEY,  for  the  use  ofMas/crx  nnhj.    5s.  2Jd.  net,  post  free. 

A.   Practical  Dictionary  of  the  French  and 

Englisti  Languages.    Post  8vo,  3s.  6d. 

A    Pocket    Dictionary    of   the    French    and 

English  Ijancuages.  Beiug  a  careful  Abridgment  of  the  Author's  "Prac- 
tical t'reuch  aud  Enghsh  Dictionary,"  preserving  all  the  most  useful  features 
of  the  Original,  condensed  in  a  much  smaller  Volume.    Square  18mo,  Is.  6d. 

By  A.  A.  SOMERVILLE,  M.A. 

A  First  French   W riter.     i'or  the  use  of  Lower  and 
Middle  Forms  of  Schook.    Crown  8to,  3s.  6d. 


Longmans'   French   Grammar.    By  T.  H.  Ber- 

TENSUAW,  li.A..  Jhis.Kac.,  Assistant  Tilaster  ni  the  Cit.v  of  London  School. 

Crown  8vo. 
Grammar.    Part  I.    Up  to  and  including  Regular  Verbs,  with  Vocabularies. 

&c..  Is. 
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iuncti\e  Blood,  Infinitive,  and  Participles,  with  Vocabularies.  &e..  Is, 
Parts  I,  and  II.    Complete  in  One  Vol,,  2s, 
KEY  ami  SUPPLKMEXT.  for  the  use  of  blasters  nnlii. 

Longmans'  Illustrated  First  Conversational 

French  Reader,  With  Notes  and  full  Vocabularies.  B.v  T.  H.  Berten- 
BllAW.  B.A.,  Mus.  Kac.  ^^'ith  86  Illustrations  (including  18  Views  of  the  Public 
Buildings.  &c.,  of  Paris,  and  Plan  of  Paris,  illustnlting  "  Ma  PiemitTe  Visit*  :\ 
Paris"!.    Crown  8vo,  Is,  6d, 

Longmans'  Illustrated  First  French  Reading 

Book    and    Grammar.    Bv  Joii>   BiiiGooi>.    B,Sc..  and  Thomas  Uak- 

BOTTLE,      Cioun  8\0.  Is, 

Longmans'  Illustrated  Second  French  Read- 

By  6.  G.  BRADLEY,  D.D..  formerly  Dean  of  Westminster. 
Aids   to   Writing  Latin   Prose.     Containing  144 

Exercises.     With  an  Introduction  comprising  Prelimmarv  Hints,  Directions. 
Explanator.v  Matter,  ic.    Edited  and  arranged  by  T.  h.  Papillon,  M,A, 
Crown  8vo,  5s. 
A  KEY.  for  the  use  of  Masters  only.    5s.  2Jd.  net,  post  free. 

By  H.  G.  LIDDELL,  D.D.,  and  ROBERT  SCOTT.  D.D. 
Greek-English  Lexicon.    4to,  3(Js. 

Greek-English    Lexicon.      Abridged  from  the  above. 

Revised  throughout.    Square  12ino,  7s.  6d. 

By  H.  R.  HEATLEY,  M.A.,  and  H,  N.  KINGDOM,  M.A. 
Gradatim.      An  Easy    Lathi    Truuslatiun    Book  foi-   Be- 

ginnei-s.     With  Vocabulary.    Fc;ip.  8vo.  Is.  6d. 
A  KEY,  for  the  u^e  ofMaste)'3  (mly.    5«.  2|f7.  net,  post  free. 

Exercises  on  Gradatim.     By  H.  R.  Heatley,  M.A., 

and  the  Rev.  A.  Slomas.  M.A.     Fcap.  8vo.  Is.  6d. 

Excerpta    Pacilia.     A  Second  Latin  Translation  Book. 

Contrjinmg  a  Cullection  of  Stories  from  various  Latin  Authors.    With  NoU'S  i\\ 
end,  and  a  N'oGibulary.    Cro\vii  8vo,  2s.  6d. 
A  KET,  for  the  use  of  Masters  only.    Ss.  Zd.  net,  post  free. 

A  First  Greek  Writer.    Crown  Svo,  3s.  6d. 

A  KEY,  for  the  use  of  Masters  ou^y.    5s.  2\d.  net,  post  free. 

Introduction   to   Greek    Prose   Composition. 

"With  Exercises.    Crown  8vo,  5s. 
A  KEY,  for  the  use  of  Masters  only.    5s.  3(/.  net,  post  free. 

Scenes    from    Greek     Plays.       Kugby    Edition. 

Abridged  and  ,\dapted  tor  the  use  of  Schools,     Fcap,  Svo,  Is,  6d,  each, 
Aristophanes,— Tlie  Clouds,     The  Frogs,     The  Knights.     Plutus. 
Euripides.  — Iphiirenia  in  Tauris.     Tlie  Cyclops.      Ion.      Eleclni.      Alcestis. 

Bacchae.     Heeulia,    Jledea. 

An  Introduction  to  Greek  Verse  Composition. 

A  KEY,  for  the  use  of  Masters  only.    5s.  25f7.  net,  post  free. 

Stories  in  Attic  Greek.     With  Notes  and  Vocabulary. 

Crown  8vo.  3s.  6d. 

LONGMANS,    GREEN.    &    CO.,    39    Paternoster    Row.    London. 

Jan.  1,  1909.] 


FROM     DENT'S     LIST. 



ENGLISH    POETRY.      Selected   with    lui    Introduction    and 

\iilcK  l.v  \KTiirR  HiRKELt.M.A.,  Principal  of  the  Borough  Road  Training 

rolli'zc,' Islrworlli.     Is.  per  Vol. 
1.  l..viif.-il.      II.  KiiKlish  Heroic  Verse.      III.  Selections  from  Shakespeare. 
BALLADS,    ANCIENT    AND    MODERN.       Selected    with 

Introiliictinn  nn-l  Xotes  bv  Oi.hmunt  Siieat.ix.  :M.A.     Is. 

Wilh  an  Introiluction  and  Xotes  l),v  E.  Bolus.     Limp  cloth,  Id. 

VIIiIiAGG.      With  an   Introduction  and   Notes  by   W.   I.anc^  URlbiiE. 

lAmp  cloth,  <td. 
COLERIDGE'S  ANCIENT  MARINER.     With  Introduction 

and  Notes  li.v  R.  M'WlLLIAM.     Limp  cloth,  4d. 
WORDSWORTH'S    SIMPLER    POEMS.       With   Introduc- 
tion and  Dliissary  by  Edward  Huttox.    lamp  clotli,  4d. 
MACAULAY'S     LAYS     OP     ANCIENT     ROME.        With 

Introduction  and  Xotes  by  Olipuant  Smeaton,  Jl.A.    Is. 
LONGFELLOW'S     HIA.WATHA.       With    Introduction    and 

Notes  liy  Hexet  Williams,  5I.A.    Is. 
LONGFELLOW'S   EVANGELINE.     Kdited,  with  Introduc- 
tion and  Notes,  by  JoHx  \V.  Cousix,  F.P..^.    Cloth  boards,  8d. 
LONGFELLOW'S     SHORTER     POEMS.       Selected,    with 

Introduction  and  Notes,  by  G.  C.  Dent,  1!.A.     Limp  cloth,  4d. 

Uliss  N.  Ci.  Royde-Smitii.    Is. 

BINOGION.     By  Miss  Beatrice  („U,AY.    Is. 
THE  ADVEHTUP-ES   OF   ODYSSEUS.     By  J.  G.  JKyor, 

P.  S.  Marvix,  and  F.  M.  Stawell.    Is. 
SOUTHEY'S    LIFE    OF    NELSON.     With  Introduction  and 

Notes  by  Hexry  Williams.  M.A.    Is. 
SIR  ROGER  DE   COVGRLEY   PAPERS.    By  Addison  and 

Steele.    Edited,  »itli  Introduction  and  Notes,  by  R.  G.  Watkin,  M.A., 

Ph.D.    Is. 
SCOTT'S    TALISMAN.      With    Introduction    and    Notes    hy 

Henry,  M.A.    Is. 

Selections  put  into  a  Continuous  Narrative,  an.l   edited    by  Olithaxt 

Smeaton,  ;M.A.    Is. 
TALES  FROM  BROWNING.     By  the  Eev.  G.  Lacey  M.iy, 

M.A.    Is. 
STORIES  FROM  CARLYLE.     By  D.  M.  Fonn.     Is. 

from  Daju'ier,  Hakluyt,  and  Cook.    By  R.  Bkimli:v  .Iniixsox.    Is. 



Edited  by  WALTER  RIPPMANN,  5I.A. 
DENT'S  NEW   FIRST  FRENCH  BOOK.     By  S.  Algr  and 


From  Drawings  specially  prepared  by  J.  A.  Symixuton.  Printed  in 
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S.    AL..E 

H.     E. 
I  Oxford. 


and  Walter  Rh'I'Manx.    Extra  fcap.  8vo,  2s. 


Bertiiox,  Taylorian    Lecturer  in   Fi-encli  at   the  University  - 
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EASY    FREE    COMPOSITION    IN    FRENCH.     By   Jliss 
L.  31.  Bull.     Extra  leap.  8vo,  Is.  4d. 

FB.EHCK.     Bv  A.  Pratt  and  .\xtoixe  Piiiluieet.    Extra  fcap.  3vo, 

Is.  4d. 


The  J\iUuifiii;/  I'ulumes  are  now  ready:— 
Second  Year  French  Readers — 

Contes  de  Perrault.    Vol.  I.  Ditto.    Vol.  II. 

Yvon  et  Finette.  Poncinet. 

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DENT'S   GERMAN   READER.     By   S.    Aloe   .and   Walter 

RippMAXx.    Extra  fc:ip.  8vo,  3s. 
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Extra  fcip.  8vo,  Is.  4d. 
EISENHANS    AND    OTHER    TALES.     A   Second   Year 

German  Reader,   «iUi    Exercises.      l!v   Walter  Rini'MAX.x.      Extra 
fc  ip.  8vo,  Is.  4d. 


By  Professor  J.  R 
Prof  use!  J  Ilh 


AINSWORTH  D.VVIS,  Autlior  of  "  The  Natural  History  of 


\C.,  &G. 

i  of  well-choseii  subjects. 


I  Qoo,  2s.  bd. 

This  Nature  Study  Reader  de-cinbes  the  adaptations  to  surroundings  of 
common  native  plants  and  animals  together  with  others  that  ai-e  familiar. 
Beginnina:  with  the  wild  geranium  (Hei'b  Robert),  the  structure,  life-functions, 
and  life-histories  of  typical  plants  are  dealt  witli  in  succession.  A  similar 
uu'thod  is  pursued  with  regard  to  animals.  The  elements  of  classification  are 
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object  Jtept  steadily  in  view  is  to  encourage  personal  observation  of  living  things. 
Another,  and  even  more  imjiortant  aim,  is  to  stimulate  the  reasoning  powers 
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FOB    .SEXWK,     IXTKRMEDIATE,    AS  I)     JL'XIOR     .■^TI'DE.VT.S. 

Selected  and  e.lited  by  G.  It.  BEXXETT.  D.Sc.  (Lend.). 
Numerous  FuU-page  and  Line  and  Text  lUiislratlnns.    Small  i-rown  Svo, 

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The  Ruskin  Readers  have  been  compiled  to  illustrate  the  effect  which  tlie 
observation  of  natural  plxenoiuena  has  had  upon  literaturi 
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time  to  & 

,  and  at  the  : 
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•  flio  <,>nior  Book,  is  now  ready,  .and  contains 
I,  I  I  .  |;„  L.  Stevenson,  and  Dickens.  Ixaak 
.  .lion  for  the  river-side  has  produced 
,  I  .i  i;--,,(i:< :  emine  't  scientists  sucU  as  Hugh 
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proved  themselves  brilliant  men  of  letters,  such  as  Gilbert  W'liite,  Richard 
Jefleries,  Thorean,  and  \V.  H.  Hudson,  have  all  bejn  put  under  contribution. 

The  first  of  this  Series 
descriptive  passai^es  froi 
Walton  and  Sir  Edward 
\    the  two  English  i;l; 


An    Introduction    to    the    Study    of   Botany    and   Agricultural   Science. 

By  ERXEST   EVANS,  Natural  Science  :Haster,  Technicil  Scliool,  Burnley;  Autlior  of  "  Botany  for  Beginners,"  •■  How  to  Study  Geology,"  i  :. 

Many  illustrations^  Is.  4d. 
This  book  is  the  work  of  an  enthusiastic  teacher  of  Natural  Science,  and  il3  has  been  prepared  with  the  object  of  serving  as  a  te.xt-book  of  Nature  Study  and  as 
■an  introduction  to  the  Science  of  Botany. 

The  book  is  especially  a  practical  one,  and  it  contains  instructions  how  to  perform  numerous  experiments  with  different  parts  of  plants.  These  can  be  carried 
out  with  very  simple  apparatus,  and  in  the  open  air  or  schoolriwm.  All  the  specimens  required  can  be  easily  obtained,  and  examined  either  with  the  na_kei  eye  or 
with  the  aid  of  a  hand  lens.  The  portion  of  the  book  which  deals  with  the  structure  and  functions  of  plants,  and  the  soil  in  which  they  grow,  is  treated  in  simple 
language  and  very  lew  technical  terms  ai  e  introduced.  It  is  lUustrnted  by  numerous  drawmgs,  and  can  be  recommended  as  a  suitable  book  tor  use  in  Secondary 
Schools,  Evening  Continuation  Schools,  Technicjil  Schools,  and  by  Private  Students. 

The  Publishers  invite  Application  from  Principals  of  Schools  for  Specimen  Copies  with  a  view  to  introduction. 

London :   J.    M.    DENT    &   CO.,    Aidine    House,    Bedford    Street,    W.C. 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 

BLACKIE     &     SON'S     LIST 

./  I'viiLifiiiKii. 

Intpoduction   to   the 
,    Natural  History  of  Language. 

By  T.  G.  TucKEK,  Litt  D.  iCamb.K  Hon.  Litt.D.  (Dublin),  Pioressor  of 

Classical  Philolopy  in  the  tiniversity  of  Melbourne.     Demv  8vo,  cloth, 

10s.  6d.  net. 

-Y  new  Treatise  which  gathers  together  the  results  of  tlie  great  amount  of 

philological  work  that  the  last  quarter  of  a  century  has  produced.    It  is  intended 

to  fulfil  to-day  the  purpose  which  was  served  in  its  time  bv  Max  MuUer's 

"  Science  of  Language." 

The  Teaching  of  English. 

Ky  A.  E.  RoKEKls.  51..^..  frincir:il  Lcclnivr  in  Knfrlish  at  the  Islington 
Day  Tiaiiiiiig  C(.ll^^'.•.  and  A.  Baktek.  L.l.A.,  liiti-  Head  Mistress  of  the 
Bi-aintiee  Pupil-Tiuclier  .^cliool.    2s.  6il.  nit. 

A   Book  of  Comparative   Prose. 

Being  Typical  Essays  arranged  for  Comparative  Study.  With  Notes  and 
Exercises.  By  W.  Macpjieeson,  M.A.,  English  Master  in  the  County 
Secondary  School  and  Pupil-Teachers'  Centre,  Beckcnhani,  Kent.    Is.  net. 

A   Book   of  Comparative   Poetry. 

Being  Typical  Poems  arranged  for  Conipiiiative  Stmh-.  With  Ni.tes  and 
Exercises.    By  W.  Maci'iierson,  M..A. 

A    School     History    of    English 

From  CHAUCER  to  COWl'ER.    Bv  Elizabeth  Lee.    With  Introduction 
by  EiiMi  SD  K.  Ciiambees,  M.A. 
Vol.  L— Chaucer  to  Mailowe.    Is.  6d.  |  Vol.  II.— Shakespeare  to  Dryden.    2s. 
Vol.  III.— Pope  to  Cowper.    2s. 

The  Call    of  the   Homeland. 

A  Collection  of   English  Verse.    .Selected  and  Arranged  bv  R.  P.  ScoTT, 
LL.D.,  and  Kathakine  T.  Wallas,  M.A.     In  Two  Volumes.    Is.  6d. 
each  net. 
Book    I.— Echoes  from  History— Britain  Overseas— The  Sea— The  Changing 

Book  n.— The  English  Countryside— Home— Exile— Compatriots— The  Call  to 
Serve-  The  Call  to  Happiness. 

Combined    Course    of    Literary 
Reading  and   Composition. 

Illustrated  from  Famous  Paintings.  Edited  by  Lewis  Marsh,  M.A.  Care- 
fully chosen  readings  from  English  Literature,  with  graded  exercises, 
forming  a  complete  couise  of  instruction  in  English.    2s. 

An  Introduction  to  Good  Poetry. 

.Selected  and  Edited  by  E.  P.  DavihsON,  :M.A.     Is.  6d. 

English    Poetry  for  the   Young. 

Selected  by  S.  i:.  WlMioi.T,  JI.A.  A  chronological  selection  of  English 
poetry,  clearly  printed  and  well  bound  in  cloth.     Is. 

Precis   Writing. 

■f  H.  Lattek.  JI.A.,  of  Cheltenham  College.    With  numerous  Exereises, 
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KLY,  2s.  6d.  net,  post  free. 

Precis   Writing    Second   Series. 

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KEY,  2s.  6d.  net,  post  free. 

The   Plain   Text   Shakespeare. 

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Charles  Lamb. 

Geography:   Structural — Physical 

A  Test-lionk  for  Senior  .Students.  I!y  .1.  W.  GREfiORY,  D.Sc,  F.R.S., 
Professor  of  Geology  in  the  Glasgow  University.  With  Series  of  specially 
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A   First   Geography. 

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of    Europe 

and    the 

For  Juniiir  and  Jliddle  Fmiiis.  A  viv^i  description  of  the  countries  ol 
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A  Brief  Survey  of  British  History. 

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"  The  best  English  History  tor  younger  pupils.     L'sed  in  all  leading  Pre- 
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Landmarks  of  European  History. 

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Heroes  of  the  European  Nations. 

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Readings   in    English    History. 

From  Original  Sources.  Edited  by  R.  B.  MoRGAX,  B.Litt..  and  E.  .J. 
Ballet.  B.A.  Illustrated.  Vol.  1.,  B.C.  54  to  a.d.  1154.  2s.  Vol.  II., 
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etical  examples  is  very  large.     A  set  of  Examination  papers  is  included. 

Elementary  Geometry 

of  the    Straig^ht    Line,    Circle,    and 
PEane  Rectilineal   Fig^ures. 

By  Cecil  Hawkins,  M.A..  Senior  Mathematical  Muster  at  Haileybuiy 
College.    Crown  8vo,  cloth,  with  or  without  Answers,  3s.  6d. 

Systematic  Inorganic  Chemistry 
from  the  Standpoint  of  the  Peri- 
odic Law. 

A  Text-Book  for  jidvanced  Students.  By  R.  M.  Caven,  D.Sc,  and  G.  D. 
Lasher,  D.Se.    Crown  8vo,  cloth,  5s.  net. 

A   Text-Book   of  Organic 

Eligllsli  Translation  from  the  German  ol  A.  Bekntiisex.  Ph.D.  Edited  by 
J.  J  .^UDIiOROl'Gll,  Hh.D.,  D.Sc..  F.I.C.  New  Edition.  Revised  to  date. 
674  pp.,  crown  Bvo,  cloth,  7s.  6d.  net. 

Electrical  Laboratory  Course  for 
Junior   Students. 

By  li.  D.  Akcuiuald,  K.Sc.  A..M.1ii.^1.C.L..  aiul  U.  Ra.vki.n,  A.G.T.C. 
Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  Is.  6d,  net. 

Write  for  full  particulars  to  BLACKIE  &  SON,   Ltd.,  SO  Old  Bailey,  E.C. 

Jan    1.  1909.] 




Leader :  A  Christmas  Card  for  Mr.  Runciman    11 

Notes    12 

The  Education  Bill— Mr.  A.  C.  Benson  on  the  Personality  of  the 
Teacher— The  Board  of  Education  on  the  Teaching  of  Histor.v  in 
S  condary  Schools —  Collapse  ot  Army  Candidates  —  Milton  and 

Summary  of  tlie  Month I'l 

Universities  and  Colleges IS 

Oxford— Cambridge— London— Bristol. 

The  Educational  Ladder 16 

Current  Events   21 

Kixtures— Honours—  Scholarships  and  Prizes—  Rndowments  and 
Keiielactions— Appointments  and  Vacancies— Literary— Gieneial. 

Open   Court:  A   Budget  of  Controversies— mainly  over  Moral 
Education.     By  Dr.  F.  H.  Hayward    24 


The  Teachers'  Registration  Council : 

Letter  from  the  Board  of  Education 26 

Letter  from  the  Teachers'  Guild 27 

College  of  Preceptors  :   Meeting  of  the  Council   27 

Conferences  I'ranijaises  :  Elle  et  Lui,  par  M.  I'Abbe  Marguere  27 

Oxford  and  the  Workers 28 

Reviews    29 

The  History  of  Ireland  to  the  Coming  of  Henry  II.   (Clerigh)  — 
Conditions  of  Life  in  the  Sea  (.lohnstone). 

General  Notices  • 30 

New  Year  Gift-Books   32 

First  Glances 34 

Mathematics 3o 

Cbe  Ebucational  tliines. 

Among  the  rubbish  that  blocks  the 
A  Christmas  Card  editorial  table  at  Christmas  time  and 
IHr.  Runcinian.  overflows  upon  the  chairs  and  floor — 
Abecedarian  Arithmetic,  Artist's  Alman- 
ack, Bible  Beauties,  Comic  Cuts  from  English  Chronicles, 
Dante  for  Dullards,  and  so  on  through  the  alphabet  down 
to  Zodiacal  post-cards — we  have  lighted  on  one  pearl  of  great 
price,  a  booklet  published  by  Bowes  &  Bowes,  Cambridge, 
entitled,  "  Microcosmographia,  a  Guide  for  the  Young  Aca- 
demic Politician."  It  is  a  pungent  satire  on  Uaiversity 
politic'^ ;  but,  like  all  good  satires,  it  has  more  than  a  local 
application,  and  we  need  no  excuse  for  directing  our  readers' 
attention  to  this  delightful  skit,  which  touches  so  delicately 
the  sore  place  in  our  educational  macrocosm. 

"  Nothing  is  ever  done  until  every  one  is  convinced  that 
it  ought  to  be  done,  and  has  been  convinced  so  long  that  it 
is  now  time  to  do  something  else."  Is  not  this  true  of  the 
great  question  that  has  occupied  public  opinion  chronically, 
and  Parliament  by  fits  and  starts,  ever  since  the  Act  of 
1870  and  before — the  nationalization  of  elementary  ednca- 
tioti  ?  We  have  patched  and  botched  and  see-sawed,  alter- 
nately advancing  and  retreating,  and  successive  Chancellor.s 
of  the  Exchequer  have  "dallied  with  their  golden  chains, 
and  smiling  put  the  question  by,"  and  now,  in  1909,  we 
seem  further  off  a  solution  than  we  were  in  19U8. 

And,  when  we  pass  to  secondary  education,  the  satire  of 
"Microcosmographia"  appears  even  more  direct  and  pointed 
The  academic  person  (we  read)  is  to  Hamlet  as  Hamlet  is 
to  the  instinctive  female.  He  is,  "  to  use  his  own  quaint 
phrase,  a  '  beast ' ;  his  discourse  is  many  times  larger,  and 
he  looks  before  and  after  many  times  as  far.  There  is  only 
one  argument  for  doing  something  ;  the  rest  are  arguments 
for  doing  nothing."  Among  the  latter  are  the  Argument  of 
the  Wedge,  "that  you  should  not  act  justly  now  for  fear  of 
raising  expectations  that  you  may  act  still  more  justly  in 
the  future  "  ;  the  Argument  of  the  Dangerous  Precedent ;  of 
"  Give  the  present  system  a  fair  trial,"  and  of  "  the  Time  is 
not  ripe,"  for  an  exposition  and  exposure  of  which  we  must 
refer  our  readers  to  the  original.     But,  if  any  ime  wero  inclined 

to  doubt  the  applicability  of  the  satire  to  current  educational 
politics,  he  could  not  do  better  than  read  the  report  of  the 
last  Head  Masters'  Conference  ;  had  he  heard  the  debates 
the  proof  would  be  still  more  convincing.  Mr.  Gilson 
brought  forward  what,  in  one  form  or  another,  has  been  a 
standing  dish  at  every  recent  Conference,  the  place  of  Greek 
in  schools.  He  asked  the  Conference  to  affirm,  what  is  now 
assumed  as  axiomatic  by  every  authority  on  pedagogics,  that 
the  average  boy  cannot  with  advantage  undertake  the  study 
of  more  than  two  foreign  languages  before  the  age  of  four- 
teen, and,  as  a  rider,  that  if  Latin  be  one  of  them,  French 
and  German  should  be  accepted  as  equivalents  for  Greek. 
Dr.  James  declared  himself  sick  of  the  Greek  question, 
but  was  ready  once  more  to  apply  the  argumentiim  ad 
cuneuin.  This  seemingly  innocent  proposal  would  open  the 
floodgates  of  scientific  barbarism.  The  neglect  of  Greek 
was  already  sapping  the  foundation  of  our  national  life, 
corrupting  our  literature,  and  degrading  oar  morals.  He 
was  backed  by  Mr.  Lyttelton  with  the  argumentum  ad 
cruditatem.  The  question  was  sprung  on  them;  let  them 
confer  with  the  preparatory  head  masters  Tas  if  they  had  not 
conferred  already) ;  let  these  together  draw  up  a  well  con- 
sidered curriculum  (as  if  the  conference  had  not  at  that 
very  sitting  approved  the  curriculum  of  the  British  Associ- 
ation)— in  a  word,  "  the  time  was  not  ripe."  Those  of  the 
Conference  who  could  not  stom;ich  the  strong  meat  thrown 
to  them  by  Dr.  James  greedily  swallowed  Mr.  Lyttelton's 
honeyed  sop,  and  appointed  a  Committee  to  confer  with  the 
Preparatory  Masters  and  report  to  the  next  meeting. 

Academic  parties  are  not  easy  to  distinguish  precisely,  but 
there  is  no  difliculty  in  classifying  according  to  the  "  Guide  " 
Mr.  Lyttelton.  "  A  Conservative  Liberal  is  a  broad-minded 
man  who  thinks  that  something  ought  to  be  done,  only  not 
anything  that  any  one  now  desires,  but  something  that  was 
not  done  in  1881-82."  Nor,  when  we  read  the  definition  of 
the  "  Young  Man  in  a  Hurry,"  is  there  any  difliculty  in 
fitting  the  cap.  In  spite  of  his  years  and  gravity,  Dr.  Gray 
of  Bradfield  College  was  "  inexperienced  enough  to  imagine 
that  soniething  might  be  done  before  very  long,  and  even  to 
suggest  definite  things."  He  had  the  audacity  to  propose 
to  the  Conference  that,  in  order  to  secure  a  more  complete 
co-ordination  of  the  educational  system,  non-local  schools 
should    submit    themselves    to    insiiection    by  the    Board   of 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 

Education  and  even  welcome  Inspectors  as  allies  and 
fi-iends.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  so  rank  a  proposition  was 
rejected,  and  the  wonder  is  that  the  previous  question  was 
carried  by  so  small  a  majority.  All  agreed  that  inspection 
in  the  abstract  was  at  worst  a  necessary  evil  and  that,  if 
conducted  by  the  Universities — that  is,  by  friendly  amateurs 
— it  might  be  pleasant  and  even  comfoitable  ;  but  a  com- 
pulsory inspection  conducted  by  professionals  was  a  very 
diffei'ent  matter.  That  head  masters  should  be  compelled 
to  fill  up  forms  and  compile  statistics  was  not  only  vexa- 
tious but  derogatory  to  their  dignity,  and,  as  one  gentleman 
remarked,  subversive  of  character.  The  tricolour  of  the 
Conference — "  Liberty,  Variety,  Elasticity  " — must  be  nailed 
to  the  mast.  A  head  master's  school  was  his  castle  into 
which  no  Board  would  be  admitted.  But  the  argu- 
ment that  carried  the  day  was  "  Inopportuneness."  A 
member  of  the  Conference  was  at  the  moment  threatened 
by  the  Board  with  legal  action,  and  for  the  Conference  to 
express  any  opinion  pendente  lite  would  be  obviously  unfair 
and  pT'ejudice  the  case. 

E  pur  si  muove  !  1908  will  be  remembered  as  the  Annus 
Mirabilis  in  which  the  Head  Masters'  Conference — Conser- 
vative Liberals,  Liberal  Conservatives,  Non-placets,  Adul- 
lamites,  and  Young  Men  in  a  Hurry — passed  a  unanimous 
resolution  which,  as  the  Morning  Post  interpreted  it,  is 
tantamount  to  a  direct  vote  of  censure  on  the  Board  of  Edu- 
cation. It  was  moved  by  Dr.  Gow,  seconded  by  Canon 
Swallow,  and  carried  unanimously: — 

(n)  That  this  Conference  is  of  opinion  that,  in  the  formation  of  a  Regis- 
tration Council  under  the  Education  (Administrative  Provisions)  Act  of 
1907,  reprej-entatives  of  the  teaching  profession  should  be  chosen  with 
reference  to  the  types  and  grades  of  existing  schools,  and  not  with 
reference  to  the  several  f^ieulties  of  teachers ;  and  (b)  that  this  Conference 
trusts  that  the  Board  of  Education  will  take  step.s  to  facilitate  the  con 
stitution  of  such  a  Council  without  further  delay. 

The  motion,  as  proposed  by  Dr.  Gow,  was  couched  in 
stronger  tei'ms,  calling  upon  the  Boai'd  to  proceed  to  the 
constitution  of  the  Council  ;  but  the  amendment,  accepted  in 
deference  to  Dr.  Pry's  plea  for  meekness  and  patience,  comes, 
as  Dr.  Gow  remarked,  to  the  same  thing. 

The  principle  of  the  draft  scheme  for  a  Registration  Coun- 
cil, which  was  so  unceremoniously  rejected  by  the  Board  of 
Education,  will  be  familiar  to  all  our  readers,  even  if  they 
have  forgotten  the  details.  It  is  enough  for  our  purpose  to 
remind  them  that  it  was  approved  by  all  the  delegates  of 
the  various  educational  associations  at  the  meeting  held  last 
February  at  the  College  of  Preceptors,  and  afterwards  con 
firmed  by  the  several  associations,  including  the  College  of 
Preceptors.  Further,  these  delegates  were  acting  at  the 
instance  of  the  President  of  the  Board,  who  had  given  them 
to  understand  that,  if  they  could  come  to  an  agreement  amon^ 
themselves,  the  Board  of  Education  would  accept  their  con 
clasions  and  forthwith  take  steps  to  issue  an  Order  in 
Council  in  pursuance  of  the  Act.  That  agreement  is  now 
repudiated  bj*  Sir  Robert  Morant,  but  Dr.  Gow  stated  to  the 
Conference  that  he  had  it  on  the  highest  authority  that  "  the 
account  given  in  the  White  Paper  of  the  preliminary  nego 
tiations  that  resulted  in  Clause  16  is  a  mere  travesty  of  what 
took  place." 

The  scheme  of  the  delegates  was  by  no  means  perfect ; 
there  were   overlappings   and   serious   omissions.     So  much 

Dr.  Gow  frankly  admitted.  It  was  open  to  amendments  in 
details,  and  it  was  intended  that  the  Board  of  Education 
should  so  modify  it.  But  it  was  not  intended  that  the 
Board  should  invite  objections  from  every  educational  society 
to  be  found  in  Whitaker,  and  some  too  obscure  to  be  found 
there,  and  then,  as  Dr.  Gow  complained,  fling  all  the  pro- 
tests at  his  head.  Dr.  Gow  is  a  good  Christian,  but  he 
refuses,  at  Sir  Robert  Morant's  invitation,  to  enter  the  lions' 
den  with  six  drawing  masters,  four  musicians,  two  steno- 
graphers, a  bookkeeper,  and  other  denizens  of  the  fringe,  all 
flying  at  his  throat  and  demanding  the  reason  why  they  were 
not  admitted  to  the  Council. 

Mr.  Runciman  is  in  Egypt,  enjoying  a  well  earned  holidaj- 
after  his  long  and  strenuous  efforts  to  settle  a  weightier 
and  far  more  thorny  question  than  the  Registration  of 
Teachers.  He  has  been  hailed  by  all  parties  as  a  true  peace- 
maker, and  won  universal  admiration  in  spite  of  his  ill 
success.  In  the  land  of  the  lotus  the  resolution  of  the 
Head  Masters'  Conference,  if  it  reaches  him  at  all,  will 
appear  "  a  tale  of  little  meaning,  though  the  words  are 
strong."  But,  when  he  returns  to  his  duties  at  Whitehall, 
we  hope  that  the  first  business  he  takes  in  hand  will  be  to 
master  for  himself  the  question  of  registration,  to  abandon, 
if  not  to  repudiate,  the  non  possunuis  attitude  of  his  Perma- 
nent Secretary,  and  proceed  without  further  delay  to  put 
into  operation  Clause  16.  Let  him  remember  that  that 
clause  is  backed  not  only  by  the  Head  Masters'  Conference 
and  the  Incorporated  Association  of  Head  Masters,  but  by 
a  far  more  numerous  and  more  influential  body,  the  National 
Union  of  Teachers. 


The  Education  Bill  is  dead  and  gone.  We  confess  we 
had  considerable  hopes  of  a  settlement  when  a  compromise 
was  seriously  attempted  after  the  questions  at  issue  had 
been  thrashed  out  thoroughly  and  reduced  to  specific  and 
manageable  points.  We  do  not  think  that  the  failure  can 
be  laid  at  the  door  of  the  prominent  negotiators.  We  have 
no  doubt  whatever  that  both  sides  were  most  anxious  to 
arrive  at  an  accommodation.  But  the  facts  appear  to  have 
been  inadequately  realized,  and  the  lack  of  time  to  ascertain 
them  with  sufficient  clearness  to  establish  an  agreement  gave 
a  welcome  opportunit}"^  to  extremists  in  both  camps.  The 
sore  thus  remains  open  and  aggrav^ated.  Compromise  is 
essentially  unsatisfactory  to  both  parties  ;  but,  failing  com- 
promise, there  is  nothing  to  look  for  but  a  further  period 
of  bitter  struggle.  Yet,  if  the  teaching  of  religion  in  the 
schools  had  been  left  to  the  parents  and  the  teachers,  there 
can  be  little  doubt  that  it  would  have  gone  on  satisfactorily 
and  smoothly.  Dogma  seems  strangely  out  of  place  in  con- 
flict with  religion. 

The  Presidential  address  of  Mr.  A.  C.  Benson  to  the 
Teachers'  Guild,  published  in  full  in  the  December  number 
of  the  Teachers^  Ouild  Qiiarterlij,  is  well  worth  reading,  alike 
for  its  wisdom  and  for  the  excellent  literary  form  in  which 
that  wisdom  is  embodied.  The  subject  is  "  The  Personality 
of    the   Teacher."     Mr.  Benson  begins   by  dwelling  on  the 

Jan.  1,  1909.] 



importance  of  preserving  a  due  pi-oportion  between  the 
scientific  and  tlie  emotional  elements  in  the  teacher.  The 
early  appetite  for  knowledge  is  often,  he  reminds  us,  fitful, 
and  can  be  cultivated  only  by  a  certain  sympathetic  in- 
fluence. It  is  destroyed  by  a  bore,  and  cannot  be  stimulated 
by  even  an  enthusiast  without  a  certain  attractive  and  persua- 
sive power.  The  question  for  each  teacher  to  consider  is  how 
to  make  the  best  of  himself,  remembering  that  if  a  lesson  goes 
badly  the  fault  lies  with  himself  rather  than  with  his  class. 
First  comes  the  maintenance  of  physical  health  :  the  teacher 
should  conscientiously  observe  the  laws  of  health  in  matters 
of  food,  exercise,  and  the  like,  and  should  especially  "  obey 
the  dictates  of  honest  fatigue."  Next  the  intellectual  side  : 
he  should  never  become  stereotyped,  but  read  widely,  not 
so  much  on  the  lines  of  his  prescribed  studies  as  in  books 
which  he  enjoys  and  which  cultivate  the  intellectual  sense 
and  widen  the  horizon.  He  must  cultivate  his  imaginative 
faculty,  and,  above  all,  he  must  be  alive,  with  all  his  deep- 
seated  seriousness,  to  the  infectious  influence  of  gaiety. 
Method  he  must  have,  and  must  adhere  to  it,  and  at  the  same 
time  be  ready  to  change  it  if  it  fails  to  appeal  to  his  pupils. 
Lastly,  the  moral  or  ethical  region  of  self -development  is 
briefly  discussed.  The  ramifications  of  the  subject  are  in- 
finite ;  probably  the  safest  rule  is  that  the  teacher  should 
aim  sincerely  at  making  himself  what  he  desires  his  pupils 
to  be. 

cally  difficult,  requiring  exceptional  capacity  both  in  teacher 
and  in  pupil.     Still,  we  may  improve  on  previous  results. 

Tub  Board  of  Education  has  just  issued  a  Circular 
(No.  599)  on  the  Teaching  of  History  in  Secondary  Schools, 
and  along  with  it  a  Memorandum  "  in  explanation  and  ex- 
pansion "  of  it.  The  Circular  recommends  a  course  extend- 
ing over  at  least  three  years,  and,  if  possible,  four  ;  for  the 
course  is  to  include  English  history  from  the  earliest  times, 
with  such  reference  to  and  explanation  of  the  chief  events  of 
European  history  as  is  necessary  for  the  understanding  of  Eng- 
lish history,  and  with  special  attention  to  local  history.  The 
history  results  are  usually  not  very  satisfactory  ;  nor  is  this 
to  be  wondered  at  when  one  considers  the  quantity  as  well  as 
the  nature  of  the  matters  to  be  grasped  and  the  immaturity 
of  the  apparatus  that  is  expected  to  grasp  them.  The  Cir- 
cular, however,  "  also  recommends  that  a  large  liberty  should 
be  assumed  in  each  school  to  leave  out  freely  much  which  is 
now  included  in  the  ordinary  school  treatment."  Here,  at 
last,  is  sound  sense  ;  and  inspectois  must  attend  to  it  as  well 
as  teachers.  The  obvious  course  is  to  concentrate  on  the 
essential  points.  The  Circular  rules  out  "  special  periods," 
except  "  very  late  in  the  school  course :  they  are  really 
more  suited  for  University  work "  ;  while  acknowledging 
certain  advantages  in  the  "  concentric  system,"  it  finds  "  fatal 
objections  in  practice  "  ;  and  it  argues  against  the  plan  of 
working  back  from  the  present  into  the  past.  The  scheme 
is,  on  the  whole,  a  very  good  working  arrangement,  pro- 
vided it  is  carried  out  in  the  large  and  free  spirit  that 
appears  to  animate  it.  "  The  practical  difliculty  that  we 
have  to  meet  is  examinations."  That,  again,  depends  upon 
getting  sensible  examiners.  The  scheme  has  evidently  been 
well  thought  out,  and  abundant  illustrations  are  given  by 
way  of  example  and  ai'gument.  But  when  teacher  and  pupil 
have  done  their  honest  best,  we  shall  not  expect  more  than 
moderately  satisfactory  results  ;  for  the  subject  is  intrinsi- 

The  Army  Qualifying  Board  had  some  326  candidates 
before  them  in  September,  and  passed  only  113  of  them — say 
one  in  three.  On  the  face  of  it,  there  is  nothing  very  remark- 
able in  the  proportion  of  passes  and  failures  ;  but  there  is 
significance  in  the  details  of  the  report.  The  English  essays 
might  have  been  expected  to  be,  as  they  are  described, 
"  mediocre " ;  and  some  allowance  may  be  made  even  for 
"  the  most  grotesque  mistakes  both  in  orthography  and  in 
punctuation,"  but  marks  ought  not  to  have  been  lost  "  by 
pure  carelessness  and  inattention."  Precis-writing  is  a  test- 
ing exercise.  "In  most  cases  it  was  unequivocally  bad" : 
not  only  had  the  candidates  "  little  idea  of  the  purposes 
served  by  precis-writing,"  not  only  was  their  writing 
"  slovenly  "  &c.,  bat  there  was  "  recklessness  in  misstatement 
and  an  apparent  inability  of  the  writers  to  read  a  simple 
narration  with  any  degree  of  care  and  intelligence."  "  Much 
of  the  arithmetic  work  was  very  unsatisfactory "  ;  "  the 
results  of  the  examination  in  geometry  were  very  poor 
indeed."  The  chemistry  was  "  distinctly  poor."  An  un- 
duly large  proportion  of  the  candidates  "  knew  practically 
nothing  of  geography."  "  A  lamentable  ignorance  of  sound 
elementary  knowledge  of  French  was  shown  "  ;  and  "  of  the 
ten  candidates  offering  German  not  one  was  really  good, 
and  some  were  very  bad."  How  of  Latin  and  Greek  ? 
"  Only  a  small  proportion  of  the  candidates  in  Latin  are  safe 
from  making  blunders  of  the  most  elementary  description." 
Only  a  single  candidate  offered  Greek,  and  his  achievement 
was  to  "  send  up  half-a-dozen  words  of  no  value."  After 
this  disastrous  catalogue,  it  is  some  relief  to  learn  that 
"  Algebra  was  good,  and  history  was  better  than  it  has 
sometimes  been."  But  one  would  like  to  know  something 
of  the  educational  history  of  these  astonishing  candidates. 
Surely  it  is  only  an  elaborate  and  ingenious  course  of  train- 
ing that  could  have  led  to  such  egregious  results.  If  young 
men  of  such  calibre  be  set  to  command  even  a  corporal's 
guard  in  these  days  of  scientific  warfare,  we  may  well  pray 
earnestly  for  peace  in  our  (and  their)  time. 

Among  the  many  celebrations  of  Milton,  the  first  place  is 
due  to  the  memorial  reverence  done  him  at  Cambridge, 
which  is  duly  chronicled  in  the  "  Milton  Tercentenary 
Number "  of  Christ's  College  Magazine.  Fortunately  a 
"  commodious  lie "  of  a  virulent  disputant  furnished  the 
poet  with  "  an  apt  occasion  to  acknowledge  publicly  with 
all  grateful  mind  that  more  than  ordinary  favour  and 
respect  which  I  found  above  any  of  my  equals  at  the  hands 
of  those  courteous  and  learned  men  the  Fellows  of  that 
College  wherein  I  spent  some  years,  who  at  my  parting, 
after  I  had  taken  two  degi'ees,  as  the  manner  is,  signified 
many  ways  how  much  better  it  would  content  them  that  I 
would  stay,  as  by  many  letters  full  of  kindness  and  loving 
respect,  both  before  that  time  and  long  after,  I  was  assured 
of  their  singular  good  affection  towards  me."  "  Not  only 
Christ's,  but  Cambridge  itself,  and  the  studies  for  which  Cam- 
bridge was  even  then  becoming  famous,"  said  Prof.  Mackail, 
"  gave  a  specific  direction  to  his  genius  and  left  an  indelible 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 

impress  on  his  poetry."  It  was  right,  therefore,  that  Christ's 
and  Cambridge  should  do  special  reverence  to  the  memory 
of  Milton,  and  hail  him  as  the  greatest  ornament  of  the 
College  and  the  foremost  "  on  the  dazzling  roll  of  poets 
whom^  Cambridge  claims  as  her  sons." 


The  London  County  Council  have  agreed,  with  reference  to 
teachers'  pensions,  "  that  the  principle  of  such  a  complementary 
scheme  of  superannuation  as  will  provide  that  the  retiring  al- 
lowance receivable  by  a  certiticated  teacher  in  a  London  pviblic 
elementary  school,  together  with  the  benefits  receivable  by  him 
or  her  under  the  Elementary  School  Teachers  (Superannuation) 
Act,  1898,  shall,  so  far  as  possible  in  all  the  circumstances,  be  the 
same  as  those  to  which  officers  of  the  Council  of  equal  service 
and  similar  average  salary  are  entitled." 

The  Herts  County  Council  are  spending  some  £8,000  on  the 
erection  of  a  new  elementary  school  for  Letchworth  (Garden 
City),  with  features  diverging  from  the  ordinary  type  of  elemen- 
tary school.  All  the  classrooms  surround  an  open  quadrangle, 
on  two  sides  of  which  there  is  a  series  of  cloisters  for  shelter. 
Thus,  every  classroom  will  be  in  direct  communication  with  the 
open  air  to  a  degree  which  is  impossible  in  the  ordinary  school 
where  the  classrooms  cluster  round  a  central  hall.  Moreover, 
each  classroom  has  been  limited  to  400  square  feet  of  floor  area, 
which  gives  forty  as  the  maximum  number  of  children.  It  is 
hoped,  however,  that  not  more  than  thirty-two  children  will  be 
taught  iu  each  classroom ;  and  this  reduction  in  the  number  of 
children  to  each  teacher  will  be  no  inconsiderable  gain  educa- 

The  Westminster  School  play  this  year  opened  with  words  of 
welcome  to  Princess  Henry  of  Battenberg,  who  was  present,  and 
a  merry  quip  on  women's  suffrage.  The  play  selected  was  the 
"  Andria  "  of  Terence,  a  standard  classic  at  Westminster.  The 
familiar  story  was  well  told  in  excellently  spoken  Latin.  The 
principal  parts  were  worthily  filled.  Simo  the  determined 
father,  Pamphilus  the  wayward  son,  and  Davus  his  faithful 
servant  acted  and  spoke  well ;  and  Messrs.  I.  L.  Benvenisti, 
G.  G.  Williams,  and  R.  M.  Barrington-Ward  (the  captain  of  the 
school)  are  to  be  congr.itulated  on  their  histrionic  powers.  The 
play  was,  as  usual,  followed  by  an  amusing  epilogue,  also  in 
Latin,  comprising  the  same  cast,  and  consisting  of  a  series  of 
skits  on  present  topics,  including,  of  course,  the  Suffragette 
question,  the  Franco-British  Exhibition,  and  the  Marathon  race. 

The  Head  Masters'  Conference  was  held  (December  22  and  23) 
at  Merchant  Taylors'  School,  under  the  presidency  of  Dr. 
Arbuthuot  Nairn.  Over  a  hundred  head  masters  attended. 
The  Rev.  Dr.  Gow  (Westminster)  moved  :  "  That,  in  the  forma- 
tion of  a  Registration  Council  under  the  Education  (Administra- 
tive Provisions)  Act  of  1907,  representatives  of  the  teaching 
profession  should  be  chosen  with  reference  to  the  types  and 
grades  of  existing  schools,  and  not  with  reference  to  the  several 
faculties  of  teachers,  and  that  this  conference  trusts  the  Board 
of  Education  will  take  steps  to  facilitate  the  constitution  of  such 
a  Council  without  delay."  Canon  R.  D.  Swallow  (Chigwell) 
seconded,  and  the  motion  was  carried.  Dr.  Gray  (Bradfield) 
moved  :  "  That  this  Conference,  while  anxious  for  the  preserva- 
tion of  a  variety  of  types  in  the  secondary  schools  of  this 
country,  recognizes  the  value  of  securing  a  more  complete  co- 
ordination of  the  educational  system,  and  with  this  end  iu  view 
would  welcome  a  closer  touch  between  the  Board  of  Education 
and  the  authorities  of  the  non-local  schools,  through  inspection 
and  other  direct  meaus  of  communication."  He  hoped  that  the 
non-local  schools  and  the  Board  of  Education  would  join  hands 
in  proposing  a  scheme  which  would  be  pressed  upon  the  Uni- 
versities. So  long  as  Oxford  and  Cambridge  insisted  on  the 
retention  of  two  dead  languages  as  a  nine  qua  non  for  entrance 
into  their  courts,  so  long  would  educational  progress  be  cramped, 
encased,  and  crushed.  The  Rev.  A.  A.  David  (Clifton)  seconded, 
and  Dr.  A.  E.  Hillard  (St.  Paul's  School),  opposing,  said  that 

On  the  second  day  of  the  Conference,  Dr.  Upcott  (Christ's 
Hospital)  moved  a  resolution  to  the  effect  that  the  Conference, 
while  withholding  its  assent  to  many  details,  and  in  particular 
to  the  proposal  to  postpone  the  study  of  Latin  to  the  age  of 
twelve,  approved  of  the  main  conclusions  of  the  Report  of  the 
Committee  of  the  British  Association,  Education  Section.  This 
was  carried.  A  motion  that  the  Army  Council  be  urged  at  once 
to  make  it  a  rule  that  recognized  schools  may  send  in  candidates 
for  any  examination  recognized  by  the  Council  was  referred  to 
the  Committee.  Mr.  R.  C.  Gilson  (Birmingham)  submitted  a 
resolution  in  three  parts.  The  first  laid  it  down  that,  in  the 
opinion  of  the  Conference,  the  average  boy  could  not  undertake 
the  study  of  two  languages  besides  English  before  attaining  the 
age  of  fourteen  without  detriment  to  his  general  education. 
Tlie  second  part  declared  it  desirable  that  no  candidate  of  the 
ordinary  age  for  admission  should  be  allowed  to  ofEer  more  than 
two  foreign  languages  in  the  Entrance  and  Entrance  Scholar- 
ships Examinations  of  the  public  schools,  aud  that,  provided 
Latin  was  taken,  Greek,  French,  and  German  should  be  alterna- 
tives carrying  equal  weight.  The  third  part  stated  that,  as 
experience  showed  it  to  be  possible  for  a  boy  to  attain  a  'nigh 
standard  of  Greek  scholarship  by  the  age  of  eighteen  or  nineteen, 
even  though  he  might  not  have  begun  Greek  till  fourteen  or  even 
later,  it  was  the  duty  of  public  schools  to  provide  a  class  or 
classes  in  which  the  study  of  that  language  could  be  begun. 
The  Head  Master  of  Eton  moved  as  a  rider  that  a  Committee  be 
appointed  to  confer  with  the  preparatory-school  masters  as  to  a 
scheme  of  studies  for  schoolboys  from  the  age  of  nine  to  about 
sixteen,  and  to  draw  up  a  report.  It  was  time  head  masters 
showed  the  country  that  they  had  made  up  their  minds  as  to 
what  the  curriculum  in  the  schools  should  be.  An  amendment 
by  Mr.  W.  G.  Rushbrooke  (St.  Olave's)  to  substitute  thirteen 
years  as  the  age  instead  of  fourteen  in  the  first  clause  of  the 
resolution  was  adopted.  The  second  clause  was  defeated  a,nd 
the  third  carried.  The  rider  was  also  agreed  to.  On  the  motion 
of  the  Rev.  W.  C.  Compton  (Dover),  seconded  by  the  Rev.  T.  N.  H. 
Smith-Pearse  (Epsom),  the  Conference  adopted  a  resolution 
stating  that  the  standard  of  the  School  Certificate  Examination 
conducted  by  the  Oxford  and  Cambridge  Joint  Board  was  too 
high  for  the  purpose  for  which  it  was  intended,  and  instructing 
the  Committee  to  approach  the  Board  ou  the  subject.  Mr. 
W.  W.  Vaughan  (Giggleswick)  asked  the  Conference  to  view 
with  regret  the  apparently  increasing  neglect  of  the  study  of 
German  in  secondary  schools.  A  resolution  to  that  effect  was 
carried,  only  five  dissenting. 

The  Chelsea  Secondary  School  for  Girls  was  formally  opened 
on  November  20.  The  school  was  originally  part  of  the  South- 
western Polytechnic,  and  the  transfer  was  effected  in  September 
last.  The  new  buildings  are  situated  in  Horteusia  Road,  and 
represent  the  first  school  building  expressly  designed  and 
erected  by  the  London  County  Council  for  the  secondary  educa- 
tion of  girls.  The  aim  of  the  new  school  is  to  provide  a  liberal 
education  for  girls  up  to  the  age  of  eighteen  or  nineteen  years. 
The  claims  of  science  to  a  prominent  place  in  the  school  curri- 
culum have  been  duly  recognized,  and  ample  accommodation  has 
been  provided  for  the  practical  study  of  chemistry,  physics, 
and  botany.  The  home  arts  are  to  be  taught,  and  suitable  rooms 
have  been  arranged  for  this  purpose,  as  well  as  for  practical 
work  in  geography. 

A  cosrEKENCE  of  teachers  and  others  interested  in  education 
was  held  at  the  University  of  Birmingham  (December  5),  a 
number  of  urban  and  rural  districts  throughout  the  Midlands 
being  represented.  Mr.  J.  W.  Willis  Bund,  Chairman  of  the 
Worcestershire  Education  Committee,  presided  at  the  morning 
session.  A  discussion  took  place  on  "  Evening  Schools,"  Mr. 
W.  A.  Brockington,  Director  of  Education  for  the  County  of 
Leicester,  reading  a  paper  on  "  Compulsory  Evening  Schools,"  and 
Ml-.  J.  Penrice.  Meriden,  dealing  specially  with  rural  evening 
schools.  Mr.  Willis  Bund  emphasized  the  difficulty  entailed  by 
having  two  education  rates  and  so  many  controlling  authorities. 
He  would  like  to  see  the  county  the  authority  for  education  all 
over  the  educational  area.  He  was  also  in  favour  of  the  raising 
of  the  school  age  at  elementary  schools  from  fourteen  to  sixteen, 
and,  if  possible,  "  beneficial  employment "  abolished.  Prof. 
Muirhead  contended  that  the  most  practical  line  of  advance  was 

age  as  the  development 

.__  ,_  ,.    ji         „.  not  so  much  the  raising  of  the  leavin^ 

the  Inspectors  of  the  Board  of  Education  were  not  Suitable  for  of  the  continuation  schools.  At  the  afternoon  session,  over  which 
the  work  of  inspection  of  public  schools.  Eventually  the  "  pre-  j  Prof.  Hughes  presided,  a  paper  was  read  by  Mr.  W.  J.  Morgan, 
vious  question  "  was  carried.  |  President  of  the  Birmingham  Trades  Council,  on  "  Maintenance 

Jan.  1,  1909-1 



Scholarships  from  Elementary  Schools."  He  urged  that  the 
children  of  the  working  man  had  to  be  sacrificed  to  the  necessity 
of  keeping  a  home  together,  the  financial  difficulty  of  giving 
promising  scholars  the  advantages  of  higher  education  being 
often  insurmountable  at  present. 

The  report  on  the  Bradford  Technical  College  for  the  session 
1907-8  shows  that  the  total  number  of  students  in  attendance 
during  the  session  was  virtually  the  same  as  in  the  previous 
year,  but  there  was  a  fall  in  the  number  of  day  students  from 
242  to  217.  The  average  age  of  these  students  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  session  was  nineteen  years,  as  compared  with  eigh- 
teen years  five  months  at  the  corresponding  period  of  1906.  A 
new  scholarship  scheme,  adopted  during  the  session,  provides 
opportunity  for  the  transference  of  evening  students  of  excep- 
tional ability  to  the  day  courses,  and  oifers  special  scholarships 
for  apprentices  in  works.  In  order  to  carry  the  specialized 
ti-aining  to  as  high  a  point  as  practicable,  a  number  of  fourth- 
year  scholarships  are  offered  to  day  students  who  have  completed 
their  three  years'  course,  and,  as  a  recognition  of  the  necessity 
for  securing  the  best  brains  and  the  highest  possible  preliminary 
training,  a  certain  number  of  entrance  scholarships  are  awarded 
on  merit  alone.  The  scheme  affords  evidence  of  the  desire  that 
all  sections  of  the  community  should  have  equal  facilities,  as 
they  have  an  equal  claim  to  the  advantages  of  the  college  train- 
ing. The  scheme  for  building  a  new  block  for  the  accommoda- 
tion of  the  department  of  textile  industries  on  an  adjoining  site, 
already  purchased,  has  taken  definite  shape;  detailed  plans  are 
being  prepared  and  building  is  to  be  begun  shortly.  The  staff 
of  the  department  of  chemistry  and  dyeing  has  been  strength- 
ened with  a  view  to  the  encouragement  of  research  work  in  the 
college.  The  testing  laboratory  of  the  department  of  textile 
industries  has  been  employed  to  a  much  greater  extent  than 
previously  in  carrying  out  investigations  for  the  trade.  It  is 
pleasing  to  note  tliat  the  advantages  offered  to  manufacturers 
and  others  are  being  more  fully  realized. 

A  MEETING  of  the  Scottish  Modern  Languages  Association  was 
held  in  the  University  of  Edinburgh  (November  28),  Miss  Robson, 
Edinburgh,  presiding.  Miss  Elizabeth  Fish,  Glasgow,  was 
appointed  President  for  the  ensuing  year,  and  Dr.  T.  Pettigrew 
Young,  of  the  University  College,  Dundee,  Vice-President.  Dr. 
Schlapp,  Edinburgh,  submitted  a  report  on  a  memorandum  pre- 
pared by  the  Association  dealing  with  the  different  aspects  in 
the  teaching  of  modern  languages.  He  said  everybody  was 
aware  of  the  alarminu-  condition  of  the  subject  of  German  in  the 
schools  of  this  country.  The  Committee  suggested  a  change  in 
the  conditions  of  the  present  intermediate  certificates,  and  he 
understood  the  Education  Department  were  inclined  to  give 
greater  facilities  for  modern  languages.  On  the  motion  of  Dr. 
Schlapp,  it  was  agreed  to  petition  the  Universities  to  reform  as 
soon  as  possible  the  bursary  examination,  so  as  to  give  equal 
chances  to  candidates  in  modern  languages  with  candidates  in 
all  other  subjects  ;  and  to  reorganize  the  honours  class  in  modern 
honours  language  so  as  to  allow  of  honours  being  taken  separ- 
ately in  French  and  German.  Mr.  J.  D.  Rose,  Kirkcaldy  High 
School,  moved  a  resolution  to  the  effect  that,  while  welcoming 
the  prospect  that  the  leaving  certificate  might  become  the 
normal  mode  of  entrance  to  the  University,  it  was  highly  impor- 
tant that  the  University  preliminary  examination  should  be 
maintained,  in  addition  to  the  leaving  certificate  examination,  so 
that  those  prevented  in  any  way  from  obtaining  the  leaving 
certificate  might  not  be  shut  out  from  higher  careers  for  which 
they  miglit  have  qualified  themselves  in  otlier  ways.  The 
motion  was  unanimously  agreed  to.  Dr.  Pettigrew  Young  after- 
wards read  a  paper  on  "  The  Teaching  of  French  in  Scotland 
before  the  Nineteenth  Century." 


There  are  'iOi  students  on  the  books  of  the  Asso- 
Oxford.  ciation  for  the  Education  of  Women,  and  290  of 
these  are  in  residence.  The  corresponding  figures 
of  last  year  are  271  and  259,  and  this  year's  numbers  are  a 
record.  The  quality  is  equally  well  maintained;  51  students 
obtained  honours,  7  in  the  first  and  24  in  the  second  class;  and 
in  the  examination  for  the  Diploma  in  Anthropology,  held  in 
1908  for  the  first  time,  the  only  candidate  who  obtained  distinc- 
tion was  a  woman  student. 

Early  next  term  the  University  will  be  asked  to  make  a  very 

important  change  in  its  own  constitution  by  meeting  a  reform  of 
Congregation.  That  body  consists  at  present  of  all  resident 
members  of  Convocation  and  of  certain  University  officials.  A 
resolution  will  be  submitted  to  Congregation  on  January  26  in 
the  following  terms  :  "  That  it  is  desirable  that  Congregation 
should  be  limited  to  members  of  Convocation  who  hold,  or  have 
held.  University  or  College  appointments,  or  are  directly  con- 
cerned with  the  studies,  teaching,  or  administration  of  the  Uni- 
versity." The  resolution  has  the  support  of  over  120  members 
of  Congregation,  but  it  is  already  evoking  a  considerable  amount 
of  opposition.  

(From  our  own  Correspondent.) 
HiSTORV  has  not  been  made  this  term,  but  this 
Cambridge.  is  no  cause  for  grumbling.  Good  solid  work  has 
been  done  in  all  departments,  and  our  best  men 
have  not  been  called  away  from  the  things  they  know  to  take 
part  in  controversies  which  are  as  unsettling  as  they  are  un- 
profitable. The  long  deferred  report  on  the  General  Examina- 
tion will  probably  make  its  appearance  next  term.  Here  is  an 
examination  confessedly  producing  good  results,  free  from  most 
of  the  evils  innate  in  examinations  as  a  class,  conducted  by  men 
of  experience  and  tact,  who  know  the  difficulties  and  dangers  of 
examination  divorced  from  teaching ;  and  yet  this  is  the  object 
of  the  reformers'  attack.  Some  years  ago,  as  a  result  of  a  con- 
sensus of  the  leading  lights  in  Cambridge,  essay  writing  was 
introduced  as  a  subject  into  all  our  examinations,  including  the 
General,  but  not  a  thing  have  the  College  authorities  done  to- 
wards providing  adequate  teaching.  What  is  the  result  ?  The 
examiners  in  most  examinations  have  to  adapt  themselves  to  the 
capabilities  of  the  candidates. 

The  appointment  of  the  Rev.  J.  P.  Whitney  to  the  Chair  of 
Ecclesiastical  History  at  King's  College  is  a  well  deserved 
honour  paid  to  a  distinguished  teacher.  Mr.  Whitney  is,  above 
all  things,  a  man  of  wide  and  liberal  ideas.  In  history,  law,  and 
theology  alike  he  has  made  his  mark,  and  he  possesses  that 
peculiar  faculty,  possessed  in  such  perfection  by  the  late  Sir 
Henry  Maine,  of  being  able  to  focus  upon  the  point  argued  the 
light  derived  from  sources  far  apart.  Fortunately  for  Caml^ridge, 
Mr.  Whitney  means  to  live  among  us.  A  Cambridge  pi-ofessor- 
ship  and  an  English  bishopric  will  probably  follow  in  due  course. 

Just  after  these  notes  were  written  for  your  last  issue,  Cam- 
bridge received  a  visit  from  a  party  of  German  officials  connected 
with  the  profession  of  the  law.  The  excursion  was  avowedly 
educational,  but  in  Cambridge  it  is  possible  that  our  visitors  gave 
moi-e  than  they  received  in  the  way  of  education.  Through  the 
hospitality  of  Dr.  Breul  a  few  representative  Cambridge  men 
were  privileged  to  meet  the  foreign  visitors,  and  the  most  charm- 
ing speeches  were  made,  notably  one  by  Dr.  Ward,  Master  of 
Peterhotise,  the  purity  of  whose  diction  made  the  German  guests 
believe  him  to  be  one  of  their  own  nation. 

The  football  match,  on  December  12,  turned  out  much  in 
accordance  with  the  predictions  made  in  these  notes  last  month. 
Cambridge  had  the  best  of  the  game  for  more  than  three-quarters 
of  the  time,  and  were  unlucky  not  to  win  outright  one  of  the 
most  remarkable  games  of  the  past  few  years.  There  was  a 
curious  unanimity  on  the  part  of  the  London  press  six  weeks 
before  the  match  that  Oxford  couldn't  lose,  and,  a  week  before, 
that  they  ought  not  to  do  so.     But  they  nearly  did. 

We  ought  to  have  a  good  crew  for  Putney  this  year.  The 
trials  have  disclosed  an  abundance  of  new  talent.  Shortly  after 
these  notes  see  the  light  the  President  will  be  starting  practice 
with  a  crew  which  will  probably  contain  the  following  or  most 
of  them  :-^Arbuthnot  (stroke),  Hornidge,  Rosher,  Perry,  Thomson, 
Fairbairn,  Williams,  and  Richardson.  Thiart  will  come  in  at 
seven  or  bow,  according  to  the  needs  of  the  crew. 

One  of  the  usual  disorderly  "  rags  "  after  a  big  dinner  has  led 
to  an  undergraduate's  being  summoned  for  doing  wilful  damage 
to  the  amount  of  more  than  £5,  and  this  between  the  hours  of 
9  p.m.  and  6  a.m.  There  were  two  other  charges  of  doing  dam- 
age of  a  less  amount  which  the  magistrates  dealt  with  severely ; 
but,  as  they  could  not  deal  summarily  with  the  third  charge, 
they  committed  the  defendant  for  trial  at  the  Sessions  on  this, 
although  practically  all  were  one  continuous  transaction.  This 
will  be  a  lesson  to  undergraduates,  for  Recorders  and  Judges  of 
the  High  Court  are  not  always  so  lenient  as  a  Borough  Bench. 
What  we  really  want  is  a  stipendiary  for  Cambridge.  Local 
shopkeepers  are,  no  doubt,  excellent  men  in  their  way  ;  but  there 
seems  to  be  no  reason  why  other  qualified  men  should  be  ex- 
cluded from  the  Bench  because  they  take  no  part  in  local,  as 
opposed  to  Imperial,  politics. 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 

The  death  of  Mrs.  J.  W.  Clark  will  cause  an- immense  amount 
of  sympathy  for  the  bereaved  family,  more  especially  for  its 
venerable  head.  "  J,"  as  he  is  invariably  called  by  all  "  the  boys, 
to  whom  lie  is  such  a  trusty  friend,  will  have  some  little  consola- 
tion in  knowing  how  many  there  are  who  feel  for  him  in  his 

The  poll  examination  lists  are  now  coming  out.  There  seems 
a  tendency  to  strictness  on  the  part  of  the  e.xaminers,  but,  as  long 
as  this  is  accompanied  by  good  examining,  nobody  objects.  The 
Engineering  Special  is  growing  and  will  grow  ;  the  M.B.  seems 
to  have  reached  its  .stage  of  maximum  development  for  a  time. 
In  a  year  or  two  it  will  possibly  make  fresh  developments. 

The  thirty-fifth  annual  report  of  the  Local  Lectures  Syndicate 
contains  a  recommendation  from  Mr.  Cranage,  the  secretary,  that 
the  summer  meeting,  which  is  held  biennially  at  Cambridge, 
should  be  removed  to  the  north  of  England,  where  many  of  the 
strongest  Cambridge  centres  are  located.  It  is  regarded  as  a 
disquieting  feature  that  the  summer  meeting  at  the  University 
is  supported  chiefly  by  students  connected  with  other  University 
Local  Lectures— Oxford  and  London  particularly — and  does  not 
attract  the  Cambridge  Local  Lectures  students  in  the  proportion 
held  to  be  desirable.  Mr.  Cranage  says  it  is  extremely  difficult 
for  many  of  the  students  engaged  in  the  ordinary  occupations  of 
life  to  spare  the  time  and  the  money  to  come  to  Cambridge,  and 
he  suggests  that  tlie  summer  meeting  should  become  peripatetic. 

Negotiations  have  been  in  progress  for  some  time 
Londou.  between  the  authorities  of  the  University  of  London 
and  the  University  of  Paris  with  regard  to  a  proposed 
interchange  of  students,  or,  in  other  words,  the  institution  of  a 
system  whereby  students  of  the  one  University  should  be  allowed 
to  spend  a  certain  time  at  the  other,  such  period  being  officially 
recognized  as  part  of  the  course  for  a  degree.  The  constitution 
of  the  University  of  London  did  not,  however,  permit  of  its 
accenting  any  part  of  a  course  of  stud}-  not  pursued  in  one  of  the 
ways  mentioned  in  the  definition  of  an  "internal  student,"  and, 
in  order  to  carry  out  the  arrangement,  the  statutes  of  the  Uni- 
versity have  had  to  be  altered.  The  Senate,  having  previously 
submitted  a  draft  of  the  new  statute  to  Convocation,  have  now 
adopted  it,  with  this  proviso  :  "  A  course  of  study,  extending  over 
not  more  than  one  year,  taken  in  another  University  approved 
for  this  purpose,  subsequent  to  the  passing  of  the  Intermediate 
Examination,  may  be  accepted  in  lieu  of  an  approved  course  of 
study  taken  in  this  University."  This  new  statute  has  been  laid, 
as  is  required,  on  the  tables  of  both  Houses  of  Parliament. 
Under  this  new  power  the  University  of  London  will  be  able  to 
approve  the  University  of  Paris,  and  send  its  students  to  study 
there  for  one  year  out  of  the  three  required  for  the  bachelor's 
degree,  provided  that  it  is  not  the  first  of  those  three  years. 
Therfi  is  no  constitutional  difficult}'  on  the  part  of  the  University 
of  Paris,  such  as  there  was  here,  and  it  is  within  the  power 
of  that  University  to  reciprocate.  During  the  negotiations  it 
was  considered  whether  professors,  as  well  as  students,  might  be 
interchanged,  but  the  practical  difficulties  were  insurmountable. 

The  Senate  unanimously  adopted  the  following  resolution 
(December  2) : — 

That,  haviuar  regard  to  the  desirability  of  securing  iucorporation  of 
the  Imperial  College  of  Science  and  Technology  with  the  University,  as 
rocoinmended  by  the  Departmental  Committee  and  contemplated  by  the 
Charter  of  the  Imperial  College,  the  Government  be  requested  to 
appoint  a  Royal  Commis.^^ion  for  the  purpose  with  a  view  to  the  intro- 
duction of  a  public  BQl,  and  that  the  Senate  reafSrms  its  wilUngness  to 
increase  its  numbers,  and  will  take  steps  to  secure  such  powers  of  dele- 
gation to  its  Councils  and  to  any  Committees  it  may  appoint  as  shall 
appear  expedient. 

The  Keport  of  the  Council  of  King's  College  alluded  to  the 
steady  advance  of  the  College  in  every  Department  and  the  im- 
provement in  the  numbers  of  the  regular  students.  In  particular, 
the  Faculty  of  Theology  showed  a  large  increase,  and  the  system 
of  training  had  been  made  more  satisfactory.  During  the  past 
session  the  King's  College  Incorporation  Act  had  been  passed, 
receiving  the  Royal  Assent  on  August  1.  The  Commissioners  ap- 
pointed under  the  Act,  with  Sir  James  Stirling  as  chairman,  had 
begun  to  sit,  and  the  statutes  were  being  drafted.  The  earliest 
day  on  which  Incorporation  could  take  place  was  Sefitem- 
ber  1,  1909.  The  policy  of  incorporation  and  reorganization 
which  would  thus  be  carried  out  would  help  in  the  building  up 
of  a  teaching  University  for  London  out  of  existing  institutions, 
and  would  strengthen  the  portions  of  the  College  not  incorpo- 
rated, and  especially  the  School  of  Theology. 

During  the  session  19(~8  twenty-nine  students  submitted 
essays  for  the  Universit  Kxtension  Sessional  Certific'ate  in 
Honours.  Of  fifteen,  ere  approved  for  the  Honours  Cer- 
tificate, and  eight  were  "  twimended." 

A  ruTiTic  has  been  presented  to  His  Majesty 
Bristol.  the  King  I-  Bristol  University  College,  asking 

for  the  estalishmeiit  of  a  University  in  that  city. 
It  has  been  i-eferred  to  ic  Privy  Council  for  consideration. 
It  states  that  there  has  leen  a  strong  and  growing  feeling 
for  some  time  in  Bristol  ad  the  surrounding  districts  that  it 
would  be  of  great  advamge  to  the  inhabitants  if  such  a  Uni- 
versity were  established,  t'ith  a  view  to  providing  the  financial 
support  which  would  be  ri-uired  for  developing  and  adding  to 
the  teaching  equipment  o!  he  College  in  such  a  way  as  to  meet 
the  requirements  of  an  indfrMident  University,  donations  amount- 
ing to  £172,000  have  alreav  been  received  or  promised,  includ- 
ing £100,000  promised  by  ^r.  Henry  Overton  Wills,  of  Kelston 
Knoll,  Weston.  The  pixent  endowment  of  the  College  is 
£57,316  ;  the  income  last  ear  was  £13,860,  and  there  are  at 
present  nearly  five  liundid  registered  students,  whilst  it  is 
stated  that  there  is  every  lason  to  believe  that,  if  a  University 
were  established,  the  addional  interest  created,  the  facilities 
afforded,  and  the  prestig<  conferred  thereby  would  lead  to  a 
substantial  increase  in  thes  numbers. 

The  draft  charter  of  inofporation  of  the  University  of  Bristol 
has  been  issued.  The  folloing  are  to  be  the  first  chief  officers  of 
the  new  University : — Ohacellor,  Mr.  H.  O.  Wills  :  pro-Chan- 
cellors, the  Bishop  of  Heiwrd,  the  Right  Hon.  Lewis  Fry,  and 
the  Right  Hull.  Henry  Jnbhouse ;  Vice-Chancellor,  Prof.  C 
Lloyd  Morgan,  P.R.S. ;  au'Treasurer,  Mr.  G.  A.  Wills.  Women 
are  to  be  eligible  for  any  oce  in  the  University  and  for  mem- 
bership of  any  of  its  con.ituent  bodies,  and  all  degrees  and 
courses  of  study  in  the  Uii'ersity  are  to  be  open  to  them.  It 
has  been  announced  that  tS  authorities  of  the  Bristol  University 
College  have  purchased  U  blind  asylum  and  its  land  which 
adjoin  University  College.  The  site  thus  secured  will  be  used 
for  the  erection  of  part  of  le  new  University. 


Cambeddoe  University. — Onis  Greek  Testatment  Prizes : — Bachelors  : 
F.  S.  Marsh,  B.A.,  Selwyn.  Undergraduates:  R.  H.  Willey,  B.A., 
Gains.  George  Williams  Prii  for  Theology:  C.  E.  Raven,  B.A., 
Caius.  Whewell  Seholarshiir  il)  A.  E.  Brown,  B.A.,  St.  John's; 
^2)  N.  G.  Scorgie,  B.A.,  LL.J.  Sidney  Sussex. 

Christ's. — Scholarships  :  L.r.  Jacob,  Clifton,  £80  for  Mathematics; 
J.  C.  Butterwick,  Malvern,  £t:for  Classics;  A.  F.  R.  Lumby,  Ruo-by, 
£60  for  Classics  ;  G.  D.  Roseny,  Merchant  Taylors',  Londou,  £60  for 
Natural  Science  ;  O.  H.  Groyi  Sutton  Coldfield,  £40  for  Mathematics  ; 
F.  C.  Walker,  WolverhamptoiVrrammar  School,  £40  for  Classics  ;  and 
R.  G.  Martin,  Hackney  Dfjna  School,  £40  for  Natural  Science 
Exhibitions  :  A.  G.  F.  Olave's,  £30  for  Mathematics  ;  A.  C. 
Blyth,  Aldenham,  £30  for  OssicB  ;  and  H.  M.  Sale,  Aldenham,  £30 
for  Mathematics  and  Natuiv  Science.  Walter  Wren  Prize :  C.  F. 
Wood,  B.A.,  late  Scholar  of  ti  College. 

<:l<,re.—'Dv.  T.  R.  Elliott,  la-  Scholar  of  Trinity,  has  been  elected  to 
a  Fellowship  (Natural  Sciemi,  Scholarships: — Classics:  £80,  J.  J. 
Wiles,  Perse  School ;  £.50  (aii  an  Archdeacon  Johnson's  Exhibition), 
I.  H.  Taunton.  Uppingham  £40,  P.  R.  Frost,  Charterhouse,  and 
H.  L.  Gar.son,  Malvern.  M:hematics  :  £60,  M.  Segal,  St.  Paul's; 
£50,  D.  J.  Watson,  High  'Wcombe  Grammar  School ;  £40,  A.  3. 
Wright,  Dulwich.  Science :  tfiO,  A.  L.  Bacarach.  St.  Paul't.,  and 
R.  W.  P.  Jackson,  Oundle;£40  (Science  and  Mathematics),  H.  H. 
Stevens,  Liverpool  College. 

Corpui  CVijun.— Mathematid  Scholarship:  C.  J.  A.  Buckell,  Marl- 
borough. Mathematical  Exhiiltion:  F.  S.  Thomas,  H.averford  West 
Grammar  School. 

i'mwaHKc/.- Scholarships:  X  W.  WaUaee,  Fettes,  £80  (Classics); 
R.  H  W.  Moline,  King's  .Siool,  Canterbury,  £60  (Mathematics) : 
F.  Williamson,  Bedford  Model  School,  £60  (Natural  Science  ;  W.  P. 
Bennett,  Cheltenham.  £60  (Hi£-ryi  ;  W.  C.  S.  Wigley,  King  Edward's^ 
Birmingham,  £40  (Mathemati.) ;  K.  H.  Coxe,  Eastbourne  College, 
£40  (Classics);  W.  A.  Nowe.  Stamford  School,  £40  i Classics);  and 
J.  H.  Burn,  North-Eastern  County  School,  Barnard  Castle,'  £40 
Natural  Science).  Exhibitins :  H.  D.  Henderson,  Rugby,  £30 
(Mathematics)  ;  H.  R.  Ch;rcr,  Camberwell  Grammar  School,  £30 
(Natural  Science) ;  and  S.  C.  jijldn,  Tonbridge,  £30  (Natural  Science). 

Goiiville  and  Cuius — Scholatnps  :  R.  A.  Fisher,  Harrow.  £80  for 
Mathematics;  P.  H.  C.  Alien,  lirist's  Hospital,  £80  for  Mathematics  ; 
H  V.  Neilson,  Oakham,  £80  ffOlassics  ;  S.  H.  Batty-Smith.  Bradfield, 
for  History  honorary);  H.  (  Read,  WeUington,  £6(1  for  Cl.assica  ; 
T.  H.  Somervell,  Rugby,  £6lJor  Natural  Science;  W.  D.  G.  Batten, 

Jan.  1,  1909.] 



Clifton,  £60  for  Modern  Languages  iC  J.  Dannhorn,  City  of  London, 
£40  for  Cla*sics  ;  P.  Sargant-  FlorenccRugby,  £40  for  History  ;  J.  A.  O. 
Muirhead,  Glenalmond,  £40  for  Natnil  Science;  E.  Watson  Williams, 
Clifton,  £40  for  Natural  Science ;  .1  F.  A.  Christie,  Clifton,  £40  for 
Modem  Languages  ;  and  A.  B  Bratti,  Harrow,  for  Modern  Languages 
(honorary).  Exhibitions :  L.  B.  Eyi.  Dulwieh,  £30  for  Classics  ;  and 
G.  W.  Paget,  St.  Paul's,  £aO  for  Nairal  Science. 

Jesus. — Scholarships  :  M.  L.  W.  Latner,  Merchant  Taylors',  London, 
£80  for  Classics  ;  W.  W.  Fletcher,  iS  Olave's,  £60  for  Mathematics  ; 
W.  M.  Peacock,  Marlborough,  £60  ff  Classics  (Rustatj  ;  A.  Wright, 
Boulevard  Secondary  School,  Hull.  £40  for  History:  J.  C.  Hill, 
Cambenvell  Grammar  School,  £40  ft.i>fatural  Science  ;  C.  E.  Hughes- 
Davies,  St.  Edmund's  School,  Cautibury,  £40  for  Classics  (Rustat)  ; 
and  H.  Bumabr,  Haileybury,  £40  tf  Classics  (Rustat).     Exhibitions: 

E.  S.  S.  H  Stafford,  HaUeybury,  £)  for  Classics ;  C.  W.  G.  Eady, 
Clifton,  £30  for  Classics  ;  and  C.  P.  Jller,  Bradford  Grammar  School, 
£30  for  Natural  Science. 

KttKj's. — Foundation  Schoiarahips  ;r.  Gray,  Merchant  Taylors',  £80 
for  Natural  Science ;  A.  Roscoe,  Atenham,  £80  for  Classics  ;  E.  D. 
Spring  Rice,  Eton,  £80  for  Classics  F.  M.  Hardman,  Eton,  £80  for 
Clas.sic3  ;  and  H.  C.  Prior.  Eton,  £80  ir  History.     Minor  Scholarships  : 

F.  H.  M.  Ralph,  Tonbridgc,  £60  fo.History;  J.  E.  Davey,  Campbell 
CoUege,  Belfast,  £60  for  Clas.sics ;  i  W.  Matthews,  Eton,  £60  for 
Classics ;  and  A.  N.  M.  Gariy,  Er^.  £60  for  Classics.  Exhibitions : 
C.  L.  Purves,  Fettes,  £40  for  Clasi™ ;  W.  A.  C.  Brooke,  Rugby,  for 
History  (honorary)  ;  E.  J.  K.  Brauaoltz,  Oundle,  £40  for  Classics  ; 
H.  Craven,  Harrow,  for  History  honorary)  ;  A.  Winterbotham, 
St.  Paul's,  for  Classics  (honorary)  :".TH.  Walton,  Armstrong  College, 
£40  for  Natural  Science ;  E.  M.  li.  Ingram,  Eton,  for  Classics 
(honorary)  :  B.  B.  Buckley,  Eton,  r,-  Classics  (honorary)  ;  and  F.  L. 
Birch,  Eton,  for  Modem  Languages  lonorai^). 

-Ps^fcAoHsr. —Scholarships  :  J.  L.  Nvler,  King's  School,  Chester,  £80 
(Mathematics) ;  W.  B.  Chope,  Bath  bUege,  £60  (Classics) ;  V.  Stott, 
Bradford  Grammar  School,  £60  (Ntural  Sciences)  ;  G.  H.  Atkinson, 
Marlborough,  £50  (History).  Exhiition  :  R.  B.  Beveridge,  St.  An- 
drews University,  £:i0  (Mathematics) 

P««*rofe.— Scholarships :  E.  C.  Stidy,  St.  Paul's,  £80  for  Classics  ; 
R.  A.  Frazer,  City  of  London,  £.'  for  Mathematics;  C.  J.  Tree, 
Cliarterhouse,  £60  for  Classics;  S.  1; Thomas,  King  Edward's,  Birm- 
ingham, £60  for  Mathematics  ;  E.  ti.Viveu,  Bedford  Grammar  School, 
£60  for  Classics  ;  P.  M.  WUson,  3Iar.orough  College,  £60  for  Classics  ; 
F.  H.  ^mith,  Reigatc  Grammar  Hiool,  £40  for  Natural  Science  ; 
L.  H.  jUisoD,  Harrow,  £40  for  ntural  Science;  P.  Crow,  Ton- 
bridge,  £40  for  Classics  ;  and  C.  GJJaHx)n,  Cheltenham  College,  £40 
for  Mathematics.  Exhibitions  :— KB.  Bellwood,  Coatham  Grammar 
School,  £30  for  Natural  Science:  J  G.  Madden,  Bradford  Grammar 
School,  £30  for  Mathematics;  H.iL  UzieUi,  Marlborough,  £30  for 
Classics;  AV.  G.  Gabain,  Charterhoif,  £30  for  Classics;  R.  S.  Thick- 
nesse,  Gresham's  School,  Uolt,  £30!or  Classics  ;  and  C.  Eade,  Marl- 
borough,^  £20  for  Mathematics. 

Queens'. — Foundation  Scholarshipsu  Classics:  H.  C.  Stork,  Merchant 
Taylors' ;  L.  M.  Da™,  the  City  i  London  School ;  R.  L.  Hardy, 
Rugby  (Classics  with  History; .  FouM.tion  Scholarship  for  Mathematics : 
P.  J.  Edmunds.  Christ's  Hospital.  Isrlesfield  Scholarship  for  Classics  : 
J.  S.  Eyton,  Brad  Held.  Hastings  inhibitions:  G.  G.  R.  Hunter,  St. 
Bee's  School  for  Modem  Historj'.  ith  honorary  scholarship ;  S.  AV. 
Rawson,  King  Edward  VII.  School. Sheffield,  for  Classics  ;  L.  Forbes, 
Appleby  School,  for  Classics  ;  W.  i .  Lambert,  Appleby  School,  for 
Natural  Science;  C.  S.  Holdswori.  Bradford  Grammar  School,  for 

Sidney  Susse.r. — Scholarships  :  F.  Ljohnson,  Leeds  Grammar  School, 
£6 1  (Mathematics)  ;  W.  W.  Coiias,  St.  Laurence  College,  £50 
(Classics;  ;  S.  T.  Martin.  CampbelloUege  BeUast,  £50  (Classics) ;  W. 
Buddm,  St.  Olave's  School,  £50  (Slaiematics) :  F.  6.  Foulds,  Oundle, 
£50  (Natural  Sciences)  ;  H,  F.  Bal  Blundell's,  £40  (Oassics) ;  L.  W. 
Berry,  Wellington  County  School,  in  (Natural  Sciences)  ;  J.  H.  Long-,  Highgate  School,  £40  (Naturai^cience).  Exhibitions:  J.  Gluck- 
stein,  St.  Paul's,  £30  (Cla.<«ics) ;  J.  _  Molony,  St.  Peter's  School,  York, 
£30  (History) ;  G.  L.  WaUer,  Haivbury,  £30  (Classics) ;  and  J.  C. 
"W'rane-Edwards,  Cheltenhain,  £30  .lassies). 

■W.  Catharine's. — Fellowship:  WjI.  S.  Jones,  M.A.,  late  Scholar  of 

St.  John's. — Scholarships  :  P.  J.Grigg,  Bournemouth  School,  £80 
(Mathematics) ;  J.  H.  Cole,  Greshajis  School,  Holt,  £80  (Mathematics)  ; 
E.  E.  Raven,  Uppingham,  £80  .lassies) ;  R.  W.  James,  City  of 
Loudon,  £80  (Natural  Science)  :  SE.  Sears,  FeLsted,  £60  (Classics)  ; 
J.  B.  P.  Adams,  Malvern,  £60  (Cliucs) :  F.  R.  Ennos,  St.  Olave's,  £60 
(Natural  Science)  ;  S.  I.  Levy,  Citw.f  London,  £60  (Natural  Science) ; 
y.  R.  Banister,  Trent  CoUege,  £60':Hstory)  ;  N.  B.  Jopson,  Merchant 
iaylors',  Crosby,  £60  (Modern  Lasuages)  ;  H.  L.  Rees,  Merchant 
Taylors',  London,  £40  (Mathematic  ;  W.  E.  Douglas,  Wellingborough 
Grammar  School,  £40  (Mathematics  W.  A.  C.  Darlington,  Shrews- 
l>ury,  £40  iClassics)  ;  and  J.  W.  T  Walsh,  Hampton  Grammar  School, 
£40  (Natural  Science).  ExhibitioE^  F.  R.  AV.  Hunt,  University  Col- 
lege School,  London,  £30  (Mathoatics  and  Mechanical  Sciences)  ; 
i.  P.  Cheetham,  City  of  London,  £1  .Classics)  ;  G.  F.  Lord,  Tonbridge, 
£30  (Classics)  ;  H.  M.  Lloyd,  RwaU,  £30  (Classics)  ;  W.  L.  Turner, 
Aske's  School,   Hatcham,   £30  (Nairal  Science) ;    A.  T.   Hedgecock, 

Wreight's  School,  Faversham,  £30  (Natural  Science) ;  and  H.  P. 
Griffiths,  Mer<;hant  Taylors',  £30  (Hebrew).  Elected  to  Fellowships: 
W.  L.  Balls.  M.A.  (Natural  Science) ;  J.  A.  Crowthor,  B.A.  (Natural 
Science  and  Physics). 

Titnity. — Major  Scholarships:  H.  F.  Jolowicz,  St.  Paul's  (Classics)  ; 
A.  AV.  St.  C.  Tisdall,  Bedford  Grammar  School  (Classics) ;  R.  M.  Wright, 
Winchester  (Mathematics).  Minor  Scholarships  :  J.  Bumaby,  Haileybury 
(Classics) ;  W.  G.  D.  Butcher,  Eton  (Classics) ;  G.  K.  M.  Butler,  Harrow 
(Cla-ssics) ;  J.H.  Clarke,  St.  Paul's  School  (Mathematics) ;  W.  B.  Copeland, 
Rugby  (History)  ;  H.  H.  George,  Westminster  City  School  (Natural 
Sciences) ;  G.  AV.  V.  Hopley,  Harrow  (History) ;  G.  J.  Lamb,  Eastbourne 
College  (Mathematics) ;  R.  W.  Prowse,  Clifton  (Natural  Sciences)  ;  and 
H.  Townshcnd,  King's  School,  Canterbiuy  (Mathematics).  Sizarships  : 
C.  S.  S.  Higham,  Liverpool  College  (History)  ;  J.  Jackson,  Glasgow 
University  (Mathematics) ;  L.  P.  W.  Renouf,  King  Edward's  School, 
Birmingham  (Natural  Sciences) ;  and  C.  A.  Stewart,  Glasgow  Univer- 
sity (Mathematics).  Exhibitions:  C.  M.  Balfour,  Charterhouse  (Me- 
chanical Sciences) ;  F.  E.  Cowlin,  Dulwich  (Mathematics)  ;  K.  (i. 
Digby,  Haileybury  (Classics) ;  B.  S.  Gossling,  Whitgift  School  (Natural 
Sciences)  ;  W.  N.  Leak,  Berkhamsted  School  (Natural  Sciences)  ;  M.  A. 
Lewis,  Uppingham  (History)  ;  R.  G.  M.  Lias,  Marlborough  (Classics) ; 
A.  S.  Marsh,  Sexey's  School,  Bruton  (Natural  Sciences) ;  W.  G.  Oucken, 
New  College,  Harrogate  (History)  ;  and  G.  C.  N.  Wardley,  Eton 

Trinity  Hull. — Cressingham  Essay  Prize  :  A.  H.  Ardeshir.  Scholar- 
ships: Classics,  .£40,  B.  D.  Armstrong,  St.  Paul's,  and  C.  G.  Crawford, 
Clifton ;  Mathematics,  £40,  W.  Budd,  Dulwich ;  History,  £50,  D.  G. 
Hopewell,  Nottingham  High  School ;  £40,  S.  A.  Gibbons,  Bishop's 
Stortford  ;  Natural  Science,  £40,  L.  C.  Fox,  Owen's  School,  Islington, 
and  L.  H.  Parker,  Dulwich. 

Canteebuey:  Kino's  School. — Junior  King's  Scholarships:  R.  J.  N. 
Norris,  D.  H.  G.  Northcote,  H.  C.  PowcU,  R.  Juckes  (for  Mathematics), 
all  of  King's  School.  Probationer  King's  Scholarships:  E.  J.  Gent 
(Mr.  Moseley,  Gate  House,  Kingstfm-on-Tliames).  K.  C.  LiUingston 
(Mr.  Stallard.  Heddon  Court,  East  Bainet),  G.  D.  Watkins  (Mr.  MiUard, 
Shrewsburj'  House,  Surbiton),  C.  S.  I'ittis  (Rev.  G.  Ewing,  Bedford 
House,  Folkestone),  P.  S.  Barber,  Juuior  King's  School.  Entrance 
Scholarships:  E.  J.  Gent  (Mr.  Moseley,  Kingston-on-Thames),  C.  E.  W. 
Chapman  (Mr.  Chapman,  Fritham  House,  Lyndhurst),  E.  F.  Smart 
(King's  School),  K.  C.  LilUngston  (Mr.  Stallard,  East  Bamet).  HoiLse 
Scholarships:  D.  F.  Kelly  (Mr.  Olive  Rokeby,  AVimbledon),  C.  R. 
Evershed  (Mr.  Molyneux,  Streatham  Hill,  College).  Heyman  Scholar- 
ship (open  pro  hac  vice  to  all  boys  under  14  now  being  educated  at  the 
King's  School) :  F.  C.  Gentry. 

LoxDox :  Royal  Academty  of  Music. — Battison  Haynes  Prize  for 
Composition  :  Ethel  F.  Woodland,  London.  Hyne  Prize  for  Composi- 
tion :  Francis  Hutchens,  New  Zealand.  Sainton-Dolby  Prize  for  Con- 
traltos :  Mary  A.  Da\'ies,  LlaneUy.  Rutson  Alemorial  Prize  for 
Sopranos :  Eugenie  Ritte,  London.  Bonamy  Dobree  Prize  for  A'iolon- 
cello :  Audrey  S.  AA'hitaker,  Palermo.  Westmorland  Scholar>hip  for 
Male  Vocalists :  James  M.  Blair,  Uddington,  Scotland.  Potter  Exhibi- 
tion for  Female  Pianists :  Helen  M.  Dodd,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

London  :  Royal  College  of  Music. — Council  Exhibitions  :  Rebecca 
T.  Clarke  (Composition) ;  Sidney  C.  Bostock,  and  Violet  T.  M.  Pearce 
(Violin).  Dove  Prize  (£13):  Ellen  C.  Edwards  (Pringle  Scholar),  for 
Pianoforte  Playing. 

London  Univeesity. — LL.B.  Honours  Examination :  University 
Scholarship  in  English  Law,  E.  L.  Burgin  ;  University  Scholarship  in 
Jurisprudence  and  Ronran  Law,  Ivor  Jackson.  Martin  AVhite  Scholar- 
ship (£25  for  2  years),  J.  C.  Flower.  Grants  of  £25  from  the  Martin 
White  Scholarship  Fund :  Miss  Emma  Thomas,  London  School  of 
Economics,  and  M.  J.  Wodislawski,  King's  CoUege. 

Oxford  Univeesity. — Craven  Fellowship:  M.  S.  Thompson,  B.A., 
Corpus.  Craven  Studentship  at  the  British  School  at  Athens :  A.  31. 
Woodward,  B.A.,  Magdalen.  John  Locke  Scholarship  :  John  C.  Fliigel, 
B.A.,  BaUiol.  Ireland  Scholar  and  First  Craven  Scholar  :  Ronald  A. 
Knox,  Scholar  of  BaUiol.  Second  Craven  Scholar:  Eric  A.  Barber, 
Scholar  of  New  CoUege.  Third  Craven  Scholar:  Leslie  W.  Himter, 
Scholar  of  New  CoUege.  Proxime  Accesserunt :  Edgar  Lobel,  Scholar 
of  BaUiol,  and  Arnold  Joseph  Toynbee,  Scholar  of  BaUiol.  Distin- 
guished in  the  Examination  :  Frederic  C.  Gearv,  Scholar  of  Corpus 
Chiisti ;  Druce  R.  Brandt,  Exhibitioner  of  BaUiol ;  John  D.  Denniston, 
Scholar  of  New  College  ;  and  Reginald  M.  Y.  Gleadowe,  Scholar  of 
New  CoUege.  Seatonian  Prize  :  H.  A.  Field,  Corpus.  Derby  Scholar- 
ship :  F.  A.  B.  Newman,  sometime  Scholar  of  University  CoUege. 

All  .So«/«.— Elected  to  FeUowships  :  Alan  E.  G.  Hulton,  Scholar  of 
New  CoUege  (Historj-)  ;  John  G.  Archibald,  Rhodes  Scholar,  New  Col- 
lege (Law).  .       T>    -«r 

BaUiol.  —  Scholarships  in  Classics ;  J.  Cell,  Marlborough ;  R.  M. 
Barrington-Ward,  Westminster ;  Hon.  G.  W.  GrenfeU,  Eton,  Ex- 
hibitioner of  BaUiol:  R.  Stanton,  Dulwich.  Major  Exhibitions  in 
Classics:  F.  Whittle,  St.  Paul's;  A.  De  C.  Williams,  Marlborough. 
WiUiams  Exhibitioner  of  BaUiol;  M.  R.  Ridley,  CUfton.  WilUams 
Exhibition  in  Classics :  E.  F.  W.  Besley,  Winchester.  Brackenburv- 
Scholarships  in  Historj- :  E.  Ker.  Rugby,  and  R.  C.  F.  Dodgson,  Rugby 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 

nnd  private  tuition.  Williams  Exhibition  in  History  :  G.  W.  S.  Hop- 
kins, Marlborough.  Special  Exhibition  in  History :  J.  E.  Todd, 
Commoner  of  Balliol  College,  formerly  of  Edinburgh  University. 
Brackenbury  Scholarship  in  Natural  Science :  H.  W.  Holmes,  Man- 
ihester  Grammar  School.  Williams  Exhibition  in  Natural  Science : 
AV.  J.  Lodge.  Oundle.  Scholarship  in  Mathematics:  F.  C.  Quinson, 
Cheltenham  Grammar  School.  Skynner  Scholarship  in  Mathematics  : 
F.  L.  Heywood,  Wrexham  County  School.  Honorary  Scholarship  in 
Mathematics  :  S.  N.  Ziman,  Rhodes  Scholar  of  Balliol,  formerly  of 
Auckland  University  College,  New  Zealand. 

Iliiiseiiose. — Open"  Scholarships  :  Arthur  F.  WiUmer,  Birkenhead 
School ;  and  WUliam  G.  N.  Bower,  Cheltenham.  Junior  Hulme 
Scholarships :  Neville  R.  Murphy,  Christ's  Hospital ;  and  John  A. 
Reid,  Tettes.  Somerset  Scholarship  (open  pro  hue  vice) :  J.  E.  Reid, 

Christ  Church. — Open  Scholarships  in  Classics:  Wilfred  J.  Heaton, 
Rugby  ;  Harold  M.  Willis,  St.  Paul's  ;  John  F.  L.  Fison,  Charterhouse. 
College  Exhibitions  in  Classics  :  Eraest  Evans,  Glasgow  Univei-sity  ; 
Xorman  E.  Hardy,  St.  Paul's. 

Corpus  Christi. — Classical  Scholars :  P.  G.  Bainbrigge,  Eton ;  H. 
Balmforth,  Manchester  Grammar  School ;  G.  Dunn,  Rugby  ;  E.  W. 
Evans,  Marlborough  ;  H.  I.  Rayner,  Tonbridge ;  E.  C.  Smith,  Dulwich 
(Charles  Oldham  scholar).  Modern  History  Scholar:  R.  H.  M.  Har- 
vey, Manchester  Grammar  School. 

£jr<f)-.— Open  Classical  Scholarships :  Robert  W.  R.  Gramshaw, 
Charterhouse ;  Hubert  Graham,  Manchester  Grammar  School ;  and 
Arthur  S.  R.  Dodd,  Christ's  Hospital.  Open  Mathematical  Scholar- 
ship :  Sidney  C.  L.  Miller,  Magdalen  College  School  and  private 
tuition.  Stapeldon  Scholarship  for  Classics  (open  pro  hac  vice)  :  Hugh 
Eraser,  Wellington.  Open  Classical  Exhibition  :  WUliam  D.  Barron, 
Aberdeen  University.  Hasker  Exhibition  for  Divinity :  David  S.  Home, 
Reading.  Stapeldon  Exhibition  for  Classics :  Winthrop  Pyemout, 

Linciihi. — Scholarship  in  Modern  History :  Ronald  F.  W.  Fletcher, 
King  Alfred's  School,  Wantage.  Exhibition  in  Modem  History  : 
PhiUp  H.  BeUot,  Bedales  School,  Pcter.^field.  Natural  Science  Scholar- 
ship of  £80 :  John  G.  Gilbert.  Tottenham  County  School.  Natural 
Science  Scholarship  of  £60 :  Harold  AV.  Pierce,  University  College, 
Bangor.  Scholarships  in  Classics ;  J.  Arman,  University  College, 
Cardiff,  £80  ;  R.  B.  Beckett,  Woodbridge  School,  £60.  Exhibitions  in 
Classics  (£30) ;  H.  W.  Howe,  Eltham  College,  and  J.  B.  Morton, 

Magdalen. — Demyship  in  Natural  Science:  Archibald  T.   A.   Ritchie, 

Harrow.  Exhibition  in  Natural  Science  :  Percy  Ball,  Rugby.  Demy- 
ship in  History :  K.  J.  Campbell,  Marlborough.  Exhibition  in  History : 
E.  H.  Crooke,  Cheltenham. 

Merton. — Postmastership  in  Mathematics  :  Eubule  J.  Waddington, 
Dulwich.  Exhibition  in  Mathematics :  Harold  M.  Gaidner,  Royal 
Grammar  School,  Worcester. 

J\>H'.— Scholarships  in  Classics :  L.  E.  Atkinson,  Clifton,  and  R.  W.  T. 
Cox,  Merchant  Taj'lors'.  Exhibitions  in  Classics:  P.  R.  F.  Tottenham, 
Harrow,  and  W.  R.  Smale,  Shrewsbury. 

One?.— Open  Scholarships:  Hugh  Lea  GuiUebaud,  Marlborough; 
Frederick  Grant,  Fettes  ;  and  David  M.  Low,  AVestminster.  Adam  de 
Brome  Scholar.ship  :  John  M.  Thomson,  Glenalmond  and  Edinburgh 
University.  Bible  Clerkship  :  Thomas  Brown  Stowell,  Merchant 
Taylors',  Crosby. 

Trinitij. — Foundation  Scholarships  of  £80  for  Classics:  R.  M.Gent, 
King's  School,  Canterbury;  T.  F.  Higham.  Clifton ;  W.  O.  Si  evens, 
Dulwich  :  P.  E.  Mitchell,  St.  Paul's.  MUlard  Scholarship  for  Natural 
Science  (Chemistry) ;  M.  Greenwood,  Bradford  Grammar  School.  Ex- 
hibition of  £70  for  Classics  :  D.  C.  Macgregor,  George  Watson's  Col- 
lege and  Edinburgh  University.  Exhibition  of  £60  for  History  :  E, 
Hornby  Sheara,  Bradfield.  Tylney  Exhibition  (for  a  commoner  of  the 
College)  :  C.  H.  Masterman,  lately  of  Winchester  College.  Exhibition 
for  a  graduate  of  the  College  studying  medicine  :  N.  G.  Chavasse,  B.A. 

J7«iir)'.v;c;/.— Scholarships :  B.  T.  M.  Hebert,  Harrow ;  C.  S.  Nason, 
Christ's  Hospital ;  AV.  H.  Croomc,  Wellington.  Exhibitions  :  J.  H. 
Wise,  Christ's  Hospital. 

7r,(rf/(ff»i. —Scholars :  H.  B.  Hake,  Christ's  Hospital;  E.  B.  Hosking, 
Canterbury  ;  H.  L.  Hughes-Jones,  Rossall ;  J.  G.  Monteath,  Edin- 
burgh Academy.  Woodwai'd  of  Dean  Forest  Scholar  :  D.  Veale,  Bristol 
School.  Exhibitioners :  H.  Beckett,  Monmouth  School ;  W.  E.  Nichol- 
son, Leeds  Grammar  School ;  A.  E.  P.  Sloman,  Bradfield  ;  G.  P.  Higgs, 
St.  Edward's,  Oxford. 

Wellington  College. — Scholarship  of  £50  on  the  Modem  Side  and  to 
the  Robert  Henry  Wentworth  Hughes'  Scholarship,  A.  R.  R.  Woods 
(Mr.  M.  Roderick,  Praetoria  House,  Folkestone) ;  Scholarship  of  £50, 
J.  C.  Eppstein  (Mr.  P.  Christopherson,  Locker's  Park,  Hemel  Hemp- 
stead) ;  Scholarships  of  £50  on  the  Classical  side,  D.  A.  R.  Young  (llr. 
A.  AV".  W.  Roberts,  Langley  Place,  St.  Leonards) ;  and  E.  A.  Simson 
(Mr.  P.  Christopherson) ;  Scholarships  of  £-iO  on  the  Classical  Side, 
S.  R.  Hurst  (Wellington  College,  late  Mr.  W.  R.  Lee,  Ashdown  House 
Forest  Row),  and  D.  P.  Gordon  (Messrs.  Wynne  and  Jenner,  Hazel- 
wood  Park.  Limpsfield). 


3    &    3  THE    SANCTUARY,    WESTMINSTER,    S.W. 

[FOUNDED     IS29. 


President— THE  BISHOP   OP   LONDON.  Vice-President— THE   LORD   HARRIS. 

Chairman— THE  DEAN  OF  CANTERBURY.  Deputy-Chairman— SIR  PAGET  BOWMAN,  Bart. 

Secretary — W.  N.  NEALE,  Esq.  Actuary  and  Manager — FRANK  B.  WYATT,  Esq.,  F.l.A. 

The  Society  offers  the  BENEFITS  of  MUTUAL  LIFE   ASSURANCE   without  personal  liability  on 

highly  favourable  terms  to 



Accumulated  Fund,  £4,351,137.  Annual  Income,  £471,097. 

Bonuses  Distributed,  £4,256,464. 

IiOAV  PREMIUMS.  Notwithstanding    the    lowness    of    the 

LARQE    BONUSES.         Prerulums  charged,   the  BONUSES   are 


NEW  AND  SPECIAL    Application    is    Invited     for    the    PRO- 
POLICIES.  SPECTUS,  and  Leaflets  explaining  two 
newr  Policies,  with  valuable  Options. 


Premium  —  about  one  half  the  usual  rate  — during  first  ten 

2.  PENSION  POLICIES.    Premiums  returnable  with  compound  interest  in 

cjise  of  death  or  surrender  before  pension  age.    Option  to  commute  for 


Assurances  without  profits,  at  low  rates  of  premium,  may  be  effected, 
and  Life  Annuities  on  favourable  terms  may  be  purchased,  by  any 
person  irrespective  of  any  special  qualification  by  relationship  to  the 


Ag'e  next 

Payable  at  Death. 


Payable  at  Age  60 
or  earlier  Death. 


£.       s.        d. 
20      1      8 
23      3      4 
26    10      0 
31       1       8 

£.         s.        d. 

27      3      4 
32     10    ID 
40       1       8 
51       5       O 

Note.— Under  t}u'  Rt'duced  Premium  System  (explained  in  Prospectus)  four- 
fifths  only  of  tliese  Prt-niiums  need  be  paid,  the  other  one-fiftfi  remaining  a  charge 
to  be  repaid  out  of  Konus.  . 

No  Agents  employed  and  no  Commission  paid  for  the  Intro- 
duction of  business,  wrhereby  £10,000  a  year  is  saved  to  the 

Assurances  can  be  eflfected  by  direct  communication 
with  the  Office,  2  &  3  THE  SANCTUARY,  WESTMINSTER,  S.W. 

Jan.  1,  1909.] 



Clougft's  Correspondence  Colleae. 

At  the  last  A.C.P.  Examination  (August,  1908),   Mr.    ROBERT   A.   WRIGHT, 
a  Member  of  CLOUGH'S  A.C.P.  CLASS,  was 


on  the  A.C.P.  List,  obtaining 


***    New  Sections  are  now  conimeiiciiu/  for  the  folloivimf  Examinations : — 

A,  C.  P. 

AUGUST,  1909,  and  DECEMBER,  1909. 


OXFORD— March  and  July,  1909. 

CAMBRIDGE— Juhj  and  Dec,  1909. 


JUNE,  1909,       SEPTEMBER,  1909,       JANUARY,  1910. 

For  full  particulars  of  an}'  of  Clough's  Classes— P. T.,  Preliminary  Certificate,  Certificate,  A.C.P.,  Oxford  and  Cambridge  Locals,  Matriculation- 
write  at  once  to  : — 



ICS, Practical.  Graphical,  and  Tlieoretlcal.    By  W.  J. 

DoBP.s,   M.A.,  Author  of  "Elementary  Statics."     Witli  52  Dia- 
grams.    Crown  Svo,  5s.  '         [Te:i:t-hooks  of  Science. 
This  bnok  is  intend.'rt  Inr  \isp  at  Schools  .iml  Technical  Institutes,  for  Army  and 
N.nvy  Can.liihites.  ,'mi.I  Studfiils  iif  EnRineerinf;.     It  consists  of  some  MOO'inples 

in  Klonn-ntary  StatiL-s  and  fvuu-lics. 


By  GnoKCE  Sextee,  D.Sc.  (Loud.),  Ph.D..  Lecturer  in  Chemistry 
at  St.  Mary's  Hospital  Medical  School  With  many  Diagrams. 
Crown  Svo,  3s.  6d.  [Text-books  of  Science. 

This  book  is  designed  to  serve  as  a  general  introduction  to  Physical  Chemistry. 

FIRST   YE  A.R  PdYSICS.    By  C.  E.  .Iacksok,  M.A., 

Senior  Physics  Master,  Bradford  Grammar  School.  With  51  Dia- 
grams.    Crown  8vo,  Is.  6d.  [Text-books  of  Science. 

AN  ORGA.NIC  CHbiMISTRY  for  Schools  and 

Technical    Institutes.     By  A.  E.  Dukstan,  B.Sc.  (Lond.), 

P.C.S.,  East  Ham  Technical  College.     With  many  Illustrations. 

Crown  Svo,  2s.  6d.  [Text-books  of  Science. 

This  book  is  intended  lor  the  use  of  the  higher  forms  of  scliools  taking  the  Special 

Science  Course,  and  as  a  tir-st  jear  book  in  Technical  Institutes. 

A  JUNIOR   LATIN    PROSE.      By  H.  K  Asman, 

M.A.,  B.D.,  Second  Master  at  Owen's  School,  Islington.     Crown 

Svo,  2s.  6d.  [Junior  School  Books. 

It  contains  an  explanation  of,  and  exercises  on,  the  chief  rules  of  S.yntax,  with 

special  attention  to  points  which  cause  difflculty  to  boys,  and  concludes  with  exercises 

in  Continuous  Prose.    Vocabularies  are  included. 

ELEMENTARY  LA.TIN:  Being  a  First  Year's 
Course.  By  F.  .T.  Teeey,  B.A.,  Assistant  Master  at  Preston  House 
School,  East  Grinstead.  Crown  Svo,  Pupils'  Edition,  2s.;  Masters' 
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Edition,  3s.  6d.  net. 
This  work  is  divided  into  thirty  units—ten  for  each  school  term.    The  text  and 

exercises  are  carefully  graduated,  and  are  separated  from  the  instruction  in  grammar, 

which  is  based  on  stem  formation  only.    Pniiils  construct  their  own  gi-ammars  and 


JUNIOR   ENGLISH.     By  F.  .T.  Rahtz,  M.A.,  B.Sc, 

Lecturer  in  English  at  the  Merchant  Venturers'  Technical  College, 

Bristol.     Crown  Svo,  Is.  6d. 
This  book  is  intended  for  the  Lower  Forms  of  Secondary  Schools.    It  deals  with 
grammar,  the  construction  of  phrase  and  sentence,  analysis,  parsing,  expansion, 
condensation,  composition,  and  pai-aph rasing,  and  many  other  exercises  in  tlie  use  of 
English.    The  questions  and  exerc' 

5  are  numerous  and  varied. 


the  Coming  of  the  Angles  to  the  year  1870.     By  E.  M. 

WiLMOT-BuxTOX,  Author  of  '•  Makers  of  Europe."  With  20  Maps. 
Crown  Svo,  3s.  6d. 

ENGLISH  LIPE  300  YEARS  AGO:   Being  the 

first  two  chapters  of  Mr.  G.  M.  Trevelyan's  "England  under  the 
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pool Secondary  School.     Crown  Svo,  Is. 
A  welcome  and  useful  addition  to  the  prose  books  in  English  Literature  for  Middle 
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A    SHORT    HISTORY  OP  GREECE,  to  tlie 

Death  of  Alexander  the   Great.      By  Walter  S.  Hett, 
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Lydon,  Owen's  School,  Islington,  .\uthor  of  "A  Junior  Geometry." 
With  159  Diagrams.     Crown  Svo,   Is. 
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EXAMINATION  PAPERS.  Compiled  by  H.  T.  Facon, 
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S®"*   Please  write  for  particulars  of  all  Messrs.  Methuen's  New  Educational  Books. 




[Jan.  1,  1909. 

Cambridge  University  Press 


In  order  to  meet  the  demand  for  works  of  EnglisH  writers  edited  for  school  use, 
the  Syndics  of  the  Cambridge  University  Press  have  arranged  to  publish  a  series 
of  reading  books  for  the  upper  and  middle  forms  of  Secondary  Schools.  The 
books  are  printed  in  a  bold,  clear  type,  and  are  strongly  bound  in  cloth  boards. 
'Ihe  followino-  are  the  titles  of  the  first  six  volumes  : — 

Daniel  Defoe.  Memoirs  of  a  Cava- 
lier. Edited,  with  Introduction  and  Notes,  hy  Elizabeth 
O'Neill.     Is.  4d. 

Captain  John  Smith.   True  Travels, 

Adventures,  and  Observations  in  Europe,  Asia,  Africa, 
and  America  ;  and  The  General  History  of  Virginia,  New  EngUmd, 
and  the  Summer  Isles,  Books  I. -III.  Edited,  with  Introduction 
and  Notes,  hy  E.  A.  Bknians,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  St.  -lohn's  College, 
Cambridge.     Is.  4d. 

William  Cobbett.  Rural  Rides.  Se- 
lected and  Edited  by  J.  H.,  M.A.,  Lecturer  in  English 
Literature,  Birkbeck  College,  London.     Is.  Id. 

William     Hazlitt. 

Characters    of 

Shakespeare's  Plays.  Edited,  with  Introduction  and 
Notes,  by  J.  H.  Lobban,  M.A.,  Lecturer  in  English  Literature, 
Birkbeck  College,  London.     Is.  4d. 

North's  Translation   of  Plutarch's 

Lives,   Selections  from.     Edited  by  P.  Giles,  M.A.,  Fellow  of 
Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge.  [Ready  immediately. 

Sir     Walter     Scott. 

Grandfather,    Selections  from. 

Tales     of    a 

Edited  by  P.  Giuia,  M.A. 
[^Ready  Immediately. 

Several  more  volumes  are  in  active  preparation  at  prices  ranging  from  Is.  to 
Is.  6d. 

Applications  from  teachers  for  specimen  copies  should  be  addressed  to 
Mr.  C.  F.  Clay,  Manager,  Cambridge  University  Press  Warehouse,  Fetter  Lane, 
London,  with  a  statement  as  to  the  number  of  copies  likely  to  be  required  if  the 
books  are  adopted  for  school  use. 


General    Editor:    F.    H.    H.    QUILLEMARD,    M.A.,    M.D. 

Ready   early  in   January.     With   Maps,   Diagrams,  and   Illustrations.     Price   Is.  6d.  eacli 

Kent.     By  Geouge  F.  Bosworth,  F.R.G.S.  Norfolk.     By  W.  A.  Dutt 

Surrey.     By  Geoege  F.  Bosworth,  F.R.G.S. 
Essex.     By  Geokge  F.  Bosworth,  F.R.G.S. 

Suffolk.      By  W.  A.  Dutt. 

{Oilier  volumes  are  in  preparation.) 

Elementary  Algebra.    By  C.  H.  French, 

M.A.,  and  G.  Osbokn,  M.A.,   Mathematical  Masters  at  the  Leys 

School,  Cambridge. 

This  book  includes  Common  Logarithms  and  the  Binomial 
Theorem  for  a  Positive  Integral  Index,  so  that  it  covers  the 
irround    of   all    school    examinations  not  requiring  a   special 
Crown  8vo  knowledge  of  the  subject.     It    is  amplj;  sufficient  for  such 

4s.  6cl.  examinations  as  the  London    Matriculation,    the    Cambridge 

Previous,  the  ordinary  passwork  of  the  Higher  Certificate 
Examination  of  the  Oxford  and  Cambridge  Board,  the  Oxford 
and  Cambridge  Locals,  and  others  of  similar  standard. 

Algebra  for  Secondary  Schools.    By 

Charles  Davison,  Sc.D.,  Mathematical  Master  at  King  Edward's 

High  School,  Birmingham. 

"  Dr.  Davison's  book  covers  the  ground  up  to  and  including 
the  exponential    and   logarithmic  series.      The  work  is  very 
P,^       „  thoroiigh,  the  examples  plentiful,    and  the   matter  well   ar- 

v;rownovo  ranged.  .  .'.  The  textbook  strikes  us  as  being  a  thoroughly 

•^  satisfactory  one,  and  we  are  specially  glad  to  note  the  place 

taken  by  graphs  as  an  illustmtion  and  not  an  end  in  them- 
selves."— Journal  of  Education. 

Plane     Geometry     for     Secondary 

Schools.  By  Chahles  Davison,  Sc.D.,  and  C.  ii.  Kichakds, 
M.A.,  Mathematical  Masters  at  King  Edward's  High  School, 

This  book  may  now  be  obtained  in  four  separate  parts,  cor- 
responding to  the  four  main  divisions  of  the  work  : 
Book      I.— Triangles  and  Parallelogi-ams. 
Book    II.— Areas. 
Crown  8vo  Book  III.— The  Circle. 

4s.  Book  IV.— Proportion  applied  to  Geometrical  Magnitudes. 

n,.  i„  "  The  plan  of  the  present  volume  is  good.    Whilst  the  leading 

Pniir  P?rt<!  propositions  appear  in  the  form  of  bookwork,  oi  hers  scarcely  less 

i'    p^^l  important  are  discussed  as  worked  riders.    A  full  complement 

of  exercises  for  individual  practice  in  original  solution  is,  more- 
over, included,  the  questions  being  sometimes  set  as  exercises  on 
special  propositions,  and  sometimes  classed  together  as  miscel- 
laneous problems  and  theorems." — Educatioual  Times. 

Inorganic  Chemistry.     By  E.  I.  Lewis, 

B.A.,  B.Sc,  Assistant  Master  at  Oundle  School, 

"  A   decidedly  original  work,  very  superior  to  the  avei-age 
lexl  liciiik  used  in  schools,  especially  m  throwing  light  on  general 
Demv  Rvii  \n\\wi\,W^."—School  World. 

i-'  "This  should  be  a  satis.actory  course  for  boys  in  the  middle 

"  forms  of  a  public  school.    The  procedure  is  logical,  and  the  ex- 

periments are  made  practicable  by  a  liberal  use  of  diagrams." — 
Cambridge  Review, 

London,  Fetter  Lane:    Cambridge   University   Press   Warehouse.      C.  F.  Clay,  Manager. 

Jan,  1,  1909.] 




EDUCATION      AND      HYGIENE.        Bj-     W.     P. 

Welpton,  B.Sc.  Witli  a  Short  Sketch  of  the  History 
of  Physical  Education  by  J.  Welton,  M.A.,  Professor  of 
Education  in  the  University  of  Leeds.     4s.  6d. 

'"There  is  a  sootl  historical  survey  of  the  subject,  and  the  book  is  well  planned 
and  thought  oiit."^MoniiHff  Post. 


By  ,).\MES  Welton,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Education  in  the 
University  of  Leeds.     4s.  6d. 

■'  An  eminently  practical  book  on  i(.':\Qhmi:."~CambriJr/e  Review. 

SCHOOL  HYGIENE.  By  R.  A.  Lysteu,  M.B.,  B.Sc, 
D.P.H.  Second  Edition.  Containing-  a  new  chapter  on 
the  Organization  of  Medical  Inspection  in  Schools. 
3s.  6d. 

"  The  author  has  succeeded  in  giving  an  adequate  account  of  what  a  t^achf^r 
ought  to  know  about  school  hygiene.  The  book  may  be  confidentlv  recommended." 
—Public  Health. 


H.    H.    HuLbEKT,    M.A.    Oxon.,    il.R.C.S.,    L.R.C  P., 
Lecturer  on  Voice  Production    at   the   London  County 
Council  Day  Training  College.     Is.  6d. 
"Dr.  Hulbert  speaks  with  authority  on  this  subject  of  vital  importance  to 

teachers.    It  will  pay  any  teacher  to  get  this  book  and  read  it  carefully."— »ScAoo?- 


PLANT  BIOLOGY.  A  Modern  Course  of  Elementary 
Botany.  By  F.  Cateks,  D.Sc.  Lond.,  P.L.S.,  A  R.C.S. 
3s.  6d. 

"  The  freshness  of  treatment,  the  provision  of  exact  instruction  for  practical 
.work  really  worth  doing,  and  the  consistent  recognition  that  a  plant  is  a  living 
thing,  «hould  secure  for  Professor  Cavers's  book  an  instant  welcome."— Sc/iooi 

Book:  for  Beginners  based  on  the  Study  of  Types.  By 
P.  CwERS,  D.Sc.     3s. 

"  This  excellent  manual  supplies  a  long-felt  want  to  the  Nature  Study  teacher ; 
the  chapter  on  the  most  important  subject  o'  Plant  Ecology  is  quite  the  best  exposi- 
tion of  the  subject  we  have  yet  seen."'~^choolmaster. 

A  TEXT-BOOK  OF  BOTANY.  Including  Angiosperms, 
Vascular  Cryptogams  and  Flowering  Plants,  and  the 
Lower  Cryptogams.  By  J.  M.  LowsoN,  M.A.,  B.Sc, 
F.L.S.     Fourth  Edition.     6s.  6d. 

"It  is  abundantly  evident  that  Mr.  Lowson  is  an  accomplished  teacher.  The 
book  is  well  and  clearly  printed,  and  also  profusely  illustrated."— A«otri(?rfae. 


Cari'ei:,  H(_inour  School  of  Modern  History,  Oxford.    2s. 
"  Any  student  in  search  ol  the  best  bird'  view  of  English  history  will  turn  to 
'  The  Tutorial  Series '  in  the  natural  order  of  search,  and  will  here  find  his  reward." 
— School  Guardian. 

TEXT-BOOK  OF  GEOGRAPHY.  By  Gr.  Cecil  Fry, 
M.Sc,  F.I.C.  For  University  Entrance  Examinations 
and  the  Upper  Forms  in  Schools.     4s.  6d. 

RICULATION   SOUND.     By  R.  W.  Stewakt,  D.Sc. 
In  Three  Volumes,  2s.  6d.  each. 
These  volumes  provide  a  complete  seliool  course  of  coordinated  theoretical  and 

practical  work  in  Piiysics. 


A  Text-Book  for  Beginners,  written  on  modern  lines. 
By  H.  W.  Bausor,  MA.,  late  Scholar  of  Clare  College, 
Cambridge.     2s.  6d. 

inniverslti?  tutorial  press,  Xb., 

157    DRURY    LANE,     LONDON,     W.C. 


Whole  Page— Ordinarv  £4  10    0    Position  £5  10    0 

Half  Page  „     '       2  10    0    „  3    0    0 

Quarter  Page         „  1  10    0    „  1  15    0 

Per  inch  in  broad  column  (half  width  of  page)    ...    0    7    0 

Narrow  Column  (one-third  page) 2    0    0 

General  Scholastic  Advertisements   ((boUeges,  Schools,  Classes,  Tuition,   *«.) 

3s.  6d.  for  6  lines,  or  4s.  6d.  the  inch. 
Situations  Vacant  and  Wanted— 30  words  or  under,  28. ;  each  additional  10  words, 

6d.     (For  Is.  extra.  Replies  may  be  addressed  to  the  Publishing  Office,  and  will 

be  forwarded  post  free.) 


The    Half-yearly    General    Meeting    of    the 
Fixtures.       members    of    the    College   of    Preceptors    will 
take  place  on  Saturday,  January  23. 

Me.  W.  Williams,  F.L.S. ,  will  address  the  School  Nature- 
Study  Union  on  "  School  Gardens,  their  Nature  and  Manage- 
ment," at  the  College  of  Preceptors  on  January  29,  at 
7.45  p.m.  All  interested  in  the  work  of  the  Union  are 
cordially  invited. 

*  * 

The  Annual  Meetings  of  the  Assistant  Masters'  Associa- 
tion will  be  held  on  January  6-8  at  St.  Paul's  School,  West 
Kensing'ton,  W. 

*  * 

The  third  Annual  Meeting  of  the   Historical  Association 

will  be  held   at   University  College,  London,  on  January  8 

(6  p.m.)  and   9   (10.30  a.m.).     Particulars  from  Miss  M.  B. 

Curran,  6  South  Square,  Gi'ay's  Inn,  W.C. 

The  Annual  General  Meeting  of  the  English  Association 
will   be  held   at  University  College,  London,  on  January  15 
and    16.       Particulars    from    the    Seci-etary,    S    Momington 
Avenue  Mansions,  W. 

*  * 

The  Modern  Language  Association  will  hold  its  annual 
meeting  at  Oxford  on  January  11-13. 

*  * 

The  Long  Vacation  Course  in  Practical  Physics  at  Cam- 
bridge for  assistant  masters  in  secondary  schools  will  be 
held  again  in  August  next.  Apply  to  the  Secretary  of  the 
Association,  31  Great  James  Street,  W.C. 

-*      * 

Dr.  F.  H.  Hayward  will  deliver  a  course  of  three  lectures 

on  "  Problems  of  Education  and  Heredity,"  at  South  Place 

Institute,   on   January  19  and  26,  and   February  2,  at  8  p.m. 

Tickets   at  the  Institute  or  from  Miss  M.  Pitts,  9  Clarence 

Road,  Wood  Green,  N. 

„  The  University  of  Dublin  has  conferred  the 

honorary    degree    of    D.D.   upon  the  Dean  of 

Westminster  ;  the  honorary  degi-ee  of  LL.D.  upon  Sir  Robert 

Hart ;   and  the  honorary  degree  of  Litt.D.  upon  Mr.  Justice 

Madden  (Vice-Chancellor). 

*  * 

The  University  of  Berne  has  conferred  the  honorary  degi-ee 

of  Ph  D.  upon  the  Rev.  W.  A.  B.  Coolidge,  M.A.,  Fellow  of 

Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  in  recognition  of  the  value  of  his 

many  works  on  Swiss  history  and  geography. 

*  -* 

Dr.  James  John  Hornby,  D.D.,  Provost  of  Eton,  formerly 

Fellow  and   Tutor  of  Brasenose  College,   Oxford,  has  been 

I  elected  an  honorarv  Fellow  of  the  College. 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 

The  Rev.  Thomas  R.  R.  Stehbing,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.L.S., 
Gold  Medallist  of  the  Linna^an  Society,  formerly  Fellow  and 
Tutor  of  Worcester  College,  Oxford,  lias  been  elected  an 
honorary  Fellow  of  the  College. 

Certain    Goldsmiths'    exhibitions     will 
Scholarships  and       soon  be  vacant.   Examination,    April    28, 
29.        Particulirs    from     Sir    Walter     S. 
Prideaux,  Goldsmiths'  Hall,  B.C. 


An  e.^amination  will  be  held  at  Pembroke  College,  Oxford, 
and  at  Elizabeth  College,  Guernsey,  on  Pebiuary  10,  1909, 
for  one  scholarship  of  £100  a  year  and  one  exhibition  of  not 
less  than  £50  a  year,  at  E.xeter  College  ;  one  scholarship  of 
£100  a  year,  and  one  exhibition  of  not  less  than  £50  a  year, 
at  Jesus  College  ;  two  scholarships  of  £80  a  year,  and  one 
exhibition  of  at  least  £60  a  year,  at  Pembroke  College.  No 
limit  of  age.  Candidates  must  have  been  born  in  Jersey,  or 
in  Guernsey,  or  in  one  of  the  adjacent  islands,  or  educated 
for  two  out  of  three  years  last  pi-eceding  the  election  at  Vic- 
toria College,  Jersey,  or  at  Elizabeth  College,  Guernsey. 
Apply  to  the  Rector  of  Exeter  College,  by  January  10. 

Sn  Stewart  of  Rannooh  Scholarships,  £25  each  for  three 
years,  will  be  offered  at  Cambridge  in  May  next :  two  for 
Hebrew,  two  for  Greek  and  Latiu,  and  two  for  Sacred 
Music,  open  to  natives  of  the  counties  of  Wilts,  Somei-set, 
and  Gloucester,  including  the  city  and  county  of  Bristol. 
Two  Open  Scholarships  for  Hebrew,  and  one  Open  Scholar- 
ship for  Sacred  Music,  will  also  be  offered. 

The  Combe  Trustees  have  made  a  further 
n  owmen  s  an  n^i.^nt  of  £400  for  the  purchase  of  ap- 
Benetactious.  »  .  .  Ki       ij         ry 

paratus    in    connexion    witli    the    George 

Combe  Lectureship  in  General  and  Experimental    Psj'cho- 
logj  in  Edinburgh  University. 

Oxford  Convocation  has  accepted  the  annual  Scholarship 
for  Rural  Economy  offered  by  the  Surveyors'  Institute. 

*  * 


A  PLOT  of  ground  (30  acres),  lying  immediately  to  the 
south-west  of  Shotover  Plain,  has  been  presented  by  a 
number  of  subscribers  to  the  University  of  O.xford  for 
public  use. 

*  * 

The  delegates  of  the  Common  University  Fund,  Oxford, 
have  voted  a  grant  of  £450  a  year  for  seven  years  to  provide 
for  advanced  history  teaching.  It  is  intended  to  organize  a 
two  years'  course   for  students,  either  for  research  work  or 

for  the  degree  of  B.Litt. 

*  * 

The  Pelham  Memorial  Fund  (about  £1,100)  is  to  be  applied 
to  the  maintenance  of  a  Henry  Pelham  Studentship,  tenable 
at  the  Oxford  School  at  Rome  under  conditions  similar  to 
those  attaching  to  the  studentship  already  tenable  by  Oxford 
men  at  the  British  School  at  Athens. 

Dr.   Arthur   J.   Evans   has  presented  to  the   Ashmolean 
Museum  his  father's  (Sir  John  Evans's)  collection  of  Anglo- 
Saxon  jewellery  and  other  relics,  together  with  a  comparative 
series  illustrating  the  early  Teutonic  art  of  the  Continent. 
#      # 

It  is  proposed  to  devote  the  income  of  a  fund  collected  by 
scientific  friends  of  the  Chancellor  of  Cambridge  University 

to  "  Rayleigh  Prizes,"    augmenting  and  supplementing  the 
"  Smith's  Prizes." 

In  connexion  with  the  movement  promoted  by  the  Royal 
Geographical  Society  for  the  development  of  the  Department 
of  Geography  at  the  London  School  of  Economics,  the  fol- 
lowing grants  have  been  made  : — The  Mercers'  Company, 
£210 ;  the  Goldsmiths'  Company,  £500 ;  the  Skinners' 
Company,  £100. 


Me.  W.  H.  Lever,  M.P.,  has  made  an  offer  to  the  School 
of  Architecture,  Liverpool  University,  to  enable  it  to  under- 
take a  systematic  study  of  town  planning,  including  all 
architectural  aspects  of  civic  design  ;  £300  for  a  Commission 
to  collect  information  abroad,  and  £500  to  £1,000  a  year  for 
three  years  for  continued  research  and  instruction. 

*  * 

The  Institution  of  Gas  Engineers  has  decided  to  endow  a 

Chair  of   Fuel  and  Gas   Engineering  in   the  University  of 

Leeds,  in  memory  of  the  late  Sir  George  Livesey. 

«      * 

Me.  William  Knox,  g-rain  merchant,  recentlj'  left  to  the 

University    of    Aberdeen    £5,000   for  scholarships   in   Arts, 

Divinity,  and  Medicine.     The  Arts  Scholarship,  over  £60  a 

year,    will    go  to    the  best    student    graduating    in   double 


*  * 

Through  the  kind  offices  of  the  French  Ministry  of  Public 
Instruction,  the  Board  of  Education  have  received  from 
certain  French  publishers  a  very  considerable  number  of 
educational  books  which  were  exhibited  in  the  French 
Education  Section  of  the  Franco-British  Exhibition.  The 
firms  which  have  co-operated  in  making  this  generous  and 
valuable  gift  to  the  Board's  Library  are :  Belin  Freres, 
Librairie  Armand  Colin,  Edouaid  Coruelj'  et  Cie.,  Librairie 
Ch.  Delagrave.  Delalaiii  Freres.  Hachette  et  Cie.,  Masson 
et  Cie.,  H.  Paulin  et  Cie. 

*  * 

The  Rev.  J.  M.  Gordo.n,  Redhill,  Surrey,  has  presented  a 
further  collection  of  minerals,  some  of  them  unique  speci- 
mens,  to  the   Geological   Department  of   the  University  of 


*  * 

Mr.  Chindbhai  Madhowlal  has  given  four  lakhs  of  rupees 
(say,  £25,000)  to  be  applied  by  the  Bombay  Government 
towards  the  development  of  .science  teaching  in  Ahmedabad, 
in  connexion,  if  possible,  with  the  proposed  Curline  Institute 
in  Bombay. 

M.   E.    Fannieee,  L.-es-L.,    Lecturer  in 
Appointments         French,    University   College,  Nottingham, 
and  Vacancies.         has    been    appointed    Additional    Lecturer 
in  French  at  the  Taylor  Institution, Oxford, 
lu   order  to  provide  additional  lectures  for  students  read- 
ing for  the  Final  Honour  School  in  French,  the  curators  have 
appointed  M.  Julien  Jacques  Champenois,  Lic.-es-L.,  Lic.-en- 
Droit,  Agrege  de  1  Universite  de  Paris,  M.A.  Edinburgh,  to 
lecture  on  French  Literature. 

*  * 

The  Earl  op  Derby  has  been  elected  Chancellor  of  the 

University  of  Liverpool,  in  place  of  his  late  father. 

Dit.    Walsh,   the    R.C.  Archbishop    of    Dublin,  has  been 
elected  Chancellor  of  the  National  University  of  Ireland. 

*  * 

The   Rev.    George    Edmundson,    M.A.,    D.Litt.,    formerly 

Jan.  1,  1909.1 



Fellow  and   Tutor  of  Brasenose,  has  been   appointed  Ford 
Lecturer  for  1910. 

»      « 

The  Rev.  James  Poundek  Whitney,  B.D.  Cantab.,  formerly 
Principal  of  tlie  University  of  Bishop's  College,  Lennoxville, 
Canada,  has  been  appointed  Professor  of  Ecclesiastical  His- 
tory at  King's  College,  London. 

*  * 

Mr.  D.  G.  Hogarth,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Magdalen  College, 

Oxford,    has    been    nominated    Keeper    of    the    Ashmolean 

Museum  and  the  Antiquarium,   in  room   of  Dr.  Ai-thur  J. 

Evans,  resigned. 

*  * 

The  Keepership  of  the  Archives  of  Oxford  University  is 
vacant  by  the  death  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  V.  Bayne. 

*  * 

Prof.  Adam  Sedgwick,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  Professor  of  Zoology 
in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  has  been  appointed  Pro- 
fessor of  Zoology  at  the  Imperial  College  of  Science  and 
Technology  at  South  Kensington. 

*  * 

Prof.  Hillhouse,  M.A.,  F.L.S.,  will  retire  from  the  Chair 
of  Botany  in  the  University  of  Birmingham,  at  the  end  of  the 
present  session. 

*  « 

Dr.  Ernest  de  Selincouet,  Lecturer  in  Modern  English 
Literature  in  the  University  of  Oxford,  has  been  appointed 
to  the  Chair  of  English  Language  and  Literature  in  Birming- 
ham  University,   in   succession   to    the  late    Prof.    Chui'ton 


«      * 

Dk.  Cecil  H.  Desch,  D.Sc.  Lond..  Ph.D.  Wiii-z.,  formerly 
Research  Assistant  in  Metallurgy,  King's  College,  London, 
has  been  appointed  Graham  Young  Lecturer  in  Metallurgical 
Chemistry  in  Glasgow  University. 

*  * 

Dr.  George  Macdonald,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  has  been  appointed 

Dalrymple   Lecturer  in  Archseology  in    the    University    of 

Glasgow  for  1909. 

*  * 

Dk.  a.  Peakce  HiGGiNS,  Lecturer  of  Clare  College,  Cam- 
bridge, has  been  appointed  Lecturer  in  Public  International 
Law  at  the  London  School  of  Economics  and  Political  Science 
(University  of  London),  in  succession  to  Prof.  Oppenheim. 

*  # 

Mr.  WiLLL-iM  Evans  Hoyle,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  Director  of  the 

Manchester  Aluseum,  has    been    appointed    Director  of  the 

National  Museum  of  Wales. 

Mr.  a.  R.  Skemp,  M.A.  Mane,  Ph.D.  Strass.,  Lektor  in 
English  in  Strassburg  University,  has  been   appointed  Lec- 
turer in  English  in  the  University  of  Sheffield. 
«     * 

Mr.  John  Duncan  Mackie,  B. A.  Oxon.,  has  been  appointed 
Lecturer  in  Modern  History  in  St.  Andrews  Univei'sity. 

*  * 

Prof.  R.  C.  MacLaurin,  Pi'ofessor  of  Mathematical  Physics 
in  Columbia  University,  and  previously  Professor  of  Mathe- 
matics in  the  University  of  New  Zealand,  has  accepted  the 
Presidency  of  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology. 

*  * 

A  Lecturer  in  Geography  (for  one  yeai-)   is  required  by 

the  St.  Andrews  Provincial  Committee  for  the   Training  of 

Teachers.     £200.     Apply  to  James  Malloch,  Esq.,  77  North 

Street,  St.  Andrews. 

An  Assistant  in  Invertebrate  Zoology  is  required  for  the 
Free  Public  Museum,  Liverpool.  £150,  commencing.  Par- 
ticulars from  Director. 

«      * 

A  Principal  (graduate,  with  expei-ience  in  the  training  of 
teachers)  is  required  for  the  Day  Training  College,  Dudley. 
£500.     Apply  to  J.  M.  Wynne,  Esq.,  Town  Hall,  Dudley. 

*  * 

Miss  Wordsworth  will  resign  the  Principalship  of  Lady 
Jilargaret's  Hall,  Oxford,  at  the  end  of  the  current  academic 

Mr.  Charles  Henry  Tyler,  B. A.  Cantab.,  assistant  master, 
Rossall  School,  has  been  appointed  Head  Master  of  Cran- 
leigh  School,  in  succession  to  the  Rev.  Dr.  Allen,  retired. 

Mr.  J.  Evans,  M.A.,  has  been  appointed  Head  Master  of 
Sir  W.  Judd's  School,  Tonbridge. 

*  * 

Mr.  a.  S.  Lamprey,  B.A.,  late  Scholar  of  Corpus  Christi 
College,  Cambridge,  assistant  master  at  Maidstone  Grammar 
School,  has  been  apjaointed  Head  Master  of  Ashford  Gram- 
mar School,  Kent. 

«      * 

Mr.  Thomas  Hay,  M.A.  Cantab.,  B.Sc.  Lond.,  P.C.P.,  Head 
Master  of  Midhurst  Grammar  School,  has  been  appointed 
Head  Master  of  Chelmsford  Grammar  School. 

Mr.  E.  S.  Hayward  has  been  appointed  Head  Master  of 

Wallrngford  Grammar  School. 

*      * 

Mr.  B.  M.  Narbeth,  B.Sc.  Wales,  Lecturer  in  Physics  at 
the  Technical  Institute,  Swindon,  has  been  appointed  Prin- 
cipal of  the  Technical  Institute,  Durban. 

The  Rev.  Julian  Ll.  Dove,  M.A.  Cantab.,  second  master, 
Dui'ham  School,  has  been  appointed  Head  Master  of  the 
Collegiate  School,  Whangauui,  N.Z. 

A  VOLUME   on   the  Post-Augustan  Poets,  by 

Item'l^'"^         Mr.    H.   E.    Butler,    Fellow    of    New   College, 

Oxford,  will  be  issued  by  the  Clarendon  Press 

early  this  year.     Mr.  Nowell  Smith's  volume  on  the  earlier 

Latin  Poets,  including  the  Augustans,  which  was  announced 

several  years  ago,  will,  it  is  hoped,  also  appear  during  1909. 

*  # 

The  third  volume  of  the  "  Cambridge  History  of  English 
Literature"  (Renascence  and  Reformation)  may  be  expected 
early  in  the  year. 

*  * 

Messrs.  Withekuy  &  Co.  announce,  for  January  1,  the 
publication  of  'Travel  and  Exploration — a  new  monthly  maga- 
zine devoted  to  travel  in  ail  its  aspects  (Is.  net).  It  is  to  be 
popular  in  form,  substantial  in  matter,  and  copiously  illus- 

Letters  'patent,  bearing  date  December  2 
General.         have  passed  the  Great  Seal  of   Ireland,  con- 
stituting and  founding  a  University  having  its 
seat  in   Dublin,  under  the  name  of  the  National  University 
of    Ireland,    and  a  University    having    its   seat  in  Belfast, 
under  the  name  of  the  Queen's  University  of  Belfast. 

*      * 

A   scheme   has   been   started,   and  is   under  consideration 

by  an  influential   committee  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge  men, 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 

for  the  promotion  of  a  University  in  China.  "  The  main 
purpose  is  to  attract  into  better  channels  the  intellect  of  the 
more  thoughtful  and  broad-minded  Chinese  of  the  rising 
generation,  which  is  in  danger  of  being  diverted  into  anar- 
cliism  .ind  irreligion.  It  is  believed  that  this  may  be  best 
effected  by  setting  before  the  youtli  of  China  the  ideas  and 
inspiration  of  Western  learning." 

*  # 

The  University  of  Liverpool,  following  Manchester  and 
Birmingham,  has  established  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Com- 
mercial Science. 

*  * 

It  is  proposed  to  provide  a  college  at  Barry  for  the  recep- 
tion of  120  Glamorgan  male  students  and  .30  Monmouthshire 
male  students,  and  at  Caerleon  for  60  Glamorgan  female 
students  and  40  Monmouthshire  female  students. 


Thay  haif  said  .  .  . 

Quhat  say  thay  ? — Lat  tliaine  say  j 



By  Dr.  F.  H.  Haywaed. 

The  more  one  dabbles  or  flounders  in  educational  theory  the 
more  one  realizes  that  the  problems  of  sociology  and  psychology 
must  be  defined  and,  in  a  measure,  solved  before  we  can  expect 
anything  like  intelligent  and  continuous  advance.  But  the  pros- 
pect is  not  cheerful.  At  the  present  moment,  for  example,  we 
iind  in  works  such  as  "  New  Worlds  for  Old,"  by  Mr.  H.  G.  Wells, 
and  "  The  Principles  of  Heredity,"  by  Dr.  Archdall  Reid,  the 
expression  of  a  view  of  human  progress  in  large  measure  oppo- 
site to  that  held  by  the  advocates  of  "  Eugenics  "  ;  the  stress  in 
the  one  case  is  on  the  potencies  and  possibilities  that  lie  latent 
in  stimulating  ideas ;  the  stress  in  the  other  case  is  on  the 
hereditary  potencies  and  possibilities  (for  good  or  evil)  of  the 
germ-plasm.  The  former  view  links  on  naturally  witli  proposals 
for  making  the  school-teacher  more  directly  and  explicitly  than 
at  present  a  moral  instructor — an  exponent  of  lucid,  arrestive, 
alluring,  perhaps  far-reaching  ideas;  the  latter  view  links  on  to 
the  more  conventional  advocacy  of  "  training"  methods.  Very 
probably  the  pedagogical  question  can  best  Ije  approached  from 
the  sociological,  biological,  and  psychological  side  ;  and  for  that 
reason,  had  I  the  time  to  spare,  1  would  spend  twenty  continuous 
years  in  sociological  study  before  putting  a  pen  to  paper  again. 

But  twenty  years  of  study,  unremunerated  though  assiduous, 
are  more  than  most  of  us  can  afford.  And,  even  if  we  could 
afford  it,  and  came  forth  in  the  end  scientiflcan3-  equipped  for 
every  pedagogical  battle,  the  old  controversies  would  meanwhile 
have  been  going  on,  new  books  and  new  articles  would  have  been 
issued,  new  lights  would  have  risen  above  the  horizon,  and  per- 
liaps  the  long  looked  for  and  badly  needed  educational  projihet 
would  have  appeared  and  rendered  our  years  of  study  super- 
fluous. One  is  driven,  therefore,  to  state  one's  present  conclu- 
sions despite  the  conviction  that  wider  knowledge  will  probably 
modify  them. 

On  a  good  many  f[uestions  vital  to  educational  progress  I  want 
help,  and  it  is  in  the  capacity  of  a  seeker  that  I  write  these 
words.  Fresh  from  the  Moral  Education  Congress,  from  books 
like  Mr.  Keatinge's  "  Suggestion  in  Education,"  and  from  an 
attempt  to  grapple  with  the  dogma  of  "  formal "  or  "  faculty 
training,"  I  propose  to  set  down  a  few  of  my  own  thoughts  and 
to  propound  a  few  interrogatories. 

1.  Mr.  Keatinge  and  "the  Herbaetians." 
I  appreciate  Mr.  Keatinge's  book,  "  Suggestion  in  Education." 
It  is  helpful,  hopeful,  constructive,  stimulating.  It  is,  on  the 
whole,  singularly  free  from  conventional  phrases.  The  rich  vein 
in  which  the  author  is  at  work  is  a  promising  one,  which  will 
last  for  many  a  lifetime  and  will  grow  broader  as  he  and  others 
follow  it  up — not  ending,  as  so  many  educational  veins  do,  in 
valueless  dirt  and  flinty  rock.  When  he  speaks  of  the  teacher 
as  being  a  "  creator  of  mind "  in  the  process  of  manipiilating 
ffcnd   organizing   (the   pupil's)   "  mental  elements  "  ;   as   being  a 

true  producer  of  "  mental  energy  "  ;  as  being  one  who  "  builda  an 
ideal  construction  in  boys"  minds,"  which  construction  "exercises 
a  control  on  conduct,"  Mr.  Keatinge  is  on  the  side  of  the  angels. 
Such  language  sends  a  thrill  through  every  teacher  who  is  not 
yet  fossilized. 

But  then  these  phrases  abotit  creating  mind  and  producing 
energy  are  the  phrases  used  by  Herbartians.  In  1905  I  said  in 
a  little  pamphlet :  "  We  have  to  realize,  with  Herbart,  that  there 
is  a  primal  vitality,  a  creative  power,  a  transforming  energy,  in 
ideas."  I  think  I  took  the  notion  from  Wundt  and  at  second- 
hand. Again,  when  Mr.  Keatinge  attacks  snippets  (page  5d),  and 
formal  training  (page  67),  and  the  faculty  doctrine  (page  107), 
and  praises  humanistic  subjects  because  by  means  of  them 
"  moral  ideas  can  be  introduced"  (pages  lGO-1),  he  is  on  our  side 
or  we  on  his. 

These,  however,  are  broad  and  untechnical  issues.  There  are 
other  things  in  Mr.  Keatinge's  treatment  which  come  under 
another  category.  There  is  an  adoption,  it  seems  to  me,  of 
Herbartian  psychology — or  the  language  of  Herbartian  psycho- 
logy— even  to  its  minor  details. 

Now,  for  my  own  part,  I  am  an  Herbartian  only  in  a  vague 
sense.  The  intimate  relationship  between  instruction  (or  some 
equivalent  of  instruction),  apperception,  interest,  and  character 
is  all  the  Herbartianism  for  which  I  care,  and  it  is  quite  inde- 
pendent of  any  Herbartian  psj'chology.  I  have  rarely  employed 
Herbart's  metaphors  about  "  contrary  ideas,"  "  fusion  of  ideas," 
and  the  rest.  But  Mr.  Keatinge  has  deliberately  and  elaboratelj- 
done  this.  He  endows  ideas  with  "energy"  and  "intrinsic 
virility,"  which  "energy"  or  "virility"  is  reduced  to  "  inert- 
ness "  or  "  latency "  when  ideas  pass  beyond  the  "  margin." 
He  speaks  of  ideas  "  blocking  "  or  "  obstructing  "  or  "  checking  " 
each  other,  "  competing  "  with  each  other  or  "  impinging  "  on 
each  other  from  difl'erent  sides  of  the  "  blocked  point.  '  He  speaks 
of  ideas  "  sinking"  and  "shooting  up,"  forming  "great  masses" 
or  "  groups  of  ideas,"  and  "  setting  the  mechanism  in  motion." 
He  speaks  of  "  systems  of  ideas,"  of  ideas  "  filling  the  centre  of 
consciousness,"  of  "  centre  points  for  idea  systems,"  of  "  small 
idea  systems  left  to  float,"  of  "  meaning  being  imposed  upon 
new  ideas,"  and  he  goes  a  length  from  which  most  Herbartians 
would  shrink  when  he  speaks  of  "  ideas  that  will  produce  in- 

I  have  never  in  my  life  employed  the  minute  terminology  of 
Herbartianism  in  this  wholesale  way,  I  have  shrunk  from  it  as 
too  fatally  complete  and  too  repulsively  technical.  I  have,  in- 
deed, done  little  more — as  Mr.  Keatinge  says — than  "  coquette  " 
with  this  "  outworn  psychology."  I  did  not  know  that  so  des- 
perate a  flirt  as  Mr.  Keatinge  was  already  in  the  field  ruthlessly 
cutting  me  out,  or  I  might  have  "  coquetted "  more  adven- 
turously. The  truth  is  that  I  have  felt  all  the  time  that  the 
goddess  was  a  trifle  faded,  though  beautiful  yet  in  spots ;  so  I 
have  timidly  apologized  for  her  perhaps,  sometimes  going  even 
so  tar  as  to  utter  a  warm  word  of  chivalrous  appreciation. 
But  never  has  my  admiration  been  so  whole-hearted  as  Mr.  Keat- 
inge's. He  calls  her  "  outworn  "  ;  but,  with  all  her  faults  of  age 
and  temper,  he  loves  her  still — every  inch  of  her. 

Banter  apart,  I  would  ask  whether  Mr.  Keatinge's  extensive 
employment  of  even  the  miimte  terminology  of  Herbartian 
psychology  does  not  prove  the  usefulness,  convincingness,  or  at 
least  the  immense  plausibility  of  that  terminology  P  I  can  draw 
no  other  inference.  I  am  glad  he  uses  it.  I  believe  he  uses  it 
because  he  sees  that,  though  it  explains  nothing  ultimately,  it 
brings  us  closer  up  to  explanation  than  the  terminology  of  the 
"  faculty  "  psychology.  Heterodox  and  half-hearted  myself,  I 
therefore  welcome  him  as  leader  of  the  straiter  sect  of  the  Her- 
bartians ;  and,  as  my  hand  meets  liis,  I  offer  a  suggestion  that 
may  serve  to  fill  up  a  serious  gap  in  his  own  teaching. 

2.     "  CONTRARIANT   IdE.VS." 

I  refer  to  the  mystery  that  surrounds  his  "  contrariant  ideas." 
Now  Herbart  talked  of  "contrary  ideas,"  and  described  them  as 
"checking"  each  other.  Mr.  Keatinge  has  noticed  a  similar 
phenomenon  in  moral  education.  Direct  attempts  to  deal  with 
moral  questions  at  school  awaken  "  contrariant "  ideas  in  the 
bosoms  of  schoolboys. 

Now  what  is  the  origin  of  these  ideas  ?  Mr.  Keatinge  hints  at 
"  boredom,"  and  I  frankly  concede  that,  if  teachers  ai-e  bores 
and  dufl'ers,  they  will  awaken  "  conti'ariant  ideas  "  not  oidy  in 
the  course  of  moi'al  instruction,  but  in  the  course  of  geography 
and  every  other  subject.  Mr.  Keatinge's  experience  of  teachers 
seems  to  have  been  unfortunate ;  moral  instruction  consists  of 
"  assaults  on  a  boy's  moral  standard,"  "  attacks  upon  his  code  of 

Jan.  1,  1909.] 



morals."  I  admit  the  whole  case  for  '"  contrariance "  it'  our 
teachers  are  of  this  breed;  ueglectful  in  allowing  a  bad  code  of 
morals  to  grow  up  under  their  noses,  arbitrary  and  tactless  in 
"assaulting"  it.  The  head  master's  minatory  address  in  "The 
Hill,"  or  an  exhortation  of  a  still  cruder  kind,  seems  the  only 
type  of  "  direct  moral  instruction  "  of  which  secondary  mastei's 
have  any  conception. 

This  matter  is  vital  to  an  understanding  of  what  is  intended 
by  the  advocates  of  moral  instruction.  If  opponents  will  insist 
on  retaining  in  their  minds  either  a  picture  of  Miss  Montflathers 
IniUying  little  Nell,  or  of  some  grotesque  pedagogue  of  their  own 
acquaintance  (or  imagination)  falling  into  a  fury  at  a  boyish 
freak  or  at  some  youthful  defiance  of  rules,  all  hope  of  con- 
vincing them  is  vain  ;  they  are  hopelessly  biased  and  unimagina- 
tive, "inaccessible,"  as  Matthew  Arnold  said,  "to  ideas,"  living 
examples  of  the  truth  underlying  Bernard  Shaw's  taunt  "that 
every  man  over  forty  is  a  scoundrel." 

Moral  instruction  implies  (for  its  advocates)  appeal  to  the  per- 
sonality, the  conscience,  the  reason,  the  idealism  of  the  youth. 
For  my  part,  I  do  not  believe  for  a  moment  that  stories  of 
heroism  or  effort,  told  or  read  to  a  class  and  accompanied  by  a 
few  words  of  frank  and  rational  discussion,  will  awaken  con- 
trariant  ideas  at  all ;  they  will  rather  awaken  "  similar  ideas," 
"  apperceiving  ideas  " — provided  the  pi-evious  experience  and 
education  of  the  child  has  not  been  gravely  at  fault.  I  know  little 
except  by  hearsay  of  the  typical  public-school  boy,  but  I  know 
something  of  pupil-teachers,  and  I  have  generally  found  them 
responsive  to  the  discussion  of  serious  topics  of  morals  or  politics. 
My  belief  is — and  I  -find  it  confirmed  by  such  authorities  as 
Dr.  Stanley  Hall  and  his  disciple.  Dr.  J.  W.  Slaughter — that 
adolescence  is  "  the  golden  age  of  adult  influence,  provided  it  is 
wise  enough  not  to  offend."  The  years  when  conscience,  reason, 
and  personality  are  developing  by  leaps  and  bounds  are  pre- 
cisely the  plastic  years  when — I  will  not  say  direct  moral 
"instruction  '  if  the  last  word  is  offensive,  but — direct  moral 
elucidation,  illumination,  suggestion,  or  something  of  this  kind 
will  be  specially  craved  and  assimilated.  But,  I  I'epeat,  if  the 
instruction  is  of  the  kind  described  by  Mr.  Keatinge  ("  attacks," 
"  assaults,"  &c.)  it  will  certainly  be  worse  than  ineifective. 

Our  critics  seem  hard  to  please.  "  Assaults  upon  a  boy'n 
moral  standards  "  they  regard  at  one  moment  as  likely  to  awaken 
"  contrariant  ideas."  We  agree.  Such  methods  are  peculiarly  I 
reprehensible.  The  teacher  should,  in  adolescence  more  particu-  ' 
larlj,  appeal  to  the  j'outh's  reason,  conscience,  and  personality.  ' 
But  this  will  not  please  our  critics  either.  There  should  be  no 
"  reasoning "  about  morals,  no  abstract  or  general  treatment 
of  such  weighty  themes :  the  teacher  should  deal  with  them 
"  incidentally,"  "  as  occasion  serves  " — in  other  words,  "  when 
some  offence  has  been  committed."  Thus,  we  are  back  again  at 
"  assaults  upon  a  boy's  moral  standards." 

But  this  "contrariance"  question  needs  further  discussion. 
I  admit  "contrariance."  I  thank  Mr.  Keatinge  for  teaching  me 
that  word,  and  presently  I  will  do  something  which  he  himself  has 
not  done — namely,  give  an  explanation  of  the  phenomenon.  But, 
first,  I  distinguish  pseudo-contrariance  from  real. 

Contrariant  passions  are  not,  I  tliiiik,  directly  intended  by 
Mr.  Keatinge.  His  contribution  to  educational  terminology  would 
be  a  small  one  if  he  were  but  emphasizing  the  fact  that  there  is 
a  good  deal  of  the  animal  in  us  yet.  Nor  are  contrariant  liahits 
his  theme.  Passion  and  habit  are  serious  questions  for  all  of 
us,  and  there  is  no  need  of  a  new  treatise  to  convince  us  of  the 
fact.  And  let  me  add  here  that  I  think  opponents  of  moral  in- 
struction have  been  dwelling  too  much  on  the  one  or  two  graver 
problems  of  moral  education,  where  acute  temptation  is  almost 
inevitable ;  while  supporters  of  moral  instruction  have  been 
thinking  more  of  social  and  civic  duties,  in  performing  which 
temptation  need  scarcely  assail  at  all,  and  to  which,  once  we 
haye  seen  (or  apperceived)  them,  we  may  say 

Nor  know  we  anything  ao  fair 
As  is  the  smile  upon  thy  face. 

The  distinction  is  important.  Our  opponents  are  thinking  of  a 
few  conventional  virtues  (Mr.  Paton's  list  rarely  goes  beyond 
diligence,  thoroughness,  truthfulness,  honesty,  and  purity). 
We,  too,  are  thinking  of  these  ;  but  we  think  of  others  also — of 
some  only  just  rising  above  the  moral  horizon  of  the  world — 
and  we  believe  that,  in  the  case  of  these  virtues,  there  need  be 
little  or  no  conflct  at  all.  Illumination  will  lead  to  action  ;  volition 
will  follow  insight.  Even  to-day  decent  men  feel  no  tfrnidation 
to  be  dirty  or  boorish,  and  in  centuries  to  come  they  may  feel  no 
temptation   to   be  selfish  or  lazy.      In  short,  the  advocates  of 

moral  instruction  regard  human  nature  as  in  less  desperate  way 
than  the  opponents. 

Admitting,  however,  the  existence  of  "  contrariant "  passions 
and  "contrariant"  habits,  I  pass  on.  Direct  instruction,  I  agree, 
is  only  one  out  of  many  weapons  when  these  enemies  of  the 
moral  weal  have  to  be  assailed.  Against  them  both  there  is  the 
weapon  of  "  many-sided  interest "  whose  potency  I  have  else- 
where discussed ;  and  there  are  other  weapons,  too — such  as  re- 
ligion. I  smile  when  I  find  the  Herbartians  (including  myself) 
regarded  as  mere  champions  of  "  direct  "  methods  in  the  place 
of  indirect.*  I  thought  every  one  knew  that  Herbart  and  his 
followers  emphasized  the  almost  total  inadequacy  of  direct 
methods  when  employed  in  a  vacuum  where  apperception  is  im- 
possible. Was  it  not  Herbart  who  said  that  "  the  individuality 
must  first  be  changed  through  widened  interest  .  .  .  before 
teachers  can  venture  to  think  they  will  find  it  amenable  to  the 
general  obligatory  moral  law "  ?  And  when,  similarly,  I  find 
our  opponents,  apparently  in  ignorance  of  what  maybe  called  the 
"  downfall  of  the  dogma  of  formal  or  faculty  training,"  assuring 
the  world  that  training  is  more  important  than  instruction,  I  smile 
again  (though  this  time  rather  bitterly)  and  recollect  that  Herbart 
elaborately  distinguished  between  the  functions  of  instruction, 
training,  and  school  discipline,  wrote  page  after  page  on  each  of 
the  three,  and  showed  their  mutual  relations  and  relative  values. 
One  almost  sickens  of  controversy  when  one  is  reminded,  by  men 
who  apparently  have  never  in  their  lives  read  a  scientific  work 
on  pedagogics,  that  we  must  not  "omit"  or  "forget"  this  or 
that,  when  we  have  no  desire  but  to  remember. 

But  my  proff'ered  explanation  of  "  contrariant  ideas  "  has  not 
been  forthcoming.     The  reader  shall  now  have  it. 

I  assert  that — after  we  have  made  a  certain  allowance  for 
adolescent  secretiveness,  for  an  apparent,  though  not  real, 
Philistinism  on  the  part  of  youth,  for  a  refusal  to  be  demon- 
strably sentimental  and  responsive,  for  what  has  been  called  by 
students  of  pedagogics  a  "  low  power  of  expi-ession  "  ;  and  after 
we  have  made  the  other  allowances  detailed  above,  for  incom- 
petence on  the  part  of  pedagogues  and  for  the  existence  in  us 
all  of  a  sensual  life  —  if  ideas  "  contrariant "  to  reasonable 
morality  arise  in  the  minds  of  our  pupils,  the  fault  is  with  our 
educational  methods. 

We  must  deliberately  or  unintentionally  have  adopted  a  iahu 
of  moral  topics,  and  regarded  them  as  "  bad  form,"  in  the  pursuit 
of  which  policy  we  must  not  only  have  neglected  to  supply 
copious  apperception  material,  or  (what  is  much  the  same 
thing  on  the  verbal  side)  a  copious  moral  terminology,  through 
the  agency  of  indirect  moral  instruction  ;  but  we  must  also  have 
shown,  b}'  our  attitude  towards  such  moral  matters  as  have  fit- 
fully presented  themselves  in  school  life  or  in  our  school  subjects, 
that  the  less  said  about  them  the  better.  If  this  explanation  be 
the  true  one,  "  contrariant  ideas  "  towards  moral  instruction  or 
elucidation  of  a  systematic  kind,  are  seen  to  be  almost  inevitable. 
Tahu  is  no  novelty  in  human  life.  If  we  allow  our  schools  to 
frown  on  hard  work  as  mere  "  swotting,"  and  on  the  discussion 
of  serious  topics  as  a  form  of  "  priggishness,"  of  course  "con- 
trariance" will  arise. 

Now  every  public-school  opponent  of  moral  instruction  bears 
witness  to  this  fabu',  little  recognizing,  as  a  rule,  that  he  is  help- 
ing some  of  us  to  fill  the  mysterious  gap  in  Mr.  Keatinge's 
psychology.  "  The  better  the  class  and  the  better  the  master 
the  less  will  be  said  "  is  Mr.  Paton's  way  of  expressing  it.  The 
attitude  adopted  by  all  secondary-school  opponents  of  moral  in- 
struction must  indeed  strike  the  primary  teacher  as  amusing  in 
the  extreme.  For  all  these  years  he  has  been  expected,  in  his 
religious  or  Biblical  lessons,  ro  deal  most  expressly  and  directly 
with  moral  laws ;  he  has  had  to  do  this  whether  he  wished  or  no, 
and  he  has  had  to  do  it  (horror  of  horrors !)  in  a  "  watertight 
compartment,"  bounded  by  9  o'clock  a.m.  on  one  side  and  9.45, 
or  thereabouts,  on  the  otlier.  And  the  primary  teacher  has 
been  at  Iteast  sufficiently  competent  to  be  able  to  prevent,  so  far, 
the  emergence  of  "  contrariance."  His  Bible  lessons  may  not 
have  been  perfect,  but  they  are  not  commonly  supposed  to  have 
created  a  hatred  of  moral  topics.  This  latter  is  the  crowning 
glory  of  secondary  education,  and  it  is  a  glory  (or  an  infamy) 
which  any  one  with  an  elementary  acquaintance  with  Herbartian- 
ism  could  have  predicted.  "Keep  back  the  supply  of  apperceji- 
tion  material,  and  you  will  fail  to  build  up  an  apperception 
organ  " ;  that  is  the  negative  side  of  the  process,  and  it  explains 
why  our  public-school  boys  are,  as  one  of  their  defenders  admits, 

*  S.^.,  by  Mr.  Keatinge.     See  the  contributions  to  the  recent  Moral 
Education  Congress  (page  132J. 



[Jau.  1,  1909. 

"  morally  colour  blind."  Link  on  to  the  mention  of  moral  topics, 
the  idea  that  such  topics  are  tabu,  make  fun  of  the  word  "  moral," 
scatter  broadcast  the  word  "  prig,"  and  you  will  produce  the 
phenomenon  of  "  contrariance  "  as  inevitably  as  if  you  link  on  to 
the  idea  of  hard  study  the  notion  that  it  is  underbred  "  swotting." 

That  is  my  solution  of  the  "  contrariance  "  enigma,  and  I  would 
point  out  that  no  reports  of  "  contrariance  "  to  moral  instruction 
or  discussion  come  from  Japan  or  from  Catholic  colleges,  or 
from  any  institutions  except  English  public  schools.  Nor,  in 
reading  Mill's  "  Autobiography,"  have  I  found  any  recorded 
traces  of  a  "  contrariant  "  attitude  towards  his  father's  "  moral 
inculcations,"  "grave  exhortations,"  or  "stern  reprobations" 
relative  to  "  justice,  temperance,  veracity,  perseverance,  readi- 
ness to  encounter  pain,  and  especially  labour,  regard  for  the 
public  good,  estimation  of  persons  according  to  their  merits," 
and  so  forth  ;  the  explanation  being  that  James  Mill  took  his 
son  into  his  confidence  and  appealed  to  his  reason.*  Since  the 
time  of  Locke  it  is  illegitimate  to  speak  of  ideas  that  have  no 
origin  or  antecedents ;  and  if  "  contrariant  "  ideas  exist,  their 
origin  must  be  traceable,  and  I  have  traced  it.  Mr.  Keatinge, 
on  the  other  hand,  has  suggested  no  origin  at  all  but  one  that 
is  applicable  to  all  lessons  (geography,  &c.)  that  are  dull.f 

I  admit,  however,  that  it  once  " contrariant  ideas"  have  ob- 
tained a  footing  in  the  soul,  Mr.  Keatinge's  plan  may  be  ad- 
visable ;  the  teacher  may  advisably  be  very,  very  "  reticent " ; 
very,  very  "  discreet "  ;  very,  very  capable  of  "  diverting  the 
boys'  attention  from  the  moral  undercurrent  of  their  work "  ; 
and  very,  very  fastidious  to  preserve  the  "  covering  of  reserve." 
And  I  admit  freely  that  if  the  phrase  "  moral  instruction  "  is 
offensive,  there  is  no  need  to  press  it ;  and  that,  as  to  method,  an 
organized  series  of  literary  readings,  or  of  biographies,  or  of  dis- 
cussions, or  of  sermons,  or  of  talks,  or  whatever  plan  may  be  found 
most  convenient,  will  satisfy  the  advocates  of  moral  instruction. 
What  will  not  satisfy  them  is  a  perpetual  and  unintelligent  con- 
fusion between  "training"  and  "instruction"  (or  its  equiv- 
alent) ;  or  the  employment  of  conventional  and  almost  hypo- 
critical expressions  concei'ning  "atmosphere,"  "personality  of 
the  teacher,"  and  the  like — expressions  which,  through  their 
very  obviousness,  are  perfectly  useless,  and  merely  mean  that  the 
problem  of  a  renovated  curriculum  is  to  be  shelved. 
(To  be  contimied.) 



The  following  letter  from  Sir  R.  L.  Morant  to  Dr.  Gow,  dated 
November  17,  1908,  is  the  Board  of  Education's  reply  to  the 
letter  from  the  delegates  printed  in  our  last  number  (see  page 
527) : 

I  am  directed  to  send  the  foUowiusr  reply  to  the  letter  conceming  the 
constitution  of  a  new  Teachers'  Reffistration  Council  which  was  ad- 
dressed to  the  President  of  this  Board  by  some  of  the  delegates  of  the 
twelve  educational  societies  who  before  addressed  him  on  this  subject, 
and  was  forwarded  b3'  you  on  October  25. 

1 .  The  Board  learn  with  regret  from  that  letter  that  your  Committee 
have  apparently  been  unable  to  agree  together  upon  any  effective  amend- 
ments of  their  original  scheme  which  would  make  the  new  Council  to  a 
greater  degree  "representative  of  the  teaching  profession "  as  required 
by  the  Act  of  Parliament. 

2.  The  Board  find  it  difficult  to  understand  how  your  Committee 
could  see  fit  to  resolve  that  "the  plan  of  the  Registration  Coimcil 
already  recommended  be  further  pressed  upon  the  Board  of  Education," 
in  spite  of  the  earnest  protests  submitted  to  your  consideration  from 
various  important  branches  of  the  teaching  profession  against  the  non- 
representative  character  of  the  proposed  Council  and  against  the  exclu- 
sion from  it  of  all  direct  representation  of  those  branches  of  the 

*  "Conformably  to  my  father's  usual  practice  of  explaining  to  me 
as  far  as  possible  the  reasons  for  what  he  required  me  to  do." — "Auto- 

t  I  would  add  that  the  experiments  of  Dr.  Boris  Sidis,  from  which 
Mr.  Kea  inge  gathers  encouragement,  were  absolutely  arbitrary  and 
meaningless,  whereas  advocates  of  moral  instruction  have  the  idea  that 
genuine  morality  is  rational  and  meaningful.  Until  our  opponents 
clear  their  minds  of  the  notion  that  such  instruction  is  a  process  of 
mingled  humbug,  bullying,  fume,  and  tyranny,  we  can  make  no  progress 
in  mutual  understanding. 

3.  The  Board  note  with  surprise  that  your  Committee  have  not  invited 
to  their  more  recent  gatherings,  and  have  apparently  in  no  way  con- 
sulted, any  representatives  of  those  branches  of  the  teaching  profession 
that  had  thus  expressed  their  sense  of  injustice  at  having  been  excluded 
from  deUberations  of  such  importance  to  their  professonial  interests.  It 
seems  to  the  Board  very  difficult  to  suppose  that  this  treatment  of  the  pro- 
blem will  be  likely  to  lead  to  the  establishment  of  a  Council  that  will  be 
regarded  as  "  representative "  in  any  complete  sense  by  "the  teaching 

4.  The  Board  are,  however,  interested  to  learn  that  there  were  "  some 
members  of  the  Committee  who  thought  that  certain  modifications  of 
the  plan  submitted  to  the  Board  might  be  desirable"  ;  and  I  am  to 
state  that  if  you,  or  your  Committee,  or  those  individual  members, 
would  submit  those  "modifications"  to  the  Board  in  writing,  with  a 
clear  indication  of  the  difficulties  or  anomalies  or  injustices  which  they 
are  respectively  intended  to  remove,  and  of  the  manner  in  which  the}- 
would  operate  in  practice,  this  Board  would  gladly  give  them  the  most 
careful  and  favourable  consideration,  and  would  bring  them  to  the  notice 
of  such  branches  of  the  teaching  profession  as  would  be  hkely  to  be 
interested,  with  a  view  to  obtaining  a  general  consensus  of  professional 
opinion  upon  them. 

5.  The  Board  must,  on  the  other  hand,  demur  emphatically  to  certain 
propositions  contained  in  the  letter  under  reply,  «.y.,  (i.)  that  modifica- 
tions of  your  proposals  for  the  composition  of  the  new  CouncO,  which 
would  render  it  more  truly  representative  of  the  teaching  profession  as 
required  by  Parliament,  "  can  only  be  made  by  the  Board"  ;  (ii.)  that 
this  ' '  Board  alone  is  in  a  position  to  arbitrate  between  rival  claims ' '  of 
different  sections  of  the  teaching  profession  who  find  themselves  ac- 
corded no  direct  representation  in  your  proposals ;  and  (iii.)  that  it  is, 
therefore,  now  incumbent  on  this  Board  (for  this  is  what  the  letter 
implies)  to  formulate  a  scheme  for  the  solution  of  the  difficulties  involved 
in  your  Committee's  proposals,  and  to  take  steps  at  once  to  bring  into 
existence  a  new  Teachers'  Registration  Conned  with  a  view  to  the 
speedy  establishment  of  an  official  Register  of  Teachers  for  this  country. 

6.  In  reply  to  this  part  of  the  letter,  the  Board  find  themselves  com- 
pelled to  remind  you  that  the  express  purpose  for  which  Clause  2.5  was 
introduced  into  the  Education  BUI,  19U(i,  and  again  into  the  Bdl  of 
1907,  was  to  make  it  no  longer  necessary  in  view  of  the  insoluble  dif- 
ficuliiies  that  had  arisen  in  connexion  with  the  then  existing  Register) 
that  there  should  be  any  official  Teachers'  Registry  at  all,  so  far  as  the 
Government  or  any  Government  Department  was  concerned.  It  is  true 
that  subsequently,  quite  late  in  the  course  of  the  debates  on  the  Bill  in 
the  House  of  Lords,  an  amendment  to  this  clause  was  added  at  the 
instance  of  representatives  of  certain  educational  bodies.  The  purpose  of 
the  amendment  was  to  leave  the  door  open  for  the  possibility  of  there 
being'  at  some  future  time  an  official  Teachers'  Register,  if  and  when 
(but,  as  was  clearly  understood,  only  if  and  when)  proposals  were  forth- 
coming for  a  Teachers'  Council  and  Register  which  should  be  truly 
representative  of  the  teaching  profession,  and  the  constitution  of  which 
no  substantial  body  of  teachers  in  this  country  shoidd  lo  ik  upon  as 
involving  any  injustice.  And,  as  you  will  rememb;!',  one  of  the  essen- 
tial elements  in  the  arrangement  under  which  the  amendment  was 
at  the  time  inserted  in  the  Bid,  was  that  proposals  for  such  a  Council 
and  Register  were  to  be  evolved  by  the  teaching  profession  itself,  .and 
were  not  to  be  the  work  of  any  Government  Department.  In  these 
circumstances  it  is  obvious  that  it  would  not  be  proper  for  this  Board,  as 
you  have  suggested,  now  to  intervene  to  impose  its  arbitration  upon  any 
"  rival  claims  "  of  different  portions  of  the  teaching  profession.  For  it 
would  clearly  contravene  the  whole  principle  upon  which  the  new 
CouncU  and  Register  were  (by  common  consent)  to  be  based  were  this 
Board  to  step  in  and  to  fix,  by  Departmental  action  instead  of  upon 
proposals  made  by  the  teaching  profession,  the  constitution  and  compo- 
sition of  the  new  Council.  Yet  this  is  precisely  what  would  result  were 
this  office,  as  you  suggest,  now  to  determine  the  various  "  modifica- 
tions "  of  the  proposals  of  your  Committee  needed  to  remove  the  many 
difficulties  that  are  involved  in  them,  as  pointed  out  to  you  and  your 
colleagues  at  this  office  last  May  and  confirmed  by  the  correspondence 
from  the  various  Educational  Associations  addressed  to  this  Board  and 
to  your  Committee. 

7.  The  President  of  this  Board  greatly  regrets  the  delay  that  has 
occuiTed  in  this  matter  since  the  passing  of  the  Act,  in  consequence  of 
the  ineffectual  nature  of  the  proceedings  of  your  Conference  since  that 
date,  resulting,  it  would  seem,  from  their  insufficiently  representative 
character.  He  desires  it  to  be  made  perfectly  plain  that  this  Board  are 
and  have  always  been  anxious  to  receive,  as  soon  as  possible,  from  the 
teaching  profession  proposals  for  a  new  Teachers'  Registration  Council 
which  are  considered  just  and  fair  by  the  various  branches  of  the  pro- 
fession, since  by  this  means,  and  by  this  means  alone,  wiU  it  be  possible 
for  the  requisite  steps  to  be  taken,  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of 
the  Act,  for  bringing  about  the  estabhshment  of  a  new  CouncO  without 
further  delay.  X  am,  therefore,  dheoted,  in  conclusion,  to  repeat  thiit 
the  Board  will  be  glad  to  receive  a  clear,  written  statement  of  the 
ticular  "  modifications  "  considered  desirable  by  some  members  of  your 
Committee  if  it  is  beUeved  that  they  woidd,  in  fact,  produce  a  constitu- 
tion for  a  Council  so  composed  as  substantially  to  fulfil  the  requirements 
of  the  statute  in  being  really  "  representative  of  the  teaching  pro- 

Jau.  1,  1909.] 



Besides  the  foregoing  letter,  and  the  letter  it  answers,  there 
are  included  in  a  White  Paper  (Cd.  4402;  2|d.,  Wyraan)  the 
letters  (omitting  some  which  were  addressed  to  the  Board  by 
private  individuals)  which  have,  up  to  the  present,  been  received 
by  the  Board  since  the  publication  on  July  10  of  the  "  Scheme 
for  a  new  Teachers'  Registration  Council  proposed  to  the  Board 
of  Education  by  the  representatives  of  certain  Educational  Asso- 
ciations." [Cd.  418.5.]  In  each  case  they  were  suitably  acknow- 
ledged, and  a  copy  was  sent  to  Dr.  Gow  for  the  information  of 
his  Committee.  The  twenty  letters  may  be  conveniently  grouped 
in  the  following  six  categories : — (a)  teachers  of  little  children, 
(6)  teachers  of  art  and  drawing),  (c)  teachers  of  music,  [d)  teach- 
ers of  manual  training,  (e)  teachers  of  special  subjects,  such  as 
shorthand,  gymnastics,  &c.,  (/)  associations  of  head  teachers,  as 
distinguished  from  assistant  teachers,  [g)  teachers  of  the  deaf. 
For  convenience  of  reference  the  proposals  of  "the  representa- 
tives of  certain  educational  associations  "  are  again  set  out  in  an 


Mr.  H.  Wesley  Dennis,  Chairman  of  the  Teachers'  Guild,  has 
addressed  the  following  letter  on  behalf  of  the  Guild  to  the 
Secretary  to  the  Board  of  Education  (December  18) ; — 

At  a  meetinff  held  on  December  10,  the  Council  of  the  Teachers' 
Guild  considered  the  White  Papers  (Cd.  4185  and  Cd.  4402)  relating 
to  a  Scheme  for  a  new  Teachers'  Registration  Council,  and  instructed 
me  to  embody  in  a  letter  to  you  the  conclusions  which  were  then  drawn 
and  adopted  by  the  meeting  with  virtually  no  diffei'etioe  of  opinion. 

The  formation  of  a  Register  that  should  include  duly  trained  and 
qualified  teacheis  of  every  grade  has  been  one  of  the  main  objects  of  the 
Teachers'  Guild  ever  since  its  foundation.  AVhile  consrious  of  the 
inherent  defect  which  vitiated  and  eventually  wrecked  the  old  Register 
— a  radical  error  against  which  the  Guild  from  the  first  protested — it 
was  with  profound  regret  that  the  Guild  learnt  the  determination  of  the 
Government  in  1906  to  abolish  the  Register  instead  of  amending  its 
constitution.  With  no  less  satisfaction  they  welcomed  Section  16  (2)  of 
the  Education  (Administrative  Provisions)  Act.  19(i7,  as  the  promise  in 
the  near  future  of  a  new  Register  that  would  represent  the  teaching 
profession  as  a  whole,  with  no  invidious  distinction  of  rank  as  deter- 
mined by  employment. 

The  draft  Scheme  for  a  Registration  Council  proposed  and  received 
unanimously  at  the  meeting  of  Delegates  held  at  the  College  of  Preceptore 
on  Febiiiary  29  last  was  submitted  to  the  Council  of  the  Guild  on 
March  5  and  unanimously  approved.  It  was  not,  in  their  judgment,  an 
ideal  scheme,  and  there  were  vaiious  minor  points  in  which  it  seemed  to 
some  members  capable  of  improvement ;  but  the  Council  considered  it 
sound  in  principle  and  a  fair  compromise  between  the  conflicting  claims 
of  primaiy  and  secondary  teachers,  which  the  old  Register  had  so  dis- 
astrously discriminated.  They  considered,  fiu'ther,  that  any  defects  or 
omissions  in  the  scheme  could  and  would  be  remedied  and  made  good  by 
the  Board  of  Education. 

The  Council  regret,  therefore,  to  gather  from  the  published  corre- 
spondence, and  in  particiilar  from  yoru:  last  letter  to  Dr.  Gow,  d.ated 
November  17,  that  this  is  not  the  view  of  the  President  of  the  Board. 
In  it  you  speak  of  "  the  possibility  of  there  being  at  some  future  time 
an  official  Teachers'  Register,  if  and  when  (but  only  if  and  when)  pro- 
posals were  forthcoming  for  a  Teachers'  Council  and  Register  which 
should  be  truly  representative  of  the  teaching  profession,  and  the  consti- 
tution of  which  no  substantial  body  of  teachers  shotild  look  upon  as 
involving  any  injustice." 

My  Coimcil  desire,  with  all  respect,  to  point  out  that  the  condition  you 
now  impose  is  not  contemplated  in  the  Act  of  1907  and  is  one  that  it  is 
impossible  for  teachers  to  satisfy.  A  Council  to  which  each  separate 
body  of  teachers  sent  a  representative  would  be  unworkable  by  re:iSon  of 
its  numbers  .and,  ftu'ther,  by  reason  of  the  disproportionate  representa- 
tion, it  would  not  be  truly  representative  of  the  teaching  profession. 
Already  some  twenty  more  or  less  "  substantial  "  bodies  of  teachers  have 
submitted  to  the  Board  claims  for  representation,  and  there  are  other 
bodies  to  come  whose  claims  would  deserve  at  least  equal  attention. 
There  exists  no  parliament  or  judicial  committee  of  teachers  competent 
to  hear  and  adjudicate  upon  such  claims.  The  delegates  who  at  your 
instance  attempted  the  task  and  who  have  in  your  judgment  so  signally 
failed,  decline,  for  the  sufficient  reasons  assigned  by  their  Chairman,  to 
take  any  fuither  action. 

In  con<lusion,  my  Council  would  humbly  suggest  to  you  that  the 
Board  of  Education  is  the  only  court  competent  to  arbitrate  upon  rival 
claims  and  that  it  is  to  the  Board  of  Education  that  Parliament  has 
a.ssigned  the  duty  of  "constituting  a  Registration  Council  representative 
of  the  teaching  profession."  They  therefore  appeal  through  you  to  the 
President  of  the  Board  to  take  immediate  steps  for  the  issuing  of  an 
Order  in  Council  rmder  the  Education  Act  of  1907.  Thus  and  thus  only 
can  he  remedy  the  grave  injtuy  that  the  teaching  profession  has  suffered 
and  is  suffering  by  the  suppression  of  the  Register. 



A  MEETING  of  the  Council  was  held  at  the  College,  Bloomsbury 
Square,  on  December  12.  Present :  Prof.  Adams,  Vice-President, 
in  the  chair;  Dr.  Armitage  Smith,  Mr.  Bain,  Mr.  Barlet,  Rev. 
J.  O.  Bevan.Mr.  Brown,  Miss  Urookshank,  Miss  Dawes,  Mr.  Eve, 
Mr.  Hawe,  Mr.  Kelland,  Mr.  Ladell,  Rev.  R.  Lee,  Prof.  Lyde, 
Dr.  Maples,  Dr.  Marx,  Mr.  Millar-Inglis,  Dr.  Moody,  Mr. 
Morgan,  Mr.  Pendlebury,  Miss  Punnett,  Mr.  Rule,  Rev.  Dr. 
Scott,  Mr.  Starbuck,  Mr.  Storr,  Mr.  Vincent,  and  Mr.  White. 

The  minutes  of  the  last  meeting  were  read  and  confirmed. 

The  Secretary  reported  that  the  Certificate  and  Lower  Forms 
Examinations  had  been  held  on  December  8-12  at  1.50  centres 
in  the  United  Kingdom  and  at  30  Colonial  centres.  The  number 
of  candidates  entered  was  about  6,700.  For  the  Christmas 
Examination  of  Teachers  for  the  College  Diplomas  the  number 
of  entries  was  about  670. 

The  best  thanks  of  the  Council  were  voted  to  Mr.  John  Angell, 
who  was  compelled,  on  account  of  the  state  of  his  health,  to 
resign  the  office  of  honorary  Local  Secretary  for  the  College  at 
the  Sl'anchester  Centre,  the  duties  of  which  he  had  discharged 
most  efficiently  for  thirty  years. 

The  Diploma  of  Licentiate  was  granted  to  Mr.  F.  W.  Towle, 
and  that  of  Associate  to  Miss  E.  M.  Anderson,  who  had  satisfied 
the  prescribed  conditions. 

Tlie  Secretary  was  directed  to  express  to  Mrs.  Stewart  the 
pi'ofound  regret  with  which  the  Council  had  received  the 
intelligence  of  the  death  of  her  husband,  the  Rev.  John  Stewart, 
who  had  been  for  more  than  thirty  years  a  valued  member  of 
their  body. 

The  report  of  the  Finance  Committee  was  adopted. 

The  consideration  of  the  report  of  the  Examination  Committee 
was  deferred  to  the  adjourned  meeting  of  the  Council  to  take 
place  on  January  23. 

The  draft  report  of  the  Council  to  the  General  Meeting  was 
considered,  and  was  referred  to  the  President,  Vice-Presidents, 
and  Dean  for  final  revision. 

It  was  resolved  that  the  Council  should  make  a  representation 
to  the  Board  of  Education  protesting  against  the  phrase  "  con- 
ducted for  private  profit "  etuployed  in  official  documents  to 
designate  schools  founded  and  conducted  by  private  enterprise. 

The  following  persons  were  elected  members  of  the  College: — 
Mr.  C.  A.  Dobson,  B A.,  Victoria  House,  Shahginig,  Agra,  India. 
Mrs.  M.  E.  Pillow,  The  Grange,  Thorpe  Road,  Norwich. 

The  following  books  had  been  presented  to  the  Library  since 
the  last  meeting  of  the  Council : — 

By  A.  &  C.  Black.— Fanar's  Eric  (Supplementary  Reader)  ;  Pairgrieve's  The 
Roiind  World. 

By  Blackie  &  Son.— Teacher's  Handbook  to  Blackie's  Adaptable  Arithmetics, 
Book  111. ;  Archibald  and  Rankin's  Electrical  Laboratory  Course  for  .Junior 
Students ;  Cochiane's  Three-Term  Course  in  German ;  Lee's  School  History 
of  English  Literature,  Vol.  ill. ;  Ruskin's  The  Crown  of  Wild  Olive. 

By  the  Cambridge  Univessitt  Press.— Davies's  Sophocles'  Electra  (abridged 
from  Sir  Richard  Jebb's  Edition)  :  South's  Gospel  of  St.  Luke;  C.  W.  Watson's 
Acts  of  the  Apostles :  Foster  Watson's  The  English  Grammar  Schools  to  1660 ; 
Winstanlev's  Chaucer's  Clerkes  Tale  and  Squieres  Tale. 

By  MAciiiLLAN  &  Co.— Dowse's  Book  of  Poetry  illustrative  of  English  History 
(Part  III.).  ,     ,     X      .      T,     ,-  ,. 

By  Methuen  &  Co.— Dunstan's  Organic  Chemistry  :  Rahtz  s  Junior  English ; 
Terry's  Elementary  Latin. 

By  J.  Murray.— Hartog's  Hugo's  Bug-Jargal.  ,.     ,  ,_      .    „ 

By  the  Oxford  University  Press.— Select  English  Classics  edited  by  A.  T. 
Quiller-Couch  (14  Parts).  ,„        .,        ^  ^     ,.  ,. 

By  Wbittaker  &  Co.— Monteverde's  Spanish  Idioms,  and  Spanish  and  English 
Commercial  and  Technical  Terms. 

Transactions  of  the  Second  International  Congress  on  bchool  Hygiene,  1907. 



ELLE    ET    LUI. 
Par  M.  I'Abbe  Makguere. 

Le  samedi,  28  novembre  dernier,  M.  Marguere  nous  parlait  de 
George  Sand  et  d' Alfred  de  Musset.^  Le  conferencier,  en  traitant 
ce  sujet  litteraire  et  psychologique  a  la  fois,  au  point  de  vue  de 
I'bomme  du  monde,  et  du  moraliste  surtout,  en  a  fait  ce  que  Ton 
pourrait  appeler  une  conference  a  these,  et  a  surtout  appuye  sur 
les  legons  que  Ton  en  peut  deduire. 

Ces  deux  grandes  celebrites  du  siecle  dernier,  nous  dit-il, 
semblaient,  sinon  tomber  dans  I'oubli,  mais  voir  du  moins  leur 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 

eclat  s'assombrir,  et  voici  qa'une  histoire  d'amour  va  les  ressus- 
citer  a  la  gloire,  "  ce  soleil  dea  morts,"  et  nous  les  faire  revivre 
dans  toute  la  splendeur  de  leur  genie. 

Mais  il  est  une  chose  certaine,  et  qu'il  faut  dire  des  le  debut, 
c'eso  que  cette  liaison  fit  une  impression  profonde  sur  Musset  et 
change*  pour  ainsi  dire  la  direction  de  son  talent.  II  fut  frappe 
an  OG91IP.  II  avait  aime  pour  la  premiere  fois,  et  les  "  deux 
grands  yeux  noirs  de  la  S  md  "  devaient  le  hanter  toute  sa  vie. 

"  Ote-raoi,  memoire  importune, 

Ote-mji  ces  yeux  que  je  vols  toujours." 

II  s'est  heurte  a  I'un  de  ces  accidents  rares,  extraordinaires,  dont 
on  ne  cite  que  quelques  exemples  :  une  grande  passion.  Heureuse 
passion,  dirons-nous,  car  elle  devait  avoir  sur  lui  une  heureuse 
influence.  Le  poete  de  Holla  devieudra  le  poete  des  Naifs,  et  ce 
que  son  talent  perdra  en  variete  et  en  richesse.  il  le  gagnera  en 
intensito.  George  Sand  sera  la  femme  grace  a  qui  nous  seront 
roveles  chez  Musset  le  coour  et  le  genie. 

George  Sand,  au  contraire,  n'a  pas  du  tout  ressenti  les  memes 
effets.  Ce  n"a  pas  ete  une  date  dans  I'histoire  de  son  ccBur  ni  de 
son  esprit ;  elle  n'a  pas  fait  devier  d'un  pas  cette  vie  qui,  au  point 
de  vue  litteraire,  s'est  ecoulee  aveo  la  plus  grande  regularite. 

Deux  causes  sufRsent  amplement  pour  expliquer  leur  mesin- 
telligence  et  leurs  qnerelles.  L'un  et  I'autre  avaient  un  passe 
derriere  eux  lorsqu'ils  se  sout  connus.  Musset,  il  est  vrai,  ctait 
touche  au  vit  et  aimait  profondement.  Mais  il  rovait  d'un 
amour  ideal,  surhumain,  qu'il  ne  pouvait  trouver  dans  son  araie, 
culte  et  delire  a  la  fois.  George  Sand  revait  pour  son  "  cher 
enfant"  une  sorte  d'affection  semi-maternelle.  Elle  jouait 
vis-i-vis  de  Musset  au  role  protecteur  d'Ange  Gardien. 

En  outre,  ces  deux  etres  d'exception  etaient  trop  auteurs  dans 
leur  liaison.  Au  lieu  de  cacher  leur  vie,  ils  I'ont  etalee  au  grand 
jour.  lis  I'ont  mise  dans  leurs  ecrits  —  ce  que  M.  Doumie 
appelle  si  bien  du  "  cabotinage  litteraire "  —  et  le  monstre 
roraantique  s'est  plu  a  torturer  cet  homme  et  cette  ferarae  qui 
avaient  voulu  prendre  leurs  heros  en  dehors  de  toute  realite,  et 
se  mettre  au-dessus  de  la  natui-e  comme  les  Hernani  et  les  Lelia. 
Pour  nous  en  convaincre,  lisez  les  Leftres  d'un  Voyageur,  de  Sand, 
et  surtout  la  Confession  d'un  Enfant  du  Siecle,  de  Musset.  qui 
restera  comme  I'histoire  d'un  cas,  comme  un  chapitre  de  psycho- 
logie  raorbide  et  de  marivaudage  eff rene. 

Nous  autres,a  plus  de  cinquante  ans  de  distance,  nous  somraes 
obliges  de  constater  que  les  etres  qui  nous  sont  superieurs  par  le 
genie,  n'en  sont  pas  moins  faits  de  bone  et  de  chair  comme  nous. 
Le  genie  lui-meme  ne  dispense  pas  ses  privilegies  d'avoir  part  a 
I'humaine  misere.  Et  George  Sand,  .a  son  retour  a  Paris  flanquee 
du  fameux  docteur  Pagello,  dut  vite  s'apercevoir  que  le  monde 
ne  pent  pas  admettre  qu'il  y  ait  des  privilegies,  ou  plutot  des 
dispenses  en  morale. 

De  toutes  ces  considerations  que  se  degage-t-il  P  Faut-il  con- 
clure,  comme  l'un  de  nos  plus  ceiebres  moralistes,  al'impuissance 
d'aimerP  Nous  serions  tentes  de  croire  que,  comme  Musset  et 
George  Sand,  nous  soufErons  de  la  maladie  du  siecle.  Nous 
doutons,  alors  que  nous  avons  un  grand  besoin  de  croire.  II  est 
un  des  appetits  de  I'homme  qui,  a  I'heure  actuelle,  reste  inassouvi 
et  dont  ou  semble  ne  vouloir  plus  s'occuper :  c'est  le  besoin  de 
I'au-dela,  besoin  qui  nous  est  venu  de  nos  aucetres,  transmis  de 
gener.ition  en  generation  par  les  croyants  de  toute  religion. 
Nous  avons  herite  de  ce  besoin,  il  s'est  infiltre  pour  ainsi  dire 
dans  nos  idees,  nos  moeurs,  nos  habitudes,  notre  milieu,  et  comme 
cette  faculte,  ce  besoin  de  I'au-dela  demande  a  s'exercer,  veut 
vivre.  de  force  elle  se  depense  en  d'etranges  exces.  Nous  somraes 
des  nevroses.  des  neurastheniques.  Voila  le  grand  mal  dont  nous 
soufErons.  Nous  souff  rons  aussi  d'un  autre  mal  qui  minait  ces 
deux  grands  genies,  qui  est  un  exces  de  pensee  critique.  Pour 
nous  guerir,  il  faudrait  done  que  I'equilibre  de  la  vie  intcrieure 
fut  corrige  par  une  volonte  forte  et  energique.  II  faudrait  sur- 
tout que  cet  equilibre  fut  restaure,  que  le  mariage  redevint  saint 
et  sacre.  que  la  femme  fiit  la  compague  de  I'homme,  que  I'enfant 
ne  se  gatat  pas  les  sens  et  I'imagination  entre  les  murs  de  ces 
colleges,  si  bien  appeles  "  des  sentines  d'infection  morale." 

Mais  utopie  que  tout  cela !  Nous  marohons  vers  un  affinement 
de  plus  en  plus  aigu  des  intelligences,  vers  une  separation  de 
plus  en  plus  marquee  des  sexes,  vers  une  centralisation  de  plus 
en  plus  intense,  et  alors  se  verifiera  le  mot  de  I'observateur  : 
"  Les  classes  pauvres  manqueront  de  pain,  les  classes  riches 
d'ideal.  de  religion,  de  sante  morale,  d'influence  et  de  prestige." 

Je  finis,  conclut  le  conterencier,  par  un  mot  de  Musset  dans 
une  lettre  supreme  oil  il  semblait  defier  les  profanateurs  d'outre- 
tombe:  "  Prenez  garde  que  je  n'ecrive  sur  ma  torabe  qu'elle  etait 
sincere,  bonne  et  grande." 

Paix  et  pardon,  disait  la  grande  romanciere  a  Sainte-Beuve. 
Ce  sera  aussi  notre  dernier  mot.  Paix  et  pardon  pour  ces  deux 
tristes  victimes  de  I'amour  romantique,  non  point  tant  parce 
qu'ils  ont  aime,  mais  parce  qu'ils  out  beaucoup  souffert. 

M.  I'abbe  Marguere  s'est  magistralement  acquitte  d'une  tache 
difficile,  que  sa  qualite  de  pretre  et  de  moraliste  a  su  sauve- 
garder  d'un  banal  realisrae  et  elever  a  la  hauteur  d'une  these 
morale.  En  vain  M.  Barlet,  qui  etait  au  fauteuil.  a-t-il  invite 
la  discussion,  et,  se  retranchant  lui-meme  derriere  sa  qualite  de 
profane  pour  ne  point  approfondir  im  sujet  de  si  poignante 
actualite,  il  a  demande  pour  le  conferencier  un  vote  de  remer- 
ciements  bien  mcrites,  sur  qu'il  etait  que  les  personnes  presentes 
emporteraient  de  cette  conference  ample  matiere  a  serieuses 


The  Report  of  the  Committee  on  Oxford  and  Workpeople, 
just  published  at  the  Clarendon  Press  (Is.  net)  has  been  drawn 
up  with  great  care  and  is  satisfactorily  comprehensive  in  scope. 

There  are  interesting  chapters  on  the  educational  movements, 
particularly  affecting  workpeople,  on  the  past  history  of  the 
University,  on  the  University  Extension  movement,  on  the 
demand  for  University  education,  on  the  establishment  of 
tutorial  classes  beyond  the  limits  of  the  University,  on  the  ad- 
mission of  workpeople  to  Oxford,  and  on  the  after  career  of  the 
working-class  students. 

Following  is  a  summary  of  the  Committee's  recommenda- 
tions : — 

1.  Teaching  beyond  the  limits  of  the  University. — Lectures  and  tutorial 
classes — consisting  of  not  more  than  thirty  students  in  each  class — 
should  be  formed  in  certain  centres,  to  undertake  organized  study  for 
minimum  periods  of  two  years.  A  diploma  under  the  authority  of  the 
University  Extension  Delegacy  should  be  given  at  the  close  of  the  period 
of  study  based  on  the  essays  written  by  the  students  on  the  report  of  the 
tutor  and  of  two  University  representatives  ;  this  diploma  should  admit 
students  to  the  diploma  courses  of  the  University.  (The  Committee  for 
Economics  have  accepted  this  proposal.) 

2.  Admission  of  working  class  stiidentsto  Oxford. — Qualified  students 
from  the  tutorial  classes  should  be  readily  admitted  to  residence  at 
Oxford  ;  the  colleges  and  trustees  of  the  University  Appeal  Fund 
should  be  asked  to  provide  scholarships,  exhibitions,  and  financial  assist- 
ance, the  selection  of  membtTs  to  these  privileges  being  baaed  on  the 
report  from  a  committee  of  selection,  consisting  of  the  class  teachers, 
the  two  University  representatives,  a  representative  of  the  Workers' 
Educational  Association,  of  the  local  organization,  and  the  class.  A 
Standing  Committee  of  the  University  Extension  Delegacy  should 
organize  funds  for  scholarships  and  so  forth,  to  be  tenable  either  at  a 
college  or  hall  of  the  University,  by  a  non-collegiate  student  or  at 
Ruskin  Hall. 

3.  The  position  and  payment  of  teachers. — The  teachers  should  be 
paid  £S0  per  imit  of  twenty-four  classes  (the  year's  course) :  in  other 
words,  £400  per  session  of  twentj'-four  weeks,  when  in  full  work,  and 
travelling  expenses  in  addition.  They  should  be  regularly  employed  by 
a  college  or  by  the  Universiry  at  Oxford.  One-half  of  the  teacher's 
sal  ry  sliould  be  paid  by  Oxford,  the  remaining  half  and  all  other  ex- 
penses by  the  workers  and  their  associations. 

4.  The  .Authority  for  organizing  working-class  education. — A  Stand- 
ing Committee  should  be  formed  of  the  University  Extens  on  Delegacy, 
consisting  of  equal  numbers  of  University  representatives  and  of  re- 
presentatives of  the  working  classes  appdnted  through  the  Workers' 
Educational  Associati  >n.  The  Committee,  through  its  secretaries, 
should  conduct  all  correspondence  between  Oxford  and  working-class 

5  Ruskin  College. —Residence  for  a  year  at  Ruskin  College,  and  a 
certificate  given  by  a  college  and  supported  by  two  Univeisity  re- 
presentatives appointed  by  the  Committee  of  Economics,  should  be 
accepted  as  the  "  good  general  education  '*  required  to  qualify  for  the 
study  of  economics.  In  any  scholarship  scheme  second-year  students  of 
Ruskin  College  should  participate. 

6.  Diploma  in  Political  Science. — A  Diploma  in  Political  Science 
should  be  established  paral  el  to  the  Diploma  in  Economics. 

7.  Special  Inquiry  Department. — A  special  depaitment  should  be 
formed  by  the  University  to  collect  information  about  the  educational 
needs  and  educational  movements  in  this  country  and  abroad. 

The  report  is  supplemented  by  a  number  of  appendixes,  in 
which  the  main  features  of  the  work  already  done  and  the  work 
propcsed  to  be  done  are  described,  and  in  which  the  text  of  the 
report  is  illustrated  by  University  and  Government  documents. 

Jan.  1,  1900.] 




Eakly  Irish  History. 

The  History  of  Ireland  to  the  Coming  of  Henry  II.  By  Arthur  Ua 
Clerigh,  M.A.,  K.C.     (12s.  6d.  net.     Fisher  Unwin.) 

One  can  readily  accept  the  author's  statement  that  "  this 
volume  is  the  fruit  of  many  years'  labour."  In  the  earlier 
chapters  he  has  to  deal  with  a  great  variety  of  matters  that  call 
for  expert  knowledge  and  for  the  most  cautious  expert  inference. 
The  traditional  stories  are  embroidered  with  a  lively  fancy  and 
seem  rather  difficult  to  get  within  the  bounds  of  liistory  at  all, 
except  in  so  far  as  they  supply  incidental  indications  of  religious, 
.social,  or  other  conditions.  Mr.  Clerigh  is  pretty  well  up  to  date 
iu  his  applications  of  anthropology  and  archasology,  and  he  thinks 
"it  may  be  safely  stated  as  a  general  rule  that,  whenever  anything 
is  stated  to  be  a  fact  in  connexion  with  an  etymology,  in  nine 
cases  out  of  ten  it  is  sure  to  be  pure  fiction."  Yet,  though  he 
thus  seems  to  be  on  his  guard,  he  goes  only  fourteen  pages  before 
he  perpetrates  this:  "  '  Sacra,'  sacred,  is  in  the  Greek  Upa,  which 
comes  near  irUipa  (apovpn)  and  lipprj,  the  Greek  name  for  Erin. 
The  poetic  licence  is  not  great."  Thei-e  are  too  many  printers' 
blunders  throughout  the  book,  and  possib!}^  the  quotation  to 
some  extent  shares  the  misfortune,  but  even  then  the  statement 
suggests  grievous  doubts,  reaching  far  beyond  its  immediate 
bearings.  At  any  rate,  Mr.  Clerigh  works  his  way  steadily 
through  the  jungle  of  tradition,  presenting  the  substance  of  it 
and  diligently  commenting  upon  it  with  varj'ing  success.  Where 
he  differs  from  scholars  like  Sir  John  Rhys  and  Prof.  Bury  on 
their  own  ground,  it  is  not  easy  to  be  hopeful  for  his  contentions; 
and,  when  he  quotes  from  St.  Patrick's  Confession  that  when 
Satan  tempted  him  one  night  in  his  joui'uey  through  the  desert 
"  it  came  home  into  my  mind  that  I  should  call  out  Helias  (Heliam 
t'OC'ireiii),  and  in  that  moment  I  saw  the  sun  rise  in  the  heavens," 
and  suggests  that  eXieitrov  {sic)  "  is  indicated  by  the  context  "  as 
the  right  reading  for  "  Heliam,"  one's  confidence  is  again  rudely 
shaken.  Surely  what  is  indicated  by  the  context  is  obviously 
■enough  "  Helion  " — the  Sun,  the  morning  liglit — to  dispel  the 
darkness  and  to  put  Satan  to  flight.  On  the  whole,  we  should 
be  inclined  to  regard  the  traditional  period  of  the  work  as  an 
interesting  collection  and  disposition  of  the  salient  materials 
and  to  leave  the  reader  to  interpret  them  foi-  himself,  taking 
Mr.  Clerigh's  explanations  with  critical  caution.  No  doubt, 
however,  much  helpful  discussion  will  remain  after  the  winnow- 
ing out  of  weaknesses. 

The  coming  of  St.  Patrick  and  the  Patrician  Documents  afford 
scope  for  ingenious  discussion,  aud  the  religion  of  the  Gael  before 
St.  Patrick  is  reviewed  in  a  long  and  interesting  summary.  On 
tlie  Senchus  Mor  and  the  Tribal  System  Mr.  Clerigh  brings  to 
bear  his  professional  training  and  experience,  though  on  the  latter 
subject  he  recognizes  the  elaborate  and  careful  studies  of  Dr. 
Seebohra.  The  invasion  of  the  Northmen,  if  invasion  it  can  be 
called  (for  their  raids  seldom  went  far  inland),  he  summarizes 
from  the  Annals  (796-lOM) :  the  most  serious  part  of  the  raids, 
in  spite  of  much  outrage,  was  the  taking  of  captives.  The  deeds 
■of  Brian  Boru  are  recounted  and  assessed :  Mr.  Clerigh  judges 
that  he  was  neither  a  patriot  statesman  nor  an  ambitious  usurper, 
but  "  a  tribal  chieftain  fighting  for  tribal  ascendancy,  nothing 
more  or  less,"  and  "  this  was  the  weakness  of  his  position  and  the 
cause  of  his  failure."  Though  he  puts  in  a  good  word  for  Mael- 
seachlaiun,  he  says  :  "  Unfortunately  for  Erin,  the  chieftains  were 
warriors  rather  than  statesmen,  and,  fighting  amongst  them- 
selves, they  left  to  the  future  historian  the  melancholy  duty  of 
recording  how  a  nation  of  brave  men  surrendered  their  lil^erty 
without  ever  fighting  with  their  whole  strength  one  pitched 
battle  in  its  defence."  Of  course,  "the  tribalism  and  political 
incapacity  of  the  chieftains  must  be  held  responsible  "  for  this, 
then  and  later  ;  and,  though  there  are  extenuating  circumstances, 
these  do  not  mend  the  mischief — probably  an  inevitable  mischief 
in  historical  evolution.  The  remainder  of  the  volume  is  mainly 
occupied  with  the  organization  of  the  Church,  the  spreading  of 
the  teaching  of  the  Church  in  Scotland  and  in  the  north  of  Eug- 
hind,  and  doctrinal  and  ceremonial  controversies.  It  closes  with 
tJie  i-emarkable  ecclesiastical-political  transactions  leading  to  the 
invasion  of  Ireland  by  Henry  II.  The  latter,  the  more  strictly 
historical,  half  of  the  volume  is  characterized  by  industrious  in- 
quiry and  independent  judgment.  If  Mr.  Clerigh  dispels  some 
piipular  illusions  of  his  countrymen,  he  yet  "  conveys  lessons  of 
high  political  import  which  they  may  take  hopefully  to  heart." 

"  The  early  history  of  Ireland  is  a  story  of  arrested  evolution  "  : 
what  of  the  later  history  ? 

Life  ix  the  Sea. 

Conditions  of  Life  in  the  Sea.  By  James  .Tohnstone,  Fisheries 
Laboratory,  University  of  Liverpool.  (9s.  net.  Cambridge 
University  Press.) 
This  is  a  new  volume  of  the  "  Cambridge  Biological  Series." 
Its  purpose  is  to  present  a  short  account  of  the  main  results  of 
quantitative  marine  biological  investigations,  and  of  the  related 
results  of  hydrography  and  oceanography.  The  jaw-breaking 
terms  need  not  discourage  a  closer  acquaintance,  for  the  treat- 
ment is  remarkably  simple,  and  the  materials  teem  with  interest. 
Part  I.  is  quite  elementary  ;  it  explains  the  methods  and  the  ap- 
paratus applied  in  the  exploration  of  the  sea;  describes  the  form 
and  the  deposits  of  the  floor  of  the  North-Western  Ocean,  and  the 
physical  characters  and  the  circulation  of  the  sea  water ;  reviews 
marine  organisms  and  their  life  history ;  and  treats  of  the 
methods,  conditions,  and  economics  of  the  sea  fisheries.  Let  Mr. 
Johnstone  speak  of  one  of  the  three  categories  of  organisms 
found  iu  the  sea : 

The  mariner,  it  has  been  said,  when  he  sails  over  a  tract  of  sea,  thinks 
that  he  traverses  a  '*  barren  waste  of  waters  "  tfirough  which  there  swims 
here  and  there  an  occasional  fi^h  or  porpoise.  But  in  reality  he  sails 
over  a  "  pasture,"  and  beneath  his  ship  is  a  wealth  of  life  much  more 
abundant  than  is  contained  in  the  richest  or  most  luxuriant  forest. 
Beneath  his  feet  may  be  a  couple  of  miles  of  water,  and  every  cupful  of 
this  may  teem  with  life,  and  this  is  so  even  if  no  fishes  or  other  large 
animals  may  he  visible.  This  enormously  abundant  life  is  the  plankton, 
the  drifting"  fauna  and  flora  of  the  sea,  the  presence  of  which  is  only 
revealed  by  the  tow-net  and  the  microscope.  Of  all  the  forms  of  marine 
biological  investigation  the  study  of  the  plankton  is  the  most  entertaining 
Equipped  with  the  tow-net  and  the  microscope,  the  naturalist  finds 
here  a  veritable  "wonderland"  awaiting  him,  and  the  variety  aud 
beauty  of  the  creatures  so  obtaiued,  and  the  ever  present  possibilities 
of  finding  forms  of  life  new  to  science,  combine  to  make  the  study  of 
the  plankton  a  most  fascinating  one.  To  any  one  who  lives  near  the  sea 
the  observation  of  the  microscopic  life  may  be  a  continual  occupation 
and  delight.  But,  in  addition,  no  department  of  biology  presents  more 
abstruse  problems  to  these  who  care  for  such  investigation. 

This  First  Part  is  a  very  simple,  lucid,  and  interesting  descrip- 
tion of  judiciously  selected  points,  the  sum  of  which  is  calculated 
to  convey  a  good  general  idea  of  the  subject  on  the  lines  in- 

In  Part  II.  the  author  attacks  his  main  thesis — the  methods 
and  results  of  quantitative  marine  biological  research.  Marine 
biology  is  one  of  the  last  of  the  sciences  to  adopt  quantitative 
methods,  and  the  reason  is  simply  that  "  an  enormous  mass  of 
descriptive  work  had  to  be  done  before  the  exact  methods  of 
physical  and  mathematical  science  could  be  applied  to  the 
solutiou  of  problems  of  a  genei-al  nature  in  marine  biology." 
Mr.  Johnstone  describes  Hensen's  methods  and  apparatus  and 
considers  objections  that  have  been  made  to  the  validity  of  his 
conclusions.  He  then  investigates  the  distribution  of  the  plank- 
ton and  takes  a  general  "  census  of  the  sea,"  having  due  regard 
to  the  fact  that  the  imperfect  methods  and  data  can  give  only 
rough  approximations.  The  inquiry  into  the  productivity  of  the 
sea  at  different  depths  and  in  different  latitudes  includes,  with 
much  other  matter  of  extreme  interest,  considerations  bearing 
directly  upon  controverted  practical  questions  in  connexion  with 
the  sea  fisheries.  It  needs  but  little  reflection  to  realize  the 
difficulty  of  reaching  solid  general  conclusions  of  wide  reach. 
"One  stands,"  says  Kjellmann,  "as  before  an  insoluble  problem 
when  one  makes  a  haul  with  a  tow-net  in  the  Arctic  and  obtains 
abundant  and  strong  vegetation,  and  this  at  a  time  when  the 
sea  is  covered  with  ice,  the  temperature  is  extremely  low,  and 
nocturnal  gloom  predominates  even  at  noon." 

Part  III.  deals  with  the  general  conditions  of  life  in  the  sea— 
the  conditions  of  nutrition  of  marine  organisms  and  the  ett'ect 
of  changes  in  physical  surroundings  u]ron  the  nature  and  in- 
tensity of  the  processes,  the  multifarious  and  ubiquitous  bacteria, 
their  kinds,  distribution,  and  operation,  and  the  circulation  of 
nitrogen.     Special  points  are  treated  iu  appendixes. 

There  are,  of  course,  multitudes  of  memoirs  and  articles  on 
this  subject,  less  or  more  inaccessible ;  but  this  work,  we  take 
it,  is  the  only  adequate  introductory  English  summary  of  the 
researches.  It  is  thoroughly  well  informed,  deliberately  and 
judiciously  selective,  and  written  in  plain  and  clear  style,  so  (hat 
laymen  can  have  no  difiicultj'  in  following  the  exposition  of  the 
marvellous  facts. 



[Jap.  1,  1909. 


Latin   Frose  Composition.     By  W.  R.  Hardie,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Hu- 

manitj'  in  the  University  of  EdinbiMgli.   foi-merly  Fellow  of  Balliol 

College,  Oxford.  (4s.  (id.  net.  Kdward  Arnold.) 
The  First  Part  consists  of  notes  on  grjinmiar.  st3'le,  and  idiom,  of  a 
more  advanced  character,  partly  to  obviate  common  errors,  partly  to 
ft»rmu]ate  afresh  various  matters  on  "which  there  is  essentially  common 
agreement.  The  object  is  to  rise  above  mere  syntactical  i-ules  to  literary 
qualities  of  composition.  To  this  end  the  points  are  judiciouslj'  selected, 
aud  illustrated  and  enforced  with  abundant  kimwledge  and  skill.  The 
Second  Part  consists  of  passages  for  translation  in  wide  variety  both  of 
subject  and  of  difficultj' — 315  in  all.  The  volume  impresses  one  as  the 
outcome  of  a  long  process  of  observation  and  selection  by  a  proved 
scholar  and  teacher.  It  will  be  extrenieiy  useful  in  the  higher  classical 
Cicero:    Fhilippie    Orations   I.,  II.,   III.,     V.,    VIT.      Edited  by   John! 

E.    King.      Second   edition,    revised  by   A.    C.   Clark,   Fellow   of  [ 

Queen's  College,  Oxford.     (3s.  6d.     Clarendon  Press. )  , 

Mr.  King's  second  edition  is  now  son*e  thirty  years  old,  but  it  was  a  i 
very  good  book,  and  Mr.  Clark,  while  adding  his  own  critical  fout-notes,  • 
reproduces  substantially  the  original  introductions  and  notes,  with  minor 
omissions,  changes,  and  additions.  The  live  orations  here  selected  are 
the  more  important  of  the  series:  "  they  are  of  especial  value  not  only 
as  bringing  out  more  stronglj^  Cicero's  power  as  an  orator  and  his  im- 
portance in  the  State  during  the  most  honourable  portion  of  his  life,  but 
al-o  as  illustrating  a  period  of  history  concerning  wh  ch  we  have  but 
little  contemporary  information."  The  volume  is  edited  with  the 
greatest  care  and  ability,  and  will  be  very  valuable  in  schools. 
Aet,'hybis    in    EnyUsh    Vtrt>e.     Part  III.:    .Aiji'mnnnon,    Chocpltoroe,   Eu- 

niniides.  By  Arthiu- S.  "Way,  D.Lit.  Macmillan.) 
Dr  Way  now  brings  his  rendering  of  Aeschylus  to  a  triumphant  con- 
(lusion.  His  mannerisms,  inversions,  metrical  licences,  and  embroideries 
are  swept  away  in  the  tide  of  poetical  transmutation.  We  could  have 
wished  a  more  rugged  strength — warts  and  all ;  but  stiU,  here  is  a 
substantial  Aeschylus  for  the  English  reader,  and  it  is  a  great  achieve- 
ment both  of  scholarsliip  and  of  literature. 


A  School  Arithmelic.    ByH.  S.  Hall,  M. A.,  and  F.  H.  Stevens,  M.A. 
(4s.  6d.     Macmillan.) 

In  drawing  attention  to  the  production  of  a  new  school  text-book  by 
authors  so  well  known  in  the  educati<inal  world  as  Messrs.  Hall  and 
Stevens,  it  is  needless  to  dwell  at  length  on  the  fact  that  the  latest  volume 
appears  to  maintain  fully  the  standard  of  general  excellence  which  marks 
the  authors'  previous  works.  A  few  notes  on  the  constitution  of  the 
"School  Arithmetic,"  will,  however,  be  serviceable  to  teachers  and 
students  Algebra  in  its  character  of  ocucral  arithmetic  plays  a  distinct 
part  in  the  text  and,  further,  pupils  are  taught  by  its  means  the  fir-t 
principles  of  graphical  work.  The  order  of  the  contents  also  deserves 
notice.  No  rigid  coiu'se  can  be  laid  down  as  suitable  for  the  purposes  of 
all  teachers  or  the  needs  of  all  pupils.  In  view  of  this,  the  plan  adopted 
by  the  writers  has  been  to  grouji  together  as  far  as  possible  allied  portions 
of  the  subject  under  consideration,  and  thus  it  becomes  easy  for  the 
reader  to  find  all  that  the  work  contains  on  any  special  topic  and  to  link 
Together  the  parts  of  the  science  in  any  desired  order.  The  authors  have, 
perhaps,  devoted  more  than  usual  attention  to  the  que-tion  of  decimal 
approximation,  and  a  decidedly  modern  feature  of  the  book  is  observ- 
able in  the  introduction  into  such  a  work  of  a  consideration  of  four- 
figure  logarithms.  These  are  thoroughly  exiilained,  and  skill  in  the  use  of 
them  is  provided  for  by  the  fiu-nishmg  both  of  tables  and  of  uuworked 
exeri  ises.  The  text-book  has  been  issued  in  various  forms :  thus  not 
only  can  it  be  obtained  complete,  either  with  or  without  answers,  but 
also  Parts  I.  and  II.  have  been  similarly  published  separately. 

Constructions  in  FracliiiU  Geomelru.     By  Rev.  H.  F.  Westlake, 
B.A.  Oxon.     (Is.     Philip. 

From  this  little  work  candidates  for  various  College  Preliminary  and 
School  examinations  may  select  suitable  pr  para  ion  courses  in  practical 
geometrical  work,  or  they  may  adopt  the  more  useful  plan  of  making  a 
careful  study  of  the  complete  set  of  problems  contained  in  the  volume. 
In  nearly  every  case  the  constructive  portion  of  the  solution  is  all  that  is 
given,  and  we  consider  tliat  the  author  would  have  done  well  to  urge 
OS  an  essential  that  the  proof  be  invariably  furnished  by  either  teacher  or 
student,  whereas  he  only  suggests  that  pupils  may  with  advantage  be 
requiied  to  supply  the  demonstrations.  In  some  instances  the  methods 
emjdoyed  (those  of  the  ordinary  text-book  on  the  subject)  are  capable  of 
being  improved  by  greater  precision.  One  other  point  invites  comment, 
namely,  that  in  the  discussion  of  a  locus  the  text  merely  shows  that  points 
situated  on  it  satisfy  the  given  conditions,  whilst  the  equally  important 
task  of  proving  that  onlij  stich  points  fuliil  the  requirements  is  ignored. 
The  compilation  is  nevertheless  a  thoroughly  useful  one,  and  affords  in 
compact  form  a  large  amount  of  most  valuable  instruction. 

Modern  Electrical  T/ieon,.  By  Norman  Robert  Campbell,  M.A. ,  Fellow 
of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge.  (7b.  6d.  net.  Cambridge  Uni- 
versity Pre-'S.) 
Mr.  Campbell  8  volume  makes  a  most  useful  addition  to  the  "Cam- 
bridge Physical  Series."  The  purpose  of  it  is  "  to  expound  the  subject 
in  iis  logical  order,  to  analyse  the  arguments  by  which  the  various 
phenomena  are  correlated,  to  draw  special  attention  to  the  assumptions 
that  are  made,  and  to  show  which  of  these  assumptions  are  fundamental 
in  the  modem  theory  of  electricitj'  and  which  may  be  expected  to  be 
abandoned  in  the  further  progress  of  investigation."  The  selection  of 
material  has  been  determined  not  by  the  intrinsic  importance  of  the 
subjects  or  by  the  interest  of  the  accessory  studies  with  which  they 
are  connected,  but  by  the  light  they  throw  upon  the  central  problem 
— the  relation  of  electricity  and  matter  Mathematical  analysis  is 
involved  oidy  when  and  so  far  as  it  is  necessary  in  order  to  sh.iw  the 
nature  of  the  argument.  Mr.  Campbell  started  with  the  idea  of  provid- 
ing- a  much  needed  text-book  '-from  which  students  well  grounded  in 
the  elementary  branches  of  physics  might  obtain  some  knowledge  of  the 
later  developments,"  but  as  he  proceeded  he  "  departed  from  the  original 
scheme"  in  the  direct  on  both  of  simplicity  and  of  difficulty.  This 
wavering  of  purpose,  however,  does  not  really  matter,  at  any  rate  for 
keen  students  of  the  subject,  who  will  foUow  Mr.  Campbell's  lucid 
exposition  and  stimulating  discussions  with  intense  interest  and  with 
great  profit. 

Electricity,  Present  and  Future.  By  Lucien  Poincare,  one  of  the  In- 
spectors-General of  Public  Instruction  in  France.  Translated  by 
Jasper  Kemmis.  (7s  6d.  net.  Sisley.) 
The  volume  is  devoted  to  the  investigation  of  certain  matters  that 
were  pui-posely  omitted  from  M.  Poincare' s  well  known  work,  "  La 
Physique  Modeme  "  —  the  difteient  methods  of  the  production  and 
utilization  of  electric  energy,  and  the  numerous  applications  of  it  within 
the  sphere  of  electrotechnology.  It  is  not  intended  for  experts  alone, 
nor  yet  for  mere  beginners  ;  the  author's  pui-pose  is  rather  to  address 
himself  to  "  that  intelligent  clas^i,  so  widespread  nowadaye ,  which  takes 
a  genuine  interest  in  the  advance  of  modern  science,  and  to  place  bff"re 
it  as  accurate  a  picture  as  possible  of  the  existing  condit  ou  of  elec- 
tricity." He  lays  "  special  emphasis  on  the  practical  outcome,  in  a. 
general  way,  of  the  skill  which  investigators  have  displayed  in  drawing 
their  conclusions  from  the  principles"  ;  and  he  insists  on  the  importance 
of  close  touch  between  pure  scientists  and  engineers,  so  that  the  one  class 
may  know  well  what  the  other  class  is  doing.  "Within  the  past  few 
yeai-s,"  he  says,  "  the  use  of  electric  energy  has  transformed  our  methods 
of  Ughtiug,  our  means  of  transportation,  and  our  chemical  industries; 
the  telegraph  and  the  telep'one  have  entirely  altered  the  conditions  of 
everyday  life;  the  discoveries  in  radi"graphy  and  high-frequency  have 
brought  about  far-reaching  changes  in  the  medical  worl  I  ;  while,  in 
another  direction,  it  is  common  knowledge  that  the  study  of  radioactive 
bodies  has  led  physicists  to  form  daring  theories  of  the  composition  of 
matter  and  of  the  laws  of  mechanics."  With  all  these  developments 
M  Poincare  deals  in  a  lucid  and  popular  manner — popular  within  the 
limits  indicated.  The  volume  will  foster  an  intelligent  interest  in  the 
subjects  treated. 

A   German    Header   and    Theme-Book.     By  Calvin    Thomas,  Professor  in 
Columbia  University,   and  WUliam  Addison  Harvey,  Instructor  in 
Columbia  University.      (4s.  6d.      George  Bell.) 
The  authors  furnish  about  sixty  selected  passages  in  prose  and  verse, 
largely  varied,  and  on  the  whole  fairly  representative  in  point  of  style 
and  of  difficulty.     A  considerable  number  of  serviceable  notes  are  given  ; 
and  carefully  constructed  questions  and  themes  based  ou  the  selected 
passages  are  appended.     There  is  also  an  English  Word-List,  and   a 
very  full  vocabulary.     The  volume  is  designed  for  students  that  "  have 
advanced  far  enough  in  the  study  of  the  language  to  be  ready  for  the 
reading  of  simple  literature";  and  the  matter  has  been  arranged  with 
carefid  reference  to  interest,   variety,   and  proper  gradation.     A  very 
comprehensive  and  useful  work. 

A  Second  Course  in  Colluqiiial  French.     By  Albeit  Thouaille,  M.  es  A.. 

(2s.  6d.  Blackie.i 
The  volume  presupposes  the  author's  "First  Course,"  or  el-^e  soim- 
similar  systematic  course  in  spoken  French,  with  the  essentials  of 
accidence.  Sixty-six  le.ssous  are  devoted  to  "scenes  of  every  day  litV 
described  in  s  mple  language,  with  questions,  and  conversational  and 
reading  exercises,"  and  are  supplemented  with  a  synopsis  of  grammar 
and  a  vocabulary.  The  work  is  constructed  with  rigid  regard  to  thi- 
colloquial  use  of  evei-yday  trench.  It  has  obviously  involved  immense 
labour  and  care,  and  it  is  excelleutly  adapted  to  its  purpose.  There  are- 
six  illustrations. 

Fedro  Sanchez.     By  D.  Jose  M.  de  Pereda.     Edited  by  Ralph  Emerson 

Bassett,  Associate  Professor  of  Romance  Languages,   University  of 

Kansas.     (4s.  6d.     Giun.) 

The  text  follows  the   author's   standard   Madrid   edition,   but  omits 

many  digressions  and  lesser  episodes,  without  substantial  harm  to  "  the 

essential   character   of   the   main   narrative   as   a  specimen   of   modem 

Spanish  realism  in  its  classiial  spirit,  and  as  a  reflection  of  Spanish 

politics,  unique  in  its  impressiveness.  from  the  middle  of  last  century." 

Jnu.  1,  19()'».] 



The  nairative  ceutres  in  the  revohition  of  1854,  of  which  Pereda  was  a 
spectator  while  a  student  at  Madrid  :  and  the  work  ranks  as  one  of 
the  author's  most  finished  productions.  The  introduction  treats  very 
fully  of  Pereda  and  his  work,  and  sketches  the  historical  situation.  The 
notes  are  adequate  and  generally  helpful,  and  a  very  careful  and  com- 
plete vocabulary  is  appended.  The  volume  will  be  most  useful  and 
agreeable  to  students  of  Spanish  and  of  Spain. 

"Heath's   Modem   Language  Series."— (1)    El  Trova'lijr,  por  Antonio 
Garcia  Gutierrez,  edited'by  H.  H.  Vaughan,  Ph.D.,  Instructor  in 
the  Uni%-ersity  of  Michigan.      (Is.  6d.)     (2)   io  i'osi^Kv,,  por  Tamayo 
y  Baus,   edited  by  Philip  Harry  and  Alfonso  de  Salvio,  Instruc- 
tors m  Romance  Langu.age,  Xorth-Westem  University.      (Is.  6d.) 
(3)    SpiiHinh   Voiiipositioii,   compiled    and   edited   by    Alfred    Reray, 
Instructor  in  Modei-n  Languages  in  the  Commercial  High  School, 
Brooklyn.     (Is.  6d.)     (Harrap.) 
Both  (1)  and  ('!)  have  short  biograi)hical  introductions,  brief  notes,  and 
full  vocabularies.     Perhaps  the  notes  might  have  been  extended  with 
advantage,    but   they  wUl  be  helpful  so  far  as  they  go.      Both   plays 
are  interesting  and  distinctive  examples  of  the  modem  Spanish  drama. 
(3 1  furnishes  carefully  chosen  English  passages,  dealing  exclusively  with 
Spain   and  Spanish  life,  cus'oms,   and  institutions,   for  translation  into 
Spanish.     It  is  intended  for  students  that  have  already  had  practice  in 
easy  translation  and  retranslation.     All  the  three  volumes  wiU  be  very 
serviceable  both  in  the  schoolroom  and  in  private  study. 


"  The  Cambridge  English  Classics."— (1)  and  |2)  The  Jrni/.s  of  Francf, 
Beaumont  and  John  Fletcher,  Yols.  V.  and  VI.  (3)  The  Complete 
IVo'ks  of  George  Gascoigne,  Vol.1.  (4)  Snmnel  liiiller:  Characters  and 
Passages  from  Note-Books.  (4s.  6d.  net  each  volume.  Cambridge 
University  Press.) 
(1)  and  (2).  Each  of  the  new  volumes  of  Beaumont  and  Fletcher 
contains  five  plays,  admirably  edited  by  A.  R.  Waller,  M.A.  The  text 
is  printed  from  the  folio  of  1679,  together  \vith  a  complete  record  of  the 
earlier  vai-iant  readings  from  the  folio  of  1647  and  from  all  the  quartos. 
The  edition  will  be  an  immense  boon  to  the  student  of  English  dramatic 
literature.  There  will  be  four  more  volumes  of  text  and  one  volume  of 
explanatory  notes,  glossary,  and  other  material  useful  alike  to  the  student 
and  to  the  general  reader.  (3)  The  first  Gascoigne  volume  contains 
The  Posies,  edited  by  John  W.  Cimlifte,  M.A.,  D.Lit.Lond.,  Profes.sor  ot 
English  in  the  University  of  "Wisconsin,  as  "corrected,  perfected,  and 
augmented  by  the  Authour,  1575."  The  posies  are  of  ''Flowers," 
"  Hearbes,"  and  "Weedes,"  with  various  alternate  pieces — "the  de- 
lectable history  of  sundry  adventures  passed  by  Dan  Bartholomew  of 
Bathe,"  '  ■  The  Fruites  of  Warre"  {Duke  P,eltnin  iii:-xpertis),\-wo  dramatic 
works  ('-Supposes"  and  "Jocasta"),  "The  Pleasant  Fable  of  Fer- 
dinando  Jeronimi  and  Leonora  de  Valasco";  and  there  are  added 
''Cenayne  Notes  of  Instruction  concerning  the  Making  of  Verse." 
The  matter  is  most  varied  and  often  curious;  and  wide  scope  is 
afforded  for  both  literary  and  linguistic  study.  The  variants  are 
laboriously  collected  in  appendix.  Another  volume  will  be  needed  for 
the  rest  of  Gascoigne's  works.  (4)  The  larger  portion  of  Butler's 
"Characters"  is  a  reprint  from  Thyer — somewhat  less  than  half  the 
present  vol' ime ;  the  rest  of  the  "Characters"  and  the  whole  of  the 
'  ■  Miscel  antous  and  Reflections  on  various  Subjects"  are  now  printed 
for  the  first  time  from  the  British  Museum  MSS.  Mr.  "Waller  aeknow- 
lediies  substantial  assistance  from  Miss  Edith  J.  Morlej',  to  whom  •'  is 
due  the  sole  credit  for  the  very  laborious  work  of  having  transcribed 
from,  and  first  collated  with,  the  MS.  these  further  'Characters'  and 
the  passages  from  Butl-  r's  notebooks,  and  for  having-  thereby  materially 
assisted  in  the  production  of  a  complete  text  of  Butler's  works"  ;  and 
to  Mr.  George  Brown  for  the  further  checking  of  the  transcript  and  the 
proofs  with  the  original  MS.,  &o.  The  matter  is  incisive  and  ipiaint  and 
remarkably  varied.  The  critical  notes  in  append  x  are  not  very  numer- 
ous, but  they  are  carefully  compiled.  All  these  volumes  are  very  valu- 
able additions  to  the  admirable  series. 
Modern  Studies.     By  Oliver  Elton,  Professor  of  English  Literature  in 

the  University  of  Liverpool.  (7s.  6d.  net.  Edward  Arnold.) 
The  volume  contains  about  a  dozen  articles  reprinted  from  different 
reviews  and  journals  with  numerous  alterations  and  additions.  The 
scope  is  wide  and  of  varied  interest,  and  the  treatment  of  each  subject 
is  substantial  and  capable.  "  Literarj'  History,"  "Literary  Fame," 
and  "A  "W'ord  on  Mysticism"  are  among  the  more  comprehensive 
themes.  "Giordano  Bruno  in  England"  connects  English  and  Con- 
tinental literature,  and  establishes  a  relation  with  suo-eeding  articles  on 
Spenser  and  Shakespeare,  the  latter  of  which,  however,  is  speeificaDy 
concerned  with  four  recent  critics — Brandes,  Bradley,  Cliurton  Collins, 
and  Raleigh.  The  others  treat  of  Tennyson,  Swinburne.  Meredith, 
Henry  James,  and  '-Living  Irish  Literature"  The  criticism  is  well 
informed  and  discriminating,  with  much  collateral  illumination  and 
independent  judgment.  The  whole  volume  is  most  interesting  and 


Tlie  Calf  of  the  Uoinetaiid,  a  collection  of  English  Verse  selected  and 

arranged  by  R.   P.   Scott,  LL.D.,  and  Katharine  T.  "VVaUas,  M.A.,  in 

two  volumes  (Is.  (id.  net  each.  Blackiel.  is  one  of  the  very  best  of  recent 

( Continned  on  fifje  32. ) 



EditMil  bv   A.  .1.   IlERBERTSON. 

PRACTICAL    GEOGRAPHY,     "^i^it  L 

H.V.J.  F.  UNsrEAO.     Willi  27  IlUistrutions,     Is.  6cl. 

In  preimmti.,11.  Part  II,  Is.  bd.     The  tin:  Parts  will  fje  issued  bound 

together,  2s.  bit. 


3s.  Od.  net  per  \o\. 
BooimnH.— "A  series  ot  translations  displaying  a  scholarship  and  a  cHre_  which 
have  hitherto  been  almost  exclusively  reserved  to  the  recension  of  the  texts.' 

Virail.  Yj;(r  volumes. 

Translated  by  J.  .Iackson.    ^Vith  Introduction  and  Notes.    On  Oxford 
India  paper,  4s.  6'l.  net. 

Plato's  Republic. 

Translated,  witli  Introduction  and  Aual.vsis,  by  Benjamix  Joweti. 
2  vols.    Also  on  Oxford  India  paper,  complete  in  one  vol.,  7s.  6d.  net. 


Tniiislau-d  Ij.v  .V.  "W.  Mww.    With  Introduction  and  Appendices. 

Stat i us'  Silvae. 

■liiioslated  b.v  U.  A.  .Sl.itek.     With  lutiodHction  and  Xotcs. 

A    BOOK    OF    VERSE   FOR    BOYS    AND 

Compiled  by  .J.  C.  S.lllTlI.     Part  I,  paper,  3d. ;  cloth,  4d.    Part  Il.paper,  6d.  ; 

cloth,  8d.     hut  III,  paper.  Is. ;  cloth.  Is.  3d.     Parts  I-III,  cloth,  2s.     becond 

Impression.  ,    ,     .      .  ,,  ,..1.1^ 

Prenaratoni  Schools  iJCT'eMi.— This  set  of  anthologies  is  assuredly  one  of  the  best 

ever  produced' for  use  in  schools.    The  editor's  knowledge  of  English  poetry  is  wide, 

and  his  laste  flawless." 


1.1  Ir 

for  the  age  of  six  to  sixteen,  chosen 
Cloth,  3s.  6d.  net ;  on  Oxford  India  pa^er. 

.4  Hook  of  Eni-'lish.  .Scotch 

and  arranged  by  tiiree  of  that  ..i: 

4s.  6d.  net.  .  1,         1  ,» 

Church  Times.—"  One  of  the  most  refreshing  anthologies  ever  collected. 


Edited,  with  Introductions,  by  A.  T.  (Jiullek-Couch.  Paper,  each  3d.;, 
cloth,  each  4d. 
Preparatoni  Schools  Beview.  —  "  These  little  texts  are  a  most  valuable  and 
welcome  addition  to  the  materials  available  for  the  teaching  of  English  literature 
in  schools.  .  .  .  The  selections  in  many  cases  break  new  gromid  and  are  exactly 
what  is  most  wanted." 


BLAKE.     Poems.     32  pages. 

ROBERT   BROWNING.     Poems.     48  pages. 

COLERIOGB.     Poems.     48  pa^t  s. 

EARLY  ENGLISH   LYRICS,     \^■|tll  filossarial  Xotes.    48  pages. 

EVEKYMRN.     C(iiiiph-te  Tr\t  willi  tllnssarial  Xotes.     32  pages. 

GOLDSMITH.     Traveller  and  Deserted  Village.    32  iJiiges. 

IVIARVELL.     Poems.     32  pagis. 

MILTON  AND    WORDSWORTH.    Sonnets.    32  pages. 

NAP.ER.     Peninsular  War.    43  pages. 

SHELLEY.     Poems.     32  pages, 

TENNYSON.     Poems.     48  pages. 

HORACE   WALPOLE.     Letters.    48  pages. 

WALT  WHITMAN.    Poems.    32  pages. 


Abridged  for  .Sclinol  use.  Is.  6,1.     Also  the  rnaliridged  Edition,  2s.  net. 


Editi'd.  with  Intnuliiitiou  and  .Votes,  by  O.  M.  Myees.   With  a  Facsimile.    2s. 

SCHOOL    ALGEBRA.    Ky  w.  e.  pateesos. 

Parti     (367  pages)     .     .     .     Without  Answers,  2s.  6d.    With  Answers,  3s. 


Wiih  liitindiiction  and  .Notes  by  the  Rev.  A.  S.  WalpOLE.     Is.  61I. 

Select  List  of  Educational   Works.   List  of  Books  set  for  various 
examinations,  and  Complete  Catalogue  [144  pages)  post  free. 

London:  HENRY  FROWDE, Oxford  University  Press,  Amen  Corner,  E.G. 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 

.inthologies  appealiiis  to  Great  and  Greater  Britain.  Its  pnrpose  is  "  to 
stimulate  and  foster  the  emotions  which  are  bound  up  with  the  love  of 
our  country  " — to  "  indicate  the  sources  which  nourish  and  ennoble  our 
national  life."  Tlie  compilers  wisely  take  care  to  illustrate  not  merely 
the  active  and  hei-oic  side  of  patriotism,  but  also  "  the  feeling:,  suffering, 
non-combative  element,  which,  alike  in  the  contemplative  and  the  work- 
.oday  world,  concerns  all  women  and  children  and  many  men— those 
who  are  never  called  upon  to  risk  their  lives  on  any  field,  whether  of  war 
or  of  industry."  The  poems  are  carefully  and  suggestively  classified, 
and  the  collection  is  enriched  by  an  unustial  number  of  copyright  pieces 
"of  great  interest  and  merit.  The  task  of  selection  has  been  very 
arduous,  but  it  has  been  guided  by  the  right  .spii'it,  so  that  the  results 
are  admirable.    The  work  ought  to  be,  and  is  sure  to  be,  a  great  success. 

A  Tre'isurij  of  Verse  fnr  School  nnd  Home,  selected  and  arranged  by 
M.  G.Edgar,  M.A.,infour  handy  Parts  (Is.  each,  Harrap),  contains 
many  copyright  pieces  as  well  as  old  favourites,  and  is  clearly  printed  and 
strongly  boimd. — A  Treiisiirij  of  Balhids,  selected  and  arranged  by  M.  G. 
Edgar,  M.A.,  and  published  by  Messrs.  Haixap,  is  an  attractive  com- 
panion volume. 

Messrs.  MacmUlan  include  in  their  excellent  series  of  "  English 
Literature  for  Schools,"  A  Bonk  of  Poetri/  illmtratire  of  JSnglish  History, 
Part  III.,  The  Haiiorerian  Dynasty,  edited  by  G.  Dowse,  B.A.,  Assistant 
Master  at  Preston  Grammar  School  (9d.).  The  same  house  issues  The 
Sou's  Book  of  Poftry  in  three  Parts  :  (1)  Jimior,  (2)  Intel-mediate, 
(3)  Senior  (4d.  each).  The  pieces  (many  of  them  copyright)  are  well 
chosen  and  judiciously  graded. 

Fuetry  for  I'pper  Classes,  selected  and  arranged  by  Edmund  Arthur 
Helps,  formerly  one  of  H.M.'s  Inspectors  of  Schools  (Is.  6d.,  George 
Bell) ,  is  a  comprehensive  and  varied  collection  excellently  adapted  to  its 
purpose.  A  considerable  amount  of  useful  annotation  is  appended. 
The  book  is  beautifully  printed  and  strongly  bound  in  limp  cloth. 


Marie  de  Me  iicis  and  the  Court  of  France  in  the  Seventeenth  Century.  By 
Louis  Battifol.  Translated  by  Mary  King  and  edited  by  H.  W.  C. 
Davis,  Fellow  of  BaUiol  College,  Oxford.  (7s.  6d.  net.  Chatto 
»&  AViudus. ) 
M.  Battifol  "  aims  at  presenting  the  iiicture  of  a  French  Queen 
surrounded  by  her  court  between  the  years  1600  and  lCil7,  when  Marie 
<le  Medicis  was  Queen  and  Queen-Regent^ — a  period  of  particular  interest, 
because  one  in  which  a  new  dynasty,  but  recently  emerged  from  the 
throes  of  civil  war,  had  not  yet  suffered  the  fate  which  buries  the  in- 
tlividuality  of  princes  beneath  the  artificiality  of  courts  and  courtly 
etiquette."  The  interest  of  the  work,  then,  lies  partly  in  the  depiction 
of  rea!  social  conditions  of  much  historical  interest,  but,  to  a  large 
extent,  also  in  a  fresh  examination  of  the  relations  of  the  Government 
and  the  administration.  "  Amidst  all  the  troubles  and  disorders  of  the 
sixteenth  century  the  administrative  machine  proper  remained  all- 
powerful  with  its  spirit  of  narrow  regulation,  its  tendency  towards 
formalism,  and  meticulous  and  peremptory  '  functionalism  '  "  ;  so  that 
•'  the  throne  in  France  in  the  early  seventeenth  century  was  so  far  from 
wielding  the  absolute  power  claimed  for  it  by  contemporary  jurists  as  to 
he  circumscribed  on  all  sides  by  a  series  of  passive  forces,  more  masters  of 
the  State  indeed  than  the  King's  self,  and  invoking  principles  of  im- 
memorial usage  and  the  'fundamental  laws  of  the  reahn.' "  The 
volume  is  a  laborious  and  interesting  contribution  to  the  historical  re- 
<;on8truction  of  the  period.  There  is  a  collotype  portrait  frontispiece 
reproduced  from  the  contemporary  copper-plate  in  the  British  Museum. 
A  cheaper  reissue  of  The  Derelop,nent  of  the  European  Nations,  1870- 
1900,  by  J.  Rose  Holland,  Litt.D.  (7s.  Gd.  net.  Constable)  will  be  very 
welcome  to  students  of  modem  history.  It  deals  pretty  fully  with  the 
great  movements  and  events  of  a  generation  that  immediately  influences  the 
present  time,  but  that  is  too  near  to  us  to  receive  anything  like  adequate 
attention  in  school  histories.  The  treatment  is  mainly  limited,  as  the 
title  indicates,  to  "events  which  had  a  definitely  formative  influence  on 
the  development  of  European  States,"  but  the  limitation  is  not  pe- 
danticallj-  .strict.  Generally  refraining  from  "expressing  a  decided 
verdict"  on  questions  of  motive  and  policy.  Dr.  Holland  has  not 
hesitated  "  to  pronounce  a  judg-menton  questions."  Necessarily  : 
but  he  is  much  more  at  home  in  the  marshalUng  of  facts:  the  Central 
Asian  question,  for  example,  needs  large  reconsideration.  The  first  half 
of  the  volume,  occupied  with  France,  Germany,  and  Russia,  seems 
decidedly  the  better  half.  However,  the  handling  generally  is  useful, 
eveu  when  provocative  ;  and  the  work  furnishes  a  convenient  survey  of 
a  veiy  important  period  from  a  very  practical  standpoint.  There  are 
sixteen  serviceable  maps  and  plans. 

Httzell's  Annual,  edited  by  William  Palmer  (3s.  6d.  net,  Hazell,  Watson, 
&  Viney),  continues  to  justifj'  its  claim  to  be  indispensable.  Whatever 
the  topics — political,  economic,  educational,  artistic,  scientific,  foreign, 
or  domestic,  &c. — the  reader  is  sure  to  find  the  kernel  of  the  best  and 
latest  information.  The  volume  has  been  seriously  revised  and  rewritten 
to  bring  it  into  accord  with  the  changing  needs  of  the  time,  many  new 
articles  introducing  subjects  that  have  come  to  the  front  since  the  pre- 
ceding issue.  The  biographical  section  has  been  very  u.sefully  extended 
in  the  way  of  giving  details  of  foreign  persons  of  importance  that  are 
not  readilv  to  be  found  elsewhere  in  English  books  of  reference. 

Sport  and  Athletics  in  lOOcS  (os.  net,  &  Hall)  is  a  most 
comprehensive  register  of  "  the  results  for  the  year  1908  (to  November) 
of  all  the  important  events  in  athletics,  games,  and  every  form  of  sport 
in  the  United  Kingdom,  together  with  the  winners,  records,  and  notable 
achievements  of  past  years,  also  a  full  list  of  results  in  the  Olympic 
Games."  No  doubt  it  may  fairly  claim  to  be  the  standard  reference 
work  in  its  sphere. 

The  first  volume  of  The  Country  Home  (5s.  net.  Constable)  makes  a 
handsome  record  of  articles  and  illustrations  of  great  interest  and  of 
practical  value.  Houses,  gardens,  fields  are  siuweyed  from  the  practical 
as  well  as  the  artistic  point  of  view  ;  and  attention  is  given  to  natural 
history,  rui-al  industries,  and  country  customs.  The  scope  i9  compre- 
hensive, and  the  execution  in  detail  is  instructive  and  agreeable. 


Fekxch  LiTEi:\rui;K. 

Messrs.  Hachetle  provide  with  tlieir  accustomed  liberality  a  variety 
of  handsome  and  interesting  volumes  for  readers  of  French.  Eita  la 
Gitane,  by  H.  de  Charlieu  (6  fr.),  is  a  delightful  story  of  the  later  half 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  when  the  Spanish  power  was  at  it,s  height. 
The  hero  is  no  less  than  Michel  de  Cervantc'S  Saavedra,  and  Philip  II. 
exhibits  a  generosity  of  disposition  not  altogether  expected.  Forty- 
eight  graviu-es  d'apres  Ed.  Zier. — In  the  charming  series,  "  Biblio- 
theqtie  des  Ecoles  et  des  Families,"  we  ha\"e  (1)  Excursions  en  France,  par 
Henri  Boland  (3  fr.  90),  a  book  of  picturesque  and  most  interesting  ■ 
description,  with  seventy  illustrations  :  (•i,  V  hnfant  aux  fourmres,  par 
Adrieu  Remade  (3  fr.),  a  story  of  stining  adventures  in  the  mountains, 
with  thirty-three  illustrations  ;  (3)  Le  (Ml/on  Rouge,  par  Ivan  D'Urgel 
(3  fr.),  concerned  about  the  mysterious  disappearance  of  "  un  cercle 
d'or  avec  un  rubis,"  with  sixty-nine  illustrations  ;  and  (4)  La  Dcrnicrc 
da  Spartiatcs,  par  Georges  Gustave-Toudonze  (5  fr.),  a  strenuous  narra- 
tive of  battle  and  intrigue  in  the  war  of  Greek  independence  (1821), 
with  numerous  illustrations.  In  the  "Petite  Bibliothcque  de  l.a 
FamUle,"  we  have  Ma  Urande.  by  Paul  Margueritte,  with  illustrations 
by  Marold  (5  fr. )  ;  and  in  the  "  Bibliothcqne  Rose  illiLstree, "  La  Cousine 
Gn-liile,  by  MUe.  G  du  Planty,  with  fifty  illustrations  by  Ed.  Zier  . 
(3|fr.) — both  of  them  delightful  stories  in  their  several  ways. — Mon 
Journal,  "  recueil  illustre  en  couleurs  pour  les  enfants  de  8  a  12ans" 
;  1 0  ft'. ' ,  is  as  fresh  and  interesting  as  ever.  All  these  volumes  furnish 
excellent  reading  in  easy  French. 

The  Almanach  Hachette,  "petite  encyclopedic  populaire  de  la  vie 
pratique."  contains  the  usual  extraordinary  variety  of  useful  and  curious 
information,  with  a  profusion  of  illustrations,  and  in  tasteful  get-up. 

More  Good  Things  fob  the  Childeex. 

Messrs.  Constable  provide  an  attractive  edition  of  The  Arabian  Xiyhl^ 
in  fine  round  print  and  handy  fonn,  with  some  130  illustrations  by  W. 
Heath  Robinson,  Helen  Stratton,  and  other  artists  (3s.  6d.  net) — a  de- 
lightful volume  for  young  readers. 

The  Gateway  to  Shakespeare  for  children  (Nelson)  is  a  very  handsomi' 
book,  containing  selections  from  seven  of  the  plays  and  from  Lamb's 
"Tales,"  with  a  life  of  Shakespeare  and  some  account  of  Charles  and 
Mary  Lamb  by  Mrs.  Lang,  and  with  sixteen  coloured  plates  and  many 
other  illustrations.  A  very  pleasant  introduction  to  Shakespeare,  which 
wiU  be  widely  appi'eciated. 

Tales  from  Spenser,  by  R.  AV.  Grace,  Head  Master  of  Lindisfarne  Col- 
lege, Westcliffe-on-Sea  (5s.,  Fisher  Unwin),  is  one  of  the  most  charming 
books  of  the  season.  It  retells  the  story  of  the  Red  Cross  Knight  in 
sunple  and  direct  language,  and  impresses  that  the  days  of  chivalry  are 
not  yet  past,  though  the  battle  ground  is  changed.  Twelve  illustrations 
by  Helen  S   Kuck. 

Mr.  Fisher  LTnwin  offers  a  number  of  series  to  choose  from,  and  one  is 
bound  to  make  an  agreeable  choice.  There  is  a  pleasant  series  of  "  Bible 
Stories  for  Children  "  (with  r)ther  publishers' names  on  the  title-p.age  : 
Alf  Cooke,  Ltd. ,  London,  and  Frederick  A.  Stokes  Co. ,  Xew  York) :  for  ex  - 
ample,  Rulh  aiid  hsthtr  and  Jiaridand  Jonathan,  both  written  by  W.  Mord 
and  illustrated  (a  dozen  coloured  illustrations  in  each)  by  E.  North  (Is. 
each).  Then  there  is  the  "  Dutch  Series,"  represented  by  Betty's  Jlolidoy 
(Is.),  Lazy  Peter  {(,&.).  a.nd.  Why  Minu  !<■«.«  G/arf  i (id.),  all  by  H.  M.  Howie. 
Also  the  "  Nursery  Series  "  :  for  example,  Penelope's  Escape,  by  Grete 
Hahn  (Is.),  Mother's  Jiirthday,  by  Eric  Slowell  (6d.),  and  The  Dumys  oi' 
Awdrey,  by  J.  C.  D.  Boyd  ((id  ).  The  •'  Willie  Wimple  Series  "  :  The 
Mayic  Forge  (Is.)  and  The  Bear  beneath  the  Stairs  (6d.),  both  by  John  Lea. 
The  "  Bird  Series  "  :  Bird  Twitterings,  by  Alton  Towers  (Is.),  and  Baby 
lllossoin  at  the  Farm  and  Grandfather  Seagull  (6d.  each),  both  by  M.  F. 
Howie.  The  "  Ai-abian  Series":  Persian  Tales  (2s.  6d  ),  The  Foolish 
Tailor  and  Tlie  Golden  Boul  (Is.  each),  all  by  W.  Jlord.  The  "  Cartone 
Series":  Bible  Pictures — twelve  full-page  illusti'ations  in  colour  by 
F.  Elphick,  mounted  on  stronj:  cardboard  (2s.  6d.).  In  all  these  series 
the  letterpress — prose  and  verse — is  suitable  for  children  ;  and  the  get-up 
is  attractive.  Each  of  the  shilling  books  has  eight,  and  each  of  the 
sixpenny  books  has  four,  full-page  coloured  illustrations  and  numerous 
black-and-white  drawings. 

There  is  also  the  "Monarch  Series."  Alt  the  Monarchs  of  Merry 
\  ( Continued  on  page  34. j 

Jan.  1,  V.W.).'] 



MR.    MURRAY'S     NEW     BOOKS. 

By  W.    C.   PLAMSTBA.D   WALTERS,   M.A., 

Professor-  of  Classical  Literature  in  King's  College,  London. 

and    R.   S     CONWAY,   Litt.D., 

Professor  of  Latin  in  the  University  of  IVIanchester. 

LIMEN.      A    First    Latin   Book, 

Croini  Sfi>.      pp.  xx'u+:'u  6       2S.  6d.      Also  In    Tim  /'arts.    \.^.  H(l.  ntc/i. 


As  soon  at,  tlie  influence  of  the  Classical  Association  began  to 
make  itself  felt,  it  became  evident  that  a  new  First  Latis  Book 
must  be  written.  To  supply  this  need,  Sir.  Murray,  as  long  ago  as 
1904,  invited  the  help  of  two  well-known  classical  scholars  who  had 
wide  experience  as  teachers,  and  who  had  also  from  the  beginning 
supported  the  Classical  Association  and  the  reforms  which  it 

The  end  which  they  have  kept  in  view  throughout  has  been  to 
produce  a  book  which  should  not  only  be  worthy  of  the  old  English 
tradition  of  sound  scholarshijj,  but  should  make  suitable  use  of  the 
recent  increase  of  archa>ological  and  linguistic  knowledge,  and 
should  further  embody,  as  far  as  possible,  the  fruits  of  much  recent 
and  valuable  discussion  on  the  order  of  the  course  and  the  methods 
of  teaching.  They  have  endeavoured  also  so  to  shape  the  study  as 
to  draw  from  it  the  help  whiub  it  has  to  offer  towards  the  teaching 

of  English  syntax  and  etymology,  and  of  the  history  of  Britain. 

In  the  preparation  of  lAmen  the  authors  have  consulted  a  nirmber 
of  distinguished  teachers  of  Classics  in  schools  of  many  different 
types,  as  will  be  seen  by  a  reference  to  the  Preface. 

They  have  counted  it  essential  that  the  book  should  serve  both  as 
a  Reader  and  a  Grammar,  so  that  from  the  first  possible  moment — 
ue.  as  soon  as  they  know  the  simplest  verbal  construction — the 
pupils  should  begin  to  read  some  continuous  Latin.  They  have 
therefore  composed  a  series  of  Reading  Lessons,  carefully  adapted 
in  Accidence,  Syntax,  and  Vocabulary  to  the  stage  at  which  they 
are  introduced,  describing,  inter  alia,  in  a  connected  form  some  of 
the  most  characteristic  incidents  in  the  History  of  Rome.  The 
Accidence  begins  with  the  simplest  verbal  forms,  on  p.  12  ;  the 
first  Reading  Lesson  follows  the  introduction  of  the  Accusative, 
on  p.  25. 

A  NRW  KYSTKM  TN  CHKMTSTRY  TK ACHING      An    Introductory    History    of    England. 

By    J.    B.    RUSSELL,    B.So.    (Lond.), 
Formerly  Senior  Science  Master  at  the  Grammar  School,  Burnley. 

Notes   on   the   Teaching   of   Elementary 


With  a  Sequence  of  l^xperiments  on  Air  and  Combustion.    2s.  Cd. 


Notes    on     Elementary    Chemistry 


the  Use  of  Schools.     2s.  Gd. 

In  this  book  an  atteni[it  has  been  made  to  solve  the  chief  difSculty 
a  teacher  of  chemistry  has  to  contend  with,  i.e.  that  of  a  test-book 
forestalling  the  practical  work.  A  filing  arrangement  is  used  instead 
of  the  ordinary  method  of  binding,  and  each  lesson  is  printed  as  a 
detachable  Section,  which  should  not  be  filed  by  the  pupil  until  he 
has  written  his  own  record  of  the  work  done. 


Edited  by  W.  G.  Hartog,  M..A.   (Lond.),  Lecturer  in  French  at 
University  College,  Ijondon ;    Oral  Examiner  to   the   London 
Couiily  Cuuiicil  and  to  the  Army  Qualifying  Board. 

La     Mare    au    Diable.     Par  George  Sand.     Is.  6d. 

Confessions  d'un  Ouvrier.  ParEMiLESouvESTRE. 

Bug=Jargal.      Par  Victor  Htioo.     Is.  Gd. 

La  Venus  d'lUe  et  la   Dame  de   Pique. 

Par  Prosper  Mekimee.  Is.  6d. 
This  series  consists  of  selections  from  the  mastcipieces  of 
nineteenth-century  French  authors.  Each  volume  will  contain : 
Notes  (which  are  given  only  when  necessary  to  clear  up  obscurity 
and  arc  printed  at  the  bottom  of  the  page)  ;  a  series  of  questions 
upon  the  text ;  grammatical  drill  upon  points  which  arise  in  the 
course  of  reading ;  suggestions  for  free  composition,  parsing,  dicta- 
tion, Ac,  and  a  biographical  note  (in  simple  French)  descriptive  of 
the  career  of  the  author. 

From   Montaigne  to   Moliere. 

Or  the  Preparation  for  the  Classical  Age  of  French  Literature. 
By  Arthur  Tillev,  Fellow  and  Lecturer  of  King's  College, 
Cambridge.     5s.  net. 

From    the    Earliest    Times   till  the  Year   1832. 

By  C.  R.  L.  Fletcher,  M.A.,  late  Fellow  of  Magdalen 
College,  Oxford.  With  Coloured  and  other  Maps,  Plans,  and 

Vol.  ni.  of  Mr.  C.  R.  L.  Fletcher's  Introdnetorij  Histori/  of 
England — carrying  the  story  down  to  the  end  of  the  American  War 
of  Independence — will  be  published  shortly.  Owing  to  its  length, 
it  will  be  necessary  to  issue  this  volume  in  two  separate  parts. 


THE   MIDDLE   AGES.     5s. 

Vol.  II.— FROM    HENRY   \T:I.   TO   THE    RESTORATION,     os. 

"  It  is  a  truism  to  speak  of  such  simplicity  in  complexity  as  being 
only  attainable  by  ripe  scholarship  and  security  of  knowledge ;  but 
5Ir.  Fletcher's  feat  is  remarkable  enough  to  be  allowed  to  endow  an 
old  truth  with  new  value." — The  Journal  of  Education. 

"Neither  Mr.  Rudyard  Kipling  nor  Mr.  Henry  Newbolt  has  a 
happier  touch  than  his  in  drawing  you  a  man  or  in  picturing  a 
battlefield ;  while  his  vivid,  homely  maimer  of  sketching  the  stages 
of  constitutional,  legal,  and  social  progress  is  original  and  most 
helpful." — Child  Life. 

"...  We  commend  it  to  the  notice  of  schoolmasters  sick  of  the 
arid  typical  text-book." — Academy. 

"  The  method  may  be  regarded  as  approximating  to  the  ideal." — 

Athenieuni . 

The   Teaching   of  Grammar. 

By  1jAur.\  E.  BR-4CKENBURV,  51. A..  Principal  of  the  Clapham 
Day  Training  College.     2s. 

A   Primer  of_  Ethics. 

With   Questions   and   Examination   Papers.     By  E.   E.   Con- 
stance Jones,  Mistress  of  Girton  College,  Cambridge.     Is. 

This  is  the  latest  addition  to  Jlr.  Murray's  Series  of  Primers. 
Other  volumes  are  ;  Philosophy,  by  A.  S.  Rappoport  ;  Physiology, 
by  E.  H.  ST.iKLiNG  ;  The  Use  of  Words,  by  Miss  Kinkear;  Logic, 
by  E.  E.  Constance  Jones  ;  and  Psychology,  by  Laura  E. 
Brackesbuky.     Prosijcctus  on  application. 




[.Ian.  1,  1909. 

liiivl'iid,  from  William  I.  to  Edward  VII.,  couMiHts  of  "  liuraoroiis 
rhymes  of  historical  times,''  by  Roland  Carse,  with  forty  illustrations  in 
colour  and  black  and  white  by  W.  Heath  Robinson  (15s.,  Fisher  Unwin). 
The  history  is  told  in  free-and-ea-y  vei'sitioation,  and  the  illustrations 
are  broadly  humorous.  At  the  glorious  Revolution  the  writer  pulls  up 
somewhat  suddenly :  he  gives  only  half-a-dozen  pages  (out  of  252)  to 
the  later  events.  The  binding,  in  full  leather,  is  gorgeous.  The  work 
appears  also  in  two  volumes  of  a  somewhat  less  magnificent  outfit  (6s.  or 
6s.  each,  according  to  bin  ling)  :   and  in  four  Parts  (2s.  6d.  each). 

Mcs,srs  Chatto  &  Windus  add  three  new  volumes  to  their  long  series  of 
"  Dumpv  B..oks  for  Children"  :  (1)  The  Slor,/  of  ,in  Irish  Pota'o,  by  LUy 
Schofield  ;  (2)  Vie  Little  Frcnehmau,  text  by  Eden  Coybu,  illustrations 
by  K.  J.Fricero;  and  (3)  Simple  vimoH,  by  Helen  Reid  Cross  (Is.  net 
each)      The  illustrations  are  humorous  and  clever. 

Messrs.  Jack  include  in  their  charming  "  Told  to  the  Children  Series  " 
1)  Stories  from  tlie  Bnlhvis,  by  Mary  Macgregor,  with  pictures  by 
Katharine  Cameron,  and  (2)  Stories  of  Siegfried,  by  Mary  Macgregor, 
with  pictures  by  Granville  Fell  (Is.  6d.  net  cloth ;  Is.  boards).  Both 
volumes  will  be  voted  delightful. 

The  Rest. 
The  OhiWiood  of  Man,  by  Leo  Frobenius,  translated  by  Br.  A.  H. 
Keaue  (16s.  net,  Seeley),  may  be  regarded  as  a  Christmas  or  New  Year 
book  in  virtue  of  its  415  illustrations  and  its  liberal  and  tasteful  get-up. 
It  is  "  a  popular  account  of  the  lives,  customs,  and  thoughts  of  the 
primitive  races" — popular,  not  in  the  sense  of  an  elementi.ry  sketch  of 
the  more  picturesque  aspects  of  the  subject,  but  in  the  sense  of  a  simple 
pi-esentation  of  the  essential  characteristics  as  discovered  by  real  scientific 
inquiry,  and  more  especially  by  the  prolonged  and  severe  original 
investigations  of  the  author.  Dr.  Frol'cnius  has  based  his  work  sub- 
stantially upon  the  products  especially  of  infantile  crafts  and  industries, 
which  he  assiduously  collected  from  all  piirts  of  the  world.  He  describes 
(with  illustrations)  the  nature  of  the  action  of  the  various  mechanical 
and  other  contrivances  of  rude  and  barbarous  people,  and  he  essays  to 
trace  these,  as  -well  as  the  traditions,  legends,  and  general  folk-lore  of 
the  lower  races,  to  their  origins  in  remote  prehistoric  times.  Though 
some  of  his  theories  wiU,  no  doubt,  be  contested  by  anthropologists,  still 
his  work  is  an  extremely  able  and  suggestive,  as  well  as  laborious, 
attempt  at  scientific  explanation  of  a  most  difticidt  and  obscure  mass  of 
questions.  The  general  reader  will  be  abie  to  f  .Uow  the  exposition  with 
ease,  and  the  interest  is  continuously  sustained  throughout  the  work. 
The  illustrations  are  of  exceptional  excellence  and  value. 

Thiniis  Seen  in  China,  by  J.  R.  Chitty  (2s  ,  Seeley),  is  a  charming 
addition  to  an  instructive  and  agreeable  series.  The  first  thing  that 
strikes  a  Westerner  about  the  Chinese  is  "the  sense  of  contrariness," 
and  too  many  of  them  fail  to  get  beyond  that.  The  writer,  however, 
has  dwelt  among  the  Chinese  and  knows  them  well  enough  to  recognize 
"  the  many  great  qualities  and  the  outstanding  mental  capacity  of  the 
most  remarkable  of  Oriental  peoples,"  "  whom  the  Western  world  still 
ventures  to  patronize."  The  essential  characteristics  of  Chinese 
life — familial,  social,  commercial,  artistic,  literary,  and  religious — are 
piquantly  described,  and  there  are  fifty  effective  illustrations. 

Six  Girls,  by  Fanny  Bell  Irving  iSs.  6d.,  Fisher  Unwin),  is  "  a  home 
■story."  It  has  had  a  run  of  more  than  twenty  years  in  America,  where, 
the  American  publishers  say,  "its  success  seems  to  be  growing  rather 
than  diminishing."  All  the  more  generous  is  it  on  their  part  to  arrange 
that  our  girls  on  this  side  may  at  last  have  an  opportimity  of  perusing 
these  "wholesome,  joyous,  and  fascinating  pages." 

Victories  of  the  Engineer,  by  Archibald  WiUiams  (3s.  6d.,  Nelson),  is 
a  popular  record  of  great  undertakings  successfully  carried  out  by 
engineers  in  different  parts  of  the  world  and  in  diverse  forms;  railways, 
ships,  bridges,  dams,  reservoirs,  aqueducts,  canals,  harbours,  tunnels, 
mines,  iind  so  on — an  extremely  interesting  (not  to  say  astonishing)  book, 
with  two  hundred  and  sixty  illustrations. 

Ilighirngs  and  Bgiravs  in  Siirreg,  by  Eric  Parker  (6s.,  MacmiUan),  is  a 
charming  book  describing  in  detail  such  part  of  Surrey  as  remains  un- 
en^ulted  in  London,  and  working  in  the  vast  and  varied  lore  that  has 
o-rown  up  in  connexion  -with  a  multitude  of  places  and  scenes.  The 
illustrations,  which  must  number  somewhere  about  one  hundred  and  fifty, 
are  admirable  examples  of  Mr.  Hugh  Thomson's  delicate  and  sugges- 
tive art. 

Messrs.  Gay  and  Hancock  issue  opportimely  a  third  edition  of  Pushing 
fo  the  Front,  or  Success  under  Difficulties,  by  Orison  Swett  Marden  (3s.  6d.) 
—"  a  book  of  inspiration  and  encouragement  to  all  who  are  struggling 
for  self -elevation  along  the  paths  of  knowledge  and  of  duty."  An 
excellent  book  for  young  people  to  read. 

Life  Histories  of  Familiar  Plants,  by  John  J.  Ward  (68.,  Cassell),  is 
intended  primarily  "to  assist  that  large  and  gi-owing  class  of  non-pro- 
fe-sional  Nature  investigators  who  derive  pleasure  fi-om  seeking  the 
Why  and  the  Wherefore  of  details  in  plant  structure  and  the  relation 
of  these  details  to  animal  life."  It  is  written  in  a  popular  style,  free  from 
technicalities  (as  far  as  may  be),  and  it  is  fidl  of  interest.  There  must 
be  many  boys  and  girls,  as  well  as  grown  persons,  that  would  be 
delighted  with  it. 

In  the  charming  "  Red  Letter  Library"  there  is  Sesame  and  Lilies,  and 
Unto  This  Last,  by  John  Ruskin,  with  an  introduction  by  Alice  MeyneU 
1 2s.  6d.  net,  Blacliie).  The  whole  series  is  a  magazine  of  excellent  little 



Basis  Latina :  an  Introduction  to  Latin  through  the  Language  to  the 
Literature.  By  Edward  Vernon  Arnold,  assisted  by  Walter  Ripp- 
mann.  Part  I.  :  Introduction,  Syllabus,  Grammar  Notes,  Vocabu- 
lary, Index.      Is.  6d.     Dent. 

[Deserves  the  careful  attention  of  teachers  of  Latin.] 

Cicero:  Philippic  Orations,  I.,  II.,  III.,  V.,  VII.  Edited  by  John  R 
King.  Second  edition,  revised  by  A.  C.  Clark,  Fellow  of  Queen's 
College,  Oxford.     3s.  6d.     Clarendon  Press. 

I  Introduction  and  notes  are  taken  almost  entirely  from  King's 
larger  edition.  Mr.  Clark  has  settled  the  text  and  revised  the  notes. 
Excellent  school  edition  ] 

Latin  Prose,  A  Junior.  By  H.  N.  Asman,  M.A.,  B.D.,  Second  Master 
of  Owen's  School,  Islington.  2s.  6d.  Methuen  (Junior  School 

[For  Oxford  and  Cambridge  Junior  Local  and  like  Examinations. 
Salient  points  of  syntax  ;  short  introduction  to  prose  composition  ; 
short  exercises  on  syntax  ;  continuous  passages  for  ;  vocab- 
ulary.    Very  careful  and  serviceable.] 

Latin  Prose  Composition.  By  W.  R.  Hardie,  M.A.,  Professor  of 
Humanity  in  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  formerly  Fellow  of 
Balliol  College,  Oxford.     4s.  6d.     Edward  Arnold. 

[Part  I. ,  Notes  on  grammar,  stj'le,  and  idiom.  Part  II.,  English 
passages  for  translation  into  Latin.] 

Martial,  Select  EpigTams  of  :  Speotaculorum  Liber  and  Books  I. -VI. 
Edited,  from  the  text  of  Prof.  Lindsay,  by  R.  T.  Bridge,  II. A., 
and  E.  D.  C.  Lake,  M  A.,  Assistant  Masters  at  Charterhouse. 
3s.  6d.     Introduction  and  Notes  separately,  2s.     Clarendon  Press. 

[For  upper  forms.  Introduction  gives  connected  accoimt  of  certain 
features  of  Roman  life  constantly  referred  to  in  the  epigrams 
Notes  concise,  especially  directed  to  explanation  of  the  thought  and 
point  of  the  epigi'ams.     Scholarly  ;  exceUeot.] 


Algebra,  Elementary.  By  C.  H.  French,  M.A.,  and  G.  Osbom,  M.A., 
Mathematical  Masters  at  the  Leys  School,  Cambridge,  formerlv 
Scholars  of  Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge.  4s.  6d.  Cambridge 
University  Press. 

[Revised  and  enlarged,  the  changes  being  in  accordance  with 
modem  methods.  Distinctive  simplicity  of  style.  Examples  largely 
original ;  others  selected  from  examination  papei-s  set  at  Cambridge 
and  elsewhere.     Answers.     Excellent.] 

Algebra,  Elementary,  for  the  use  of  Higher  Grade  and  Secondary 
Schools.  By  P."Ross.  M.A.,  B.Sc,  Head  Mathematical  Master  o1 
Broughton  junior  Student  Centre  and  Higher  Grade  School,  Edin- 
burgh. Parts  I.  and  II.  (in  one  volume),  4s.  6d.  Part  II.,  separ- 
ately, 2s.  6d. 

[Stress  on  main  principles;  in  selection  of  material,  "preference 
has  always  been  given  to  the  theory  and  examples  which  lead  to  an 
immediate  practical  application."     Examples  abundant ;  answers.] 

Algebr.a.  Elementary,  Cassell's.  By  V  M.  Tombull,  M.A.,  Senioi 
Mathematical  Master  at  the  Perse  School,  Cambridge.  2s.  6d. 
Cassell.    . 

[As  far  as  Geometrical  Progression,  -with  Indices  and  Logarithms 
Mainly  oral  and  written  exercises ;  illustrative  examples  worker  i . 
Gradual  development  from  arithmetical  processes.  Examples  plenti- 
ful ;  no  answers.] 

Algebra  for  Secondary  Schools.  By  Charles  Davison,  Sc.D.,  Mathe- 
matical Master  at  King  Edward's  High  School,  Birmingham.  6s. 
Cambridge  University  Press. 

[For  highest  classes  in  secondary  schools.] 

Algebra,  School.  By  W.  E.  Paterson,  M.A.  Cantab.,  B.Sc.  Lond. 
Mathematical  Master,  Mercers'  School,  London.  Part  I.,  witl 
answers,  Ss.  ;  without  answers,  2s.  6d. 

[Simple  explanations  ;  experimental  method ;  practical  sugges- 
tions ;  revi.sion  and  repetition.     Abundant  examples.] 

Blaokie's  Modem  Language  Series.— (1)  La  Belle  aux  Cheveux  d'Oi 
(Mme.  D'Aulnoy),  edited  by  A.  J.  Berwick.  L.L.A.,  and  A.  Barwell. 
B.A.  Is.  (2)  La  Mare  au  Diable  (George  Sand),  edited  by  Mrs 
Margaret  Pease.  Is.  6d.  (3)  Vivent  Les  Vacances!  by  Clemeuce 
Saunois,  Olficier  d'Academie.     Is. 

(1)  Vocabularies,  questionnaires,  retranslation  exercises,  and  pas- 
sages for  recitation.  "  Term  reader  for  elementary  French  classes  in 
secondary  schools."  (2)  First  chapter  omitted;  text  otherwis^ 
adapted.  Brief  notes;  vocabulary.  (3)  Scenes  et  conversation- 
famUieres  et  instructives,  for  middle  forms  in  ladies'  schools.  Pre- 
face by  M.  George  Petilleau,  B.A. :  illustrations  by  R.  Hope. 
Bright,  amusing,  and  very  instructive.] 
Grammar,  A  Short  French.  By  Otto  Siepmann,  Head  of  the  Modem 
Language  Department  at  Clifton  College.     2s.  6d.     MacmiUan. 

[Essentials  of  Accidence  and  Sjmtax,  with  notes  on  pronunciation. 

Jan.  1,1909.] 



versifiration,  aid  etymology.  Keal  difficulties  of  Euglifih  pupils 
specially  met.  Written  in  English  (a,s  it  ought  to  be).  A  thoroughly 
good,  practical  book.] 

Reader,  Practical  French.  By  John  Francis  Davis,  D.Lit.,  M  A.  Lond. , 
Assistant  Examiner  in  English  in  the  University  of  Ijondon.  and 
Ferdinand  Thomas,  B.A.,  B.Sc,  Assist  ant  Examiner  in  French  in 
the  University  of  London.  2s.  Omega  Press  (O.xford ;  and  13  Pater- 
noster Row,  E  C. ). 

[Well  chosen  and  graduated  passages — prose  (127)  and  verse  20). 
Full  vocabulary.     Most  serviceable  ] 

Stead. — Collection  Stead.  No.  12  :  Les  Enfants  perdus  dans  le  Bois,  et 
antres  Contes  (Barbe  Bleue,  Ali  Baha,  &c.).  2d.  net.  Stead's 
Publishing  House,  39  Whitefriars  Street,  E.G. 

I  Adaptation  fran(,'aise  par  Mile.  Latappy,  Agregce  de  I'Univer- 
site.  Illustrations  nouveUes  de  Brinsley  Le  Fauu.  Delightful 
reading  for  beginners  (slightly  advanced).  Pictures  remarkably 
good  and  numerous  at  the  price.] 

By  L.  Harcourt.     Is.  6d. 

Beginners,  German  for.     Parts  1.   and  II 
net  and  2s.  net.     Whittaker. 

[Third  edition,  revised  and  illustrated.  Reader  and  grammar 
combined;  extracts  thoroughly  German  in  subject  and  feelmg,  and 
from  best  authors.  Graduated  carefully  as  to  grammatical  dif- 
Gram  nar.  A  Gei-man,  for  Schools  and  Colleges.  By  Francis  Kingsley 
Bull,  Ph.D.     2s,  6d.     Heath  (Modem  Language  Series). 

[Grammar,  numerous  exercises  both  ways  (easily  adaptable  to  con- 
versation!, vocabulary.  CarefuUy  constructed  and  practically  tested. 
Very  good.] 
Grammar,  German,  Conversational,  Bedford  High  School.  Second 
Tear.  By  A.  Mever,  Teacher  of  German  at  the  High  School,  Bed- 
ford.    2s.  6d.     Blackie.  -.  -       . 

[Reading  passages,  with  exercises  and  explanation,  grammar  four  directrices  correspond- 
intermixed.  Vocabularies.  Thoroughly  practical  and  interesting  ;  i  ing  to  the  focus  S  for  conies 
well  printed  and  stronu-ly  bound  ]  ABC ;  and  they  make  a  quadrilateral  having  ABC  for  diagonal   tri 

Heath's  Modei-n  Language  Series.-BurgNeideck(Riehl).     Edited  by  1 '"^"Sle.     Now,   an>^  conic  touching  the ' 

J.  B.  E.  Jonas.      Is.  6d.     Harrap. 

[Brief  biographical  introduction;    siifficient   notes;    exercis.'S    in 


16532.  (S.  Nar.wana  .\iyar.)— S  is  a  variable  point  on  the  oiroum- 
circle  of  a  fi.Kod  triangle  ABC.  For  different  positions  of  the  point  S 
four  systems  of  conies  can  be  described  circumscribing  the  triangle 
ABC  with  S  as  focus.  Show  the  directrices  of  each  system  of 
these  coaics  are  concurrent  and  that  the  points  of  concurrence  are  the 
in-  and  ex-centres  of  the  trianJie  ABC. 

pSf.B. — The  Proposer's  question  was  sent  in  prior  to  the  publication 
of  the  Note  by  Mr.  Davis  to  which  the  solver  refers. — Ed.] 

Solution  by  C.  E.  Youngilas,  M.A. 

This  has  been  very  sim- 
ply proved  in  a  note  by  Mr. 
R.  F.  Davis  (see  Educa- 
tional Times,  March,  1908). 
Generalizing  a  little,  take 
S  any  point  in  the  plane  ; 
draw  DEF  the  radical  axis 
of  S  and  the  circle  ABC, 
cutting  the  sides  at  D,  E, 
F  ;  and,  with  these  points 
as  centres,  draw  circles 
through  S,  giving  dd',  ec', 
ff.  They  cut  ABC  ortho- 
gonally, therefore  dd'  are 
harmonic  conjugates  be- 
tween B  and  C  ;  therefore 
Sd,  Sd'  bisect  the  angles 
BSC,  and  divide  BC  in  the 
ratio  BS  :  SC.  Hence  d'ef, 
de'f,    def,    d'e'f    are    the 

conversation  and  composition  ;  vocabulary.     Very  useful  ] 
Nouns,  German.  Irregular,  in  Rhyme.     By  N.  E.  Toke.     New  and  re- 
vised edition.     Gibbs  (Cauterbuiy). 

Plays.  (1)  Herr  Peter  Squenz  (Gryphius).  Edited  by  Sydney  H.  Moore, 
Modem  Language  Master  at  the  School  for  Sins  of  .Missionaries, 
Blackheath.  2s.  (2)  Vier  Kleine  Lustspiele  fiir  die  Jugend.  By 
Kate  Weber.     Is.  6d.     Edward  Arnold. 

[(1)  Curious:  modernized.  Considerable  introduction  ;  short  ex- 
planatory notes;  exercises  for  retranslation.  (2)  Amusing:  in 
ordinary  everyday  language.  Attractive  .and  practically  service- 
able.    Vocabulary.] 


Board  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries.     Various  practical  leaflets. 

Board  of  Education  — (1  How  to  become  a  Teacher  in  a  PubUc  Elemen- 
tarj  School,  ii  (2|  The  Problem  of  Rural  Schools  and  Teach- 
ers in  North  America.  (6d.  No.  13.  E  lucatioual  Pamphlets) 
(3)  List  of  Secondary  Schools  in  England  Recoitnized  as  E£fi  dent, 
withaList  of  Recognized  P. -T.  Centres,  19U7-S.  «d.  14)  Teach- 
ing of  History  in  Secondary  Schools  Circular  599).  Id. 
(n)  Memorandum  in  Explanation  and  Expansion  of  Circular  599 
(S.  Memorandum  6).     Wyman. 

Cambridge  University  :  1)  Higher  Local  Examinations.  Fortieth  Annual 
Report  of  the  Syndicate.  19  8.  fid.  (2)  Regulations  for  July  and 
December.  1909.  (3j  Schedules  for  Scientific  Subjects.  Cambridge 
University  Press. 

Chile,  Anales  de  la  Universidad  de.     May-December,  190S. 

City  and  Guilds  of  London  Institute  :  Department  of  Technology.     Re- 
port for  Session  1907-S.     John  Murray. 
[Careful,  adequate,  and  progressive.] 

Columbia  University.     Report,  1908. 

English  Association.  Leaflet  No.  8:  Types  of  English  Curricula  in 
Girls'  Secondary  Schools. 

.Tohns  Hopkins  University  Circular,  No.  8,  1908. 

Kelsey,  F.  W.,  Various  Papers  by.  (1)  !»  there  a  Science  of  Classical 
Philology  ?  (reprinted  Irom  Classical Philolotn/.  October,  190S.  (2)  Some 
ArchiBological  Forgeries  from  Michigan  (reprinted  from  the  Ameri- 
cnn  Anthropnlngist,  March,  1908.)  (3)  Codrus's  Chiron  and  a  Paint- 
ing from  Herculaneum  (reprinted  from  the  American  Joitrual  of 
Archccology,  1908j. 

Literature,  A  Plea  for.  By  S.  E.  Dawson,  C.M.G.,  Lit.D.  Presidential 
Address  to  the  Royal  Society  of  Canada. 

■Newcastle-upon-TjTie  Education  Commii^tee.  R^'port  January,  1906 — 
July,  1908. 

JNorth  Wales,  University  College  of.     Calendar  for  1908-9. 

angle.  Now,  any  conic  touching  four  lines  has  director-circle 
coaxal  with  (D),  (E),  (P),  and  therefore  passing  through  S  and  cutting 
.\BC  orthogonally  ;  and  if  we  fix  one  of  these  conies,  we  shall  provide 
both  a  locus  for  S  and  an  envjlope  for  the  directrices,  and  obtain  the 
proposition  :  If  the  focus  S  of  a  conic  .\BC  be  made  to  describs  a  circle 
orthogonal  to  the  circle  ABO,  the  corresponding  directrix  will  touch 
the  conic  which  has  that  circle  for'director,  and  with  respect  to  which 
ABC  is  a  self-polar  triangle. 

In  particular,  when  the  circle  shrinks  to  a  point,  that  is,  when  S  lies 
on  the  circle  .-VBC,  the  directrices  touch  a  rectangular  hyperbola  having 
S  for  centre  :  and  the  points  of  contact  must  be  the  in-  and  ex-centres 
of  ABC  ;  for  if  p,  q,  r  stand  for  AS,  BS,  CS,  the  trilinear  equations  of 
d'ef,  &c.  are  i^aiigbSircy  =  0;  but  by  Ptolemy's  Theorem 
pa  =  qb^rc  ;  therefore  each  directrix  goes  through  one  of  the  centres. 

16543.  (A.  M.  Nesbitt,  M.A.) — EF  is  a  common  tangent  to  two 
circles,  ADBE  and  ADCP.  CDB  is  drawn  parallel  to  EP,  and  G  is 
the  harmonic  conjugate  of  D  with  respect  to  BC.  If  the  circles  GDA 
and  EDP  cut  in  H,  prove  that  DH  is  perpendicular  to  BC. 

Solution  by  Dr.  E.  J.  Edwabdes. 
0,  P,  N  are  centres  of  circles  GDA,  DEP,  CDP  respectively  ;  since 
DH  is  a  common  chord  of  the  circles  0,  P,  therefore  DH  is  perpen- 
dicular to  their  central  line  PO.  Produce  FN  to  meet  BO  in  K  ;  PC 
meets  HD  in  Z  and  PK  in  T  ;  HD  meets  EP  inL.  Since  in  quadri- 
lateral ZTPL  the  angles  at  Z  and  F  are  right  angles,  therefore  I L 
and  ^ZrP  are  supplementary;  also  since  DK  is  parallel  to  LP, 
therefore  the  angles  at  L  and  D  are  supplementary ;  therefore 
/_  ZDK  =  Z.  ZTP  ;  and  therefore  ZDKT  is  a  cyclic  quadrilateral,  but 
the  two  opposite  angles  DKT  and  DZT  are  right  angles ;  therefore  also 
the  angles  ZDK  and  KTZ  are  right  angles,  and  thus  HD  is  perpen- 
dicular to  BC. 

16513.  (The  late  R.  W.  D.  Christie.)— Find  an  endless  chain  of 
integral  solutions  of  A^  *  B-  =  C^  where  A-B  =  a-  +  6^,  C-A  =  a', 
C  — B  =  2(J-,  are  all  integers. 

Solutions  (I  )  by  Lt.-Col.  Allan  Cunningham,  R.E. 
(II.)  by  Professor  Sanj.ana,  M.A. 
(I.)  Numbering  the  equations 
A=  +  B-  =  C2,     A-B  =  a2,62_     C-A  =  a",     G-B  = '2dr-...{l,2,3,  4). 
Here  (2),  (.3),  (4)  give  a-  +  b-  =  Id^  —  a-,  whence 

a-      d--lb-    (5). 

Or,   a^  =  d-  —  2  (J6)-,   so  that  b  must  be  even,  and  a,  b,  d  must  be  .if 

forms  a  =  a--23-,     |&  =  2a/3,     f?  =  a=-H2;3-    (6). 

Also,  by  (1),  A,  B,  C  must  be  of  forms 

B  =  f=-M--,     k=itu,     C  =  t-  +  u-  (7). 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 

Here  o,  p.  i,  u  are  connected  by  the  relations  (2),  (3),  (4)  (equivalent 
to  only  two  independent  relations).     Here  (4)  and  (Y)  give 

u  =  d  (8). 

Also  (2)  and  (7)  give   ■2tii-t-+i(-  =  a- +  h-,   (3)  and  (7)  give 

<'  +  ?(-— 2f!(.  =  a'-, 
whence    t-  —  2tu=—^b-.      Hence,   by   (8),   t-~2tH  +  v"  =  dr—ib-  =  a', 

by  (5).     Hence  t-u  =  ±a,     t  =  u±a=cl  =  a  (9). 

Finally,  a,  b,  d  are  given  by  (G),  where  a,  B  are  arbitrary  integers,  and 
A,  B,  C  are  given  by  (7),  wherein  /,  ;;  are  given  by  (8),  (9). 

[Rest  in  Beprint.] 

11215,  15116,  &  16397.  (11-216.)  (Professor  Lemoine.)  — Sur  les 
jjerpendiculaires  MA',  MB',  MC  abaissees  d'un  point  M  sur  les  cotes 
du  triangle  ABC  on  prend  respectivement  les  points  A",  B",  C"  tels  que 

MA'.  MA"  =  MB'.SIB"  =  MC'.MC"  =  p-. 
Quel  que  soit  p,  le  triangle  A"B"C"  est  perspectif  avec  ABC  et  le  centre 
de  perspective  est  sur  I'hyperbolo  equilatere  ABCM. 

(15116.)  (C.  E.  YouNOJiAN,  M.A.)— If  H  be  the  orthocentre  of  ABC, 
and  DEF  any  transversal,  perpendiculars  from  A,  B,  0,  H  on  HD,  HE, 
HP,  DEP  will  meet  at  P.  If  this  be  still  true  when  H  is  simply  a  fixed 
point  in  the  plane,  find  the  locus  of  P  and  the  envelope  of  DEP. 

(16397.)  (Henry  Riddell,  M.E.) — If  two  parabolas  touch  the  sides 
of  a  triangle,  and  with  the  intersection  of  their  directrices  as  focus  a 
third  parabola  be  described,  and  a  tangent  to  this  curve  cut  the  sides  of 
the  triangle.  Then,  if  the  focus  of  this  third  parabola  be  joined  to  the 
three  intersections  of  the  tangent  with  the  sides  of  the  triangle,  and 
upon  each  of  these  joining  lines  perpendiculars  be  let  fall  from  the 
vertex  opposite  the  side  concerned,  these  three  perpendiculars  will  meet 
in  a  point,  and  the  locus  of  this  point  is  a  circle. 

Solution  byC.  E.  Youngman,  M.A. 

Direct  proofs  of  Question  11215  are  given  in  the  Ileprint,  Vol.  xm., 
pp.  67,  93,  New  Series ;  but  the  following,  though  long,  may  still  be 
worth  while,  as  it  brings  in  wider  connexions. 

Let  M„  Mj,  M:,  be  the  images  of  M  in  BC,  CA,  AB;  and  H„  H.,,  H;, 
those  of  the  orthocentre  H  ;  and  let  MM,,  ...,  cut  the  sides  of  ABC 
at  A',  Bi,  Cs  ;   B',  C,,  A. ;  C,  A,,  B.^,  as  in  the  figure.    Then  the  pomts 

A,  Mo,  M.i,  Bj,  Ci  are  concyclic,  for  AMo  and  AM3  both  subtend  at  B^ 
and  Cj  the  same  angle  (90°— A)  as  AM;  and,  similarly,  BM^MjCoAi 
and  GMiMoAqB,  are  ooncyclic. 

These  three  circles,  w-ith  the  lines  HiJI,,  H-ilM,,  HjM;,  (the  images  of 
HM),  all  meet  at  a  point  on  the  circle  ABC.  For  H,  already  lies  on 
that  circle  ;  let  H,M,  cut  it  .again  at  S.  Then  /.  SM.C.j  =  SH,A  =  SBC. 
or  SCB,  ;  so  that  S  lies  on  the  circles  BM.Cj  and  GM,B,.  Similarly, 
H»Mo  and  the  circles  ABC,  CM,M.,,  A5I»M.-|  meet  at  a  point,  which  must 
he's," as  two  of  the  circles  are  the  same  .as  before. 

Since  the  projections  of  S  on  .all  six  lines  BC,  CA,  AB,  BjCi,  C.,Ai, 
AjBi  are  coUinear,  S  lies  on  the  circum-circle  of  the  triangle  formed  by 
any  three  of  them;  for  instance,  AB3C3  formed  by  AB,  AC,  and  CjA,, 
and  ABiCj  formed  by  AB,  AC,  .and  AjB,.  Hence  the  figures  SCB,B2B3 
and  SBCsCiCo  are  directly  similar,  and  any  circle  through  AS  will  cut 
AG  and  AB  at  points  which  correspond  to  each  other  in  these  figures. 

Let  the  like  sides  of  ABC  and  A"B"C"  meet  at  D,  E,  F.  Now 
C"A"G'A'  are  concyclic,  and  so  are  CoAjCA' ;  therefore  C"A"  is  parallel 
to  CjA, ;  and,  simibarly,  A"B"  to  AoB,.     Therefore 

B,E  :  EB3  =  B,A"  :  A"Cj  =  C3P  :  FCj; 

therefore  E  and  P  correspond   in   the  similar  figures  above,  and  the 
circle  AEF  goes  through  S. 

In  the  same  way  BPDS  and  CDES  are  concyclic ;  hence  DEF  is  a 
straight  line,  and  therefore  AA",  BB",  CC"  must  meet  at  a  point  P. 
And,  since  the  projection  of  S  on  DEF  lies  always  on  the  pedal  line  of 
S,  DEP  envelopes  a  parabola  with  focus  S  inscribed  in  ABC. 

M  lies  on  the  radical  axis  of  any  two  of  the  circles  DA'A",  DB'B", 
DC'C"  ;  therefore  all  three  meet  again  at  D'  on  DM,  and 

the  angle  B'D'M  =  B'B"D  =  ir- B'CiB,  =  -r-B'AM 
(since  M  is  the  orthocentre  of  ACjB.,)  ;  therefore  D'  lies  also  on  the 
circle  AB'C'M.  Hence  both  A"D  and  AIM  subtend  a  right  angle  at  D' ; 
consequently  AA"  is  perpendicular  to  MD,  and  the  transver.sal  DEF  is 
such  that  perpendiculars  from  A,  B,  C  on  MD,  ME,  MF  meet  at  P. 
The  triangles  MEF,  MCB  are  in  orthology,  having  A"  for  one  centre  ; 
and  the  other  must  be  P ;  therefore  MP  is  perpendicular  to  DEP. 

Reciprocate  from  M  ;  A,  B,  C  become  the  sides  of  a  triangle  abc, 
DEP  a  point  p,  and  P  a  transversal  def;  and  these  are  still  such  that 
perpendiculars  from  a,  b,  c  on  Md,  'Mc,  M/meet  at  y.  Therefore  the 
envelope  of  def  is  a  parabola,  and  the  locus  of  P  is  a  conic — a  rect- 
angular hyperbola  because  A,  B,  C,  H  are  all  special  positions  of  P. 
Since  M  also  lies  on  this  hyperbola,  it  has  like  properties  with  P  : 
namely,  perpendiculars  from  P  on  AM,  BM,  CM  will  cut  BC,  CA,  AB 
on  a  line  perpendicular  to  MP. 

The  focus  iu  Question  16397,  lying  on  the  directrices  of  two  inscribed 
parabolas,  must  be  H.  Now  when  M  is  placed  at  H,  by  "continuity" 
there  will  still  be  transversals  DEF  with  corresponding  P's  ;  but,  since 
S  is  indeterminate,  they  are  now  free  of  restriction,  except  that  P  v;ill 
be  the  reciprocal  of  DEF  with  respect  to  the  polar  circle  of  ABC. 
Accordingly,  when  DEF  is  made  to  touch  any  conic  with  focus  H  (not 
only  a  parabola),  P  will  describe  a  circle. 

16497.     (Major  C.  H.  Chepmell,  (late)  R.A.)— The  special  roots  of 
the  cyclotomic  equation  a;-'  —  1  =  0  are  given  by  the  sextic 

■>/-y'-6y'  +  6f  +  Sy-  —  8y  +  l  =  0  {y  =  x  +  l/x), 
and  this  can  be  resolved  into  two  cubics 

2y*-2/^-2/-5±v/(21)(r-2/-l)  =0. 
Resolve  the  sextic  into  three  quadratics,    the  coefBcients  of   which 
depend  on  w,  1/(1  — 01),  («  — 1)/(b,  the  three  roots  of  a' +  a'- —  ■lai ~ I  =0 
the  7-cyclotomic  equation . 

Remarks  by  Professor  SANJ.iNA,  M.A. 
The  special  roots  of  s^'  — I  =  0  are  readily  obtained  by  the  usual 
algebraic  process.     We  have  to  equate  to  zero 
[(x=i-l)/(x'-l)]/[(x'-l)/(a;-l)]  =  (a:»  +  a:?  +  l)/(x=  +  a;  +  l) 

=  x'2— a;"  +  i'— x'  +  E*— a'  +  x-'- x+  1  ; 
hence,  dividing  by  a/  and  putting  x  +  1/x  =  y,  wo  get 

y'' — y" — 62/'  +  ^v'  +  8z/"  -  8?/  + 1  =  0. 

And  we  can  shew  without  much  difficulty  that  the  expression  on  the 
left  side  is  equal  to  the  product  of  the  two  cubics  or  the  three  quad- 
ratics indicated  in  the  Question,  barring  certain  niunerical  common 
factors.  But  the  great  difliculty  is  to  obtain  the  factorization  of  the 
sextic.  In  such  cases  I  have  employed  a  trigonometrical  method  :  see 
my  paper  in  Proc.  of  Edin.  Math.  Soc,  Vol.  xxvi. 

In  the  present  instance, 
{x"  +  x^  +  l)Hx-  +  x  1- 1)  =  (.r"  — 2,c''cos-3'W  +  l)/(x-— 2.rcos|ir-t-l) 

=  n{x--2xcos^^k7r+  1),     where     k  =  20,  26,  32,  38,  44,  50  ; 

=  i«n  (y  +  2  cos  k'a).     where     2  =  Jj-t  and  k'  =  1,  5.  11,  13,  17,  19. 
It  will  be  found  that 
(y  +  2  cos  a)(j/  +  2cos5a)(j/  +  2cos  11a) 

=  ?/^  +  ir  [v/(21)-l]-i?/[v/('-21)  +  l]-i  [\/('-31l  +  5] 

=  '/-i2/--2^-|  +  2v/(2i)(?r-2/-i); 

and  that 

()/  -h  2  cos  llo)(7/  +  2  cos  13a)(.v  +  2  cos  19a) 

=  v'-hy^-iy 

'2  —  47/  —  ^  — 


Thus  the  first  result  is  at  once  obtained. 

To  obtain  the  resolution  into  quadratics,  take  the  products 
{y  +  2cosa)[y  +  2  cos  13a),     {y  +  2  cos  5a)(y  +  2  cos  19a), 
(y -I- 2  cos  lla)(j/ -t- 2  cos  17a) ; 
these  will  be  respectively  found  to  be 

2/-— 22/ cos  f5r  + 4  cos"  fir— 3,  j/-  — 2j/cos37r-(-4  cos- fir— 3, 
y-  —  2y  cos  ^"-  -t-  4  cos-  ^t  —  3. 
Thus  each  quadratic  factor  is  of  form  y-  +  ay  +  u-—3,  where  u,  is  one 
root  of  the.  cyclotomic  equiition  ^  +  3^—22—1  =  0  corresponding  to 
x'  — 1.  It  would  therefore  be  simpler  to  say  that  the  quadratic  factors 
involve  w  and  u-  respectively.  Of  course  »»  and  ii.^',  and  u>;,  and  m,' 
may  be  expressed  in  terms  of  w,,  — 1/(1-Haii),  —  (w, -H  l)'a!,,  the  three 
roots  expressed  in  terms  of  any  one  root. 

[For  the  Proposer's  very  full  Solution,  see  Bejtriiit.] 

Jan.  1,  1909.] 



About  the  Absolute  Limits  of  Series  of  Positive  Terms. 
By  P.  Tavani. 
If  a„  <  n„  + 1 .  we  have  the  relation 

i/„.,  >  (i/^M--)  >  i,„„^, : (1), 

which  is  obtained  by  calculating  the  integral  of  the  relation 

l/a„  >   p'c-"'S"„-(-^-")(loga„,,-a„)^;^^  -^y^_^^^_ 

which  is  obviously  true. 

Therefore,  if  P  and  M  represent  respectively  the  absolute  minimum 
and  the  absolute  maximum  of  the  set  [log((i„,.i/a„)]Il  ;  f ,  when  these 
limits  exist  we  have  ^ 

p  being  the  exponent  of  convergence  of  the  series. 

2  IK,  <  l/aJP,    or    I  Ija',,  <  1/a?  (1  +  1/P,), 

l/rt?  (1  +  1/PJ  >  2  IK  >  l/a;M, 


These  relations  are  applicable  to  all  series  having  either  P  or  51  or 
both,  and  may  be  used  for  transforming  the  series  into  expressions  of 
finite  form. 

In  fact,  (2)  may  be  written 

(1  +  1/P,)  >  1  +  2  a^K  >  1/iI,- 

Now  (l  +  2«i/a„)    is  either    >   or    <1/M,+  1. 

In  the  latter  case  we  have 

2  IK  =  (l/M,  +  e).(0  <  9  <  1). 

In  the  first  case  we  have 

2  IK  =  (i/-,+  i), 

where  i/  is  a  uniquely  determined  number  between  P  and  M,  the  exist- 
ence of  which  is  evident ;  its  calculability  forms  a  different  question. 

It  if  easy  to  prove  also  that,  if   2 1/6„  >  2  l/n„   and  the  low  limit  of 
1  1 

the  set    [log  6„ ,  i/6„]  ;  i  >  0,  then  both  series  admit  an  absolute  superior 
limit  and  are  both  expressible  under  a  finite  form. 

As  obvious  applications  of  the  formulfe  above  we  may  add 

ll/«!  <■  (1  +  1/log  2) ;    (2i;)i-*''  +  2l/jt''*''  +  ...)  <  2  l/[«log(u)' *';  ; 

2  IK  <  IK.  if  P  5^  1 ;    I  l/)i'^'  <  l/S 

the  last  relation  being  immediately  obtained  if  we  put  n„  =  7i*   and 
p  =  K  +  1,  and  use 

[_  <i»/[(7i»)-i]  >  2l/[(n^)-']  =  1/[a(k  +  1)-1], 

and,  putting  a.(k  +  1)-1  =  5,  the  said  relation  is  established. 

I  should  like  to  call  the  attention  in  particular  to  relation  (1)  :  very 
general  because  it  supposes  only  a„  +  i  >  a,,,  and  very  simple  and  sus- 
ceptible of  important  applications ;  these  mentioned  here  being  all, 
except  the  last,  simple  consequences  of  (1). 

16393.  (Saeadakanta  G.akguli,  M..\.) — Show  that  it  is  possible  to 
find  any  number  of  integers  such  that  the  square  of  the  greatest  is 
equal  to  the  sum  of  the  squares  of  the  rest.     Hence,  solve  in  integers 

Additional  solution  by  .^ktemas  Martin,  LL.D. 
In  the  well  known  identical  equation 

{x-y)-  +  ixy  =  (x  +  y)- (1) 

it  is  obvious  that  X  may  have  any  vaUie  whatever ;  hence  we  may 
assume  x  =  Si  +  z^  +  z^^  2^+  ...  +  ^„.\, 

and  then  (1)  becomes  by  substitution 

(^l  +  ^2  +  ^3  +  ■'4+•.•+^..-l-^/)■  +  4^/(^l-^^o-^^3  +  .'^+...-^^,..,) 

=  (z, -f  ^2  +  ^3-^^^+...+^„-l■^J/)-. 
Now,  if  we  assume  ;/  =  b-  and   Zi  =  a',   z^  =  a«-,    z^  =  Oj',    ...  s„.\ 
=  o,,.]-,  we  wiU  have 
(ai'  -I-  o^"  -h  o/  -Kl4^  +  . . , 

-l-n„-i"-62)"-f  (2irt,)--H(26a-,)=-i-(26rt.j)=  +  (26(j4p+...+(26a,,-,)--! 
=  (a{--ya^\  a{--¥a^--k- ...  -Ha„_i--h  6'-)-, 
:Ot  n  integral  square  numbers  whose  sum  is  a  square,  where  a,,  Qj,  (73, 
a^       ft,,. I  and  6  may  have  any  integral  values  chosen  at  pleasure. 

When  n  =  4,  we  have 

{a{-  +  «;•-  +  a-j-  -  b-y-  +  (2ai6)"-  4  (2026)-  +  (2a^b)-  =  rti"  +  a.-  +  ci-/  +  b-)-. 
Take  Oi  =  1,   dj  =  2,   a,  =  3,   6  =  2;  then,  after  dividing  by  2-, 

2=  -t-  4-  +  52  -t-  6=  =  92. 
Take  rt,  =  1,   «»  =  2,   a,  =  3,   b  =  3  ;  then  we  have 

52 -h  6-'  + 12- -t- 18==  23-. 
An  innumerable  number  of  sets  of  four  squares  may  be  found  whose 
sum  is  a  square. 

18410.  (H.  L.  Trachtenbeeg,  B.A.) — Prove  that  the  centres  of  a 
system  of  conicoids  having  a  common  curve  of  intersection  lie  on  a 
line,  provided  that  part  of  the  common  curve  is  a  conic  at  infinity. 

Solution  by  Professor  Nanson. 

If  S  is  any  one  of  the  conicoids,  the  system  is  given  by 

S  +  A  (ax  +  by  +  cz  +  d)  =  0. 

Differentiating  with  respect  to  x,  y,  z,  and  eliminating  A  from  the  three 

resulting  equations,  the  locus  of  the  centre  is  the  straight  line 

iS/ix  :  dSliy  :  dS/Hz  =  a  :  b  :  c. 

16516.    (R.  Chaetees.) — P  is  a  random 
point  within  the  triangle  ABC  (a  =  1). 
Show  that  the  mean  value  of  the  area 

li-  (n  + 1)- 
and  the  mean  of 

DEP  =  2"  -—^ , 

'  jv'(n  +  lf' 

without     calculating     their     numerical 

Solution  by  the  Proposer. 
Let  the  triangle  APG  =  x,    APB  =  y,  A  =  1, 

(1)  M(AFE)  =  f  f''     -   ,  ■'-dxdyl  f  ['"'  dxdy 
Joji)       1—,'/  1— X  /   Jojo 

Jo      I     2  3  ) 

=  2 

*^^  f  n^n  +  \f 

1   \  ^^      n  +  1 
=  M(EPD). 
(3)  51  (APE")   [see  Question  15993] 

3  \  1-       2- 

(n  +  l)={n  +  2) 

-1-32    ^ ^,  =  l-3M(ArE) 

1    n-  (71+  1)- 


-Factorize  completely 

16461.     (Lt.-Col.  Allan  Cunningham,  R.E. 
(into  prime  factors)  N  =  (19'-''  +  1). 

Solution  by  the  Proposer. 
N  =  (19-^  +  1)  =  (19S  +  1)(19'«-19«  +  1)  =  N1N3  (suppose). 
Here  N,  =  (19* +  1)  =  2.15073.563377  ; 

N3  =  288,  441,  413,  550,  637,  604,  641, 
=  241 . 577 . 1009 . 4657 . 14929 . 29569. 
These  divisors  are  found  from  two  Tables  of  Solutions  (!/s>  Vi-i)  °^  'l'^  '"'" 
congruences     i/g^  +  l^O,     (j/i:'"  +  l)/(yi2^  + 1)  =  0,  (modj)), 
compiled  by  the  author  ;   these  are  now  complete  up  to  jj  J"  32000,  and 
therefore  suffice  for  the  above  work. 


16566.     (T.  K.  Venk.ataeaman,  M. A.)— Integrate 
r  z^/\5al^■i^^y^(a--^]d^ 
J  ,/(«=- ^=) 

18567.  (T.  K.  Venkataeaman,  M.A.)— Solve  the  differential  equation 
dx/(5x  +  IQy  +  5^  +  4)  =  di//(4x  +  \5y  +  lOz  +  7)  =  dzi(-Zx-by  +  5s  +  1) 

and  interpret  the  result  geometrically. 

18568.  (Lt.-Col.  Allan  Cunningham,  R.E.) — Let 

Nv  =  {x^^if)l{x^y),      n;  =  (x'-'^y'')l(x'^y') ; 
Nvi  =  (£«  +  7,«)/U'  + V),    N;,i  =  (£'«  +  7)")/(l'-  +  V=). 
Find  a  solution  of  some  generality  (in  integers)  of  N,  +  N^  =  N,,  +  NJ.j, 
and  find  the  lowest  solution  thereof. 



[Jan.  1,  19(19. 

18589.  (Professor  Sanjana,  M.A.)— For  given  values  of  e,  show  how 
to  determine  a,  b,  c,  a,,  6i,  c,  so  that  the  following  relation  may  hold 
good  :— (a  +  a,  ^/fl)'  +  (6  +  b,  .^fl)*  =  {c  +  c,  s^e)*- 

[All  symbols  denote  rational  quantities  and  some  of  the  square  roots 
may  have  cither  sign.     Examples  : 

^'(22  +  2^/13)+ V(10  +  '2%/13)  =  ^/(48  +  12^'13), 
v/(22-2yi3)-^/(10-2A/13)  =  V(48-12s/13)  ; 
y(24  +  8v/7)+  ^^(5+  VI)  =  ^/(45  +  17^/7), 
^/(24-8^''7)- v'(5-^/7)  =  ^/(45-17^/7).] 
16570.     {R.  F.  Davis,  M.A.) — Paetorize  algebraically 
(xy  +  N)'  +  N  (x  —  y-)'^. 

the  volumes  of  all  such  parallelepipeds  are  equal,  and  that  the  sum 
of  the  squares  of  the  three  diagonals  of  any  one  of  them  whose  ends 
lie  on  the  given  hyperboloid  exceeds  the  square  of  the  remaining 
diagonal  by  a  constant  quantity. 

11462.     (H.  W.  Segau.)— Show  that  («-  +  «  +  1)  multiplied  by 

=  the  same  determinant  with 
the  constituents  of  the  last 
row  multiplied  by 
»,  (n+1),  (•»  +  2),  ...,  (2«-l| 




"  ! 



...     (n+1)! 



...     («  +  2)! 

(h  +  1)I     (»*2)! 


2  X  =  2  ax  : 


16571.  (W.  J.  Geeenstreet,  M.A.) 

2a.r'  =  xy^'Zx-2,ax-. 

16572.  (Professor  Steggall.) — If 
xy  +  ax  +  by  +  c  =  0,     yz  +  ay+bz +  c  =  0,     zx  +  az  +  bx  +  c  =  0. 

then  x  =  y  =  z  or  a-  —  ab  +  6-  =  c.     If,  in  the  latter  case,  x-¥y-\-z  =  Q, 
find  the  equation  giving  the  values  of  x,  y,  z. 

18573.  (G.  N.  Watson,  B.A.)— The  conic  of  closest  contact,  C,  is 
drawn  to  a  cubic  curve  with  a  double  point,  at  the  double  point.  The 
tangents  to  the  cubic  at  the  double  point  are  T,,  To,  the  tangent  which 
is  touched  by  the  conic  being  Ti ;  I  is  the  straight  line  on  which  the 
inflexions  of  the  cubic  lie.  Prove  that  I  touches  C  at  the  point  where 
To  meets  I. 

16574.  (K.  S.  P,ATR.4CHAUi.) — Find  the  polar  equation  of  the 
curve  in  which  the  distance  along  the  tangent  from  the  point  of  con- 
tact to  the  foot  of  the  perpendicular  upon  it  from  the  pole  is  constant. 

18575.     (W.  F.  Beard,  M.A.     Suggested  by  Question  16486.)— .\BC 
is  a  triangle  ;  a  conic  is  described   to  touch  AB,  AC  at  B,    C  and  to 
touch  the  circum-circle  ;  if  P  is  the  point  of  contact  and  PQR  is  drawn 
parallel  to  BG  to  meet  the  circle  at  Q  and  the  conic  at  R,  prove 
PQ  =  QR. 

16576.  (Professor  Neuberg.) — Une  parabole  P  touche  les  cotes  de 
Tangle  xOy  aux  points  donnas  A  et  B  ;  une  seconde  parabole  P'  touche 
ces  cotes  en  C  et  D.  Construire  le  troisieme  tangente  commuAe  aux 
deux  parabolas. 

16577.  (Hon.  G.  R.  Dick,  M.A.)— P  is  any  point  in  the  plane  of  a 
triangle  ABC  whose  circum-centre  is  O  ;  a,  b,  c  are  the  sides,  R  the 
circura-radius,  A  the  area  and  AP  =  x,  BP  =y,  CP  =  z.  Show  that 
A. OP-  =  R-  (A±  a'),  where  A'  is  the  area  of  a  triangle  whose  sides  are 
ax/R,  fcy/R,  C2/R  respectively.     Deduce  Ptolemy's  theorem. 

16578.  (S.NarayanaAiyar.)— If  0  (AA',  BB'.CC,  ..)  be  any  pencil 
in  involution,  and  if  a  circle  be  drawn  through  the  point  O  cutting  the 
rays  of  the  pencil  in  the  points  A,  A' ;  B,  B'  ;  C,  C  ;  ...  ;  then  the  locus 
of  the  orthocentre  of  the  triangles  OA.V,  OBB',  OCC,  ...  is  a  circle. 

16579.  (V.  R.iMAS\vAMi  AiYAR,  M.A.)— If  the  line  joining  the  vertex 
X  to  the  circum-centre  O  of  a  triangle  ABC  cuts  the  sides  FD,  DE  of 
the  medial  triangle  DEF  in  the  points  B',  C  ;  and  O'  be  the  harmonic 
conjugate  of  O  with  respect  to  B'C.  Prove  that  the  circle  described  on 
00'  as  diameter  touches  the  nine-poiut  circle  of  ABC. 

16580.  (R.  Gardner.) — Given  the  length  of  each  side  of  a  quadri- 
lateral, and  that  the  diagonals  are  perpendicular,  find  the  lengths  of  the 

16581.  (James  Blaikie,  M.A.)— AKL,  BKL  are  two  triangles  such 
that  AB  is  parallel  to  KL,  also  AB  >  (n-1)  KL,  and  <  nKL.  Prove 
that  the  two  triangles  can  be  shown  to  be  equal  by  the  superposition  of 
2)1 -I- 1  rectilineal  portions  (or,  if  possible,  by  a  smaller  number). 

16582.  (Professor  Sanjana,  M.A.)— If  C..,  03,64,  ...  denote  the  sums 
of  the  products  taken  2,  3,  4,  ...  at  a  time  of  the  quantities 

cos(e  +  27r/)i),  cos  (9 -I- 47r/jt) cos[9+(2«-2)ir/«], 

prove  that 

(-2)-CjSine  =  sin  39-(«-l)  sine,  (-2)3C3sina  =  sin4e- ()s-2)sin2e, 
(-2)^C4siufl  =  sin59-(n-3)sin39  +  i(«-l)(»-4)  sine, 
(-2)^05  sine  =  sin  69-(»-4)  sin  49  +  Kii-2)(«-5)sin  28,  ...  . 

16583.  (Professor  Nanson.)  —  Show,  geometrically,  that  in  a 
spherical  triangle  B  +  C  >  =  <  ir  according  as  6  +  c  >  =  <  ir,  and  deduce 
(1)  that  the  greater  side  is  opposite  the  greater  angle,  (2)  that  any  two 
sides  are  greater  than  the  third,  (3i  the  three  sides  are  less  than  the 
perimeter  of  a  great  circle. 


11224.  (Profos.^or  WoLSTENHOLME,  Sc.D.)— If  three  pairs  of  parallel 
generators  of  the  hyperboloid  ax- +  by-  +  cz*  =  1  be  drawn,  they  will 
form  a  gauche  hexagon,  whose  sides  are  edges  of  a  parallelepiped  ; 
prove  that  the  two  corners  of  this  parallelopiped  which  do  not  lie  on 
the  given  hyperboloid  lie  on  the  hyperboloid  or- -h  by-  +  cz^  +  3  =  0,  that 


11581.     (The  Late  Professor  Clifford,  F.R.S.)— Prove  that  (1)  the 
co-ordinates  of  a  point  on  a  curve  of  the  third  order  or  class  may  be 
expressed  in  terms  of  elliptic  functions  of  a  parameter  u  ;  and  hence 
(2)  when    u  +  v  +  w  =  iK',     ll     sn=»     snu     cnu     dn  it  I  =  0. 
I  1     sn- 1-     sn  I!      en  r     dn  v 

1  1     sn-  w    sn  w     en  le 

11584.  (Professor  Hudson,  M.A.)— Assuming  that  a  mass  of  liquid 
contained  in  a  vertical  cylinder  can  rotate  about  the  axis  of  the  cylinder, 
under  the  action  of  gravity  only,  in  such  a  manner  that  the  velocity  at 
any  point  of  the  liquid  varies  inversely  as  the  angular  velocity  of  its 
distance  from  the  axis  of  the  cylinder,  find  the  form  and  position  of 
the  free  surface. 

11602.  (J.  J.Walker,  M.A.,  F.R.S.)— Show  how  to  form,  say  in 
the  case  of  three  or  four  linear  equations,  the  cubic  or  biquadratic 
whose  roots  shall  be  the  v<alues  of  the  three  or  four  unknown  quantities 
— of  course,  without  assuming  the  usual  solutions  of  those  linear 

11663.  (Professor  Littlehales.)— A.  discovers  a  circular  shoal  spot, 
100  yards  in  diameter,  in  mid-ocean,  and  determines  the  geographical 
latitude  of  its  centre  within  2',  and  its  longitude  within  3'.  B.  attempts 
to  find  the  shoal  again  by  proceeding  to  the  geographical  position 
assigned  to  it  by  A.,  and  making  a  cast  of  the  lead  ;  but  he  can  only 
determine  within  2'  of  latitude  and  3'  of  longitude  when  he  has  arrived 
at  the  assigned  position.  What  is  the  probabiHty  that  B.  will  find  the 
shoal  ?  

It  is  requested  that  all  Mathematical  communications  should  be  sent 
to  the  Mathematical  Editor, 

Miss  Constance  I.  Marks,  B.A.,  10  Matheson  Road,  West 
Kensington,  W. 

Vol.  XIV.  {New  Series)  of  the  "Mathematical  Tteprint  " 
is  now  ready,  and  may  be  had  of  the  Publisher, 
Francis  Hodgson,  89  Farrhigdon  Street,  E.G.  Price 
to  Subscribers,  5s. ;  to  Non- Subscribers,  6s.  6d. 


Thursday,  December  10th,  1908.— Sir  W.  D.  Niven,  President,  in  the 
Chair.  ,         , 

Messrs.  G.  P.  S.  Hills,  H.  B.  Heywood,  W.  H.  Salmon  were  elected 

Mr.  F.  M.  Saxelby  was  admitted  into  the  Society. 

The  following  papers  were  communicated  : — 

"On  the  Theory  of  Waves  propagated  vertically  in  the  .\tmosphere," 
Prof.  H.  Lamb. 

(i.)  "On  Sir  WiUiam  Rowan  Hamilton's  Fluctuating  Functions, 
(ii.)   "On  the  Representation  of  a  Function  by  a  Series  of  Bessel's 
Functions,"  Dr.  E.  W.  Hobson. 

"Theory  of  Cauchy's  principal  Values  (Fourth  Paper),"  Mr.  G.  H. 

"Note  on  a  Continued  Fraction  equivalent  to  the  remainder  after 
n  terms  of  Taylor's  Series,"  Prof.  L.  J.  Rogers. 

"  Solid  .\ngles  and  Potentials  of  Plane  Discs,"  Mr.  Balak  Ram. 

"The  Solution  of  the  Homogeneous  Linear  Difference  Equation  of 
the  Second  Order,"  Mr.  G.  N.  Watson. 

"On  Four  Systems  of  Three  Quaternary  Quadrics  that  can  be  ex- 
pressed by  means  of  Five  Squares,"  Prof.  -A.  C.  Dixon. 

"  On  Differentials,"  Dr.  W.  H.  Young. 

(i.)  "On  Cubic  Surfaces.  — The  Reduction  of  a  Quaternary  Cubic 
from  the  Simi  of  Six  Cubes  to  the  Sum  of  Five,"  (ii.)  "  Addition  to  a 
former  Paper  on  the  Eliminant  of  Three  Quantics  m  two  Independ- 
ent Variables,"  Mr.  A.  L.  Dixon.  _ 

Dr.  T.  Stuart  gave  an  account  of  a  method  of  solution  of  Merscnne  s 
problem . 

Jan.  ] ,  1909.] 



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Poems.    Edited  by  A.  Gutiikelch,  Jl.A.,  Lecturer  in  English  Language 
and  Literature.  Knig's  College,  London.    8d. 

Full  Li.<:t  on  application. 


Le  vieux  Tailleiir.     Le  Combat  de  Coqs.     Pourqiioi  Hune- 
bourg"  ne  fut  pas  rendu. 

Edited,  with  brief  Notes  and  Vocabulary,  by  O.  H.  PRIOR,  Assistant  Master 

at  Rugby. 

(Bell's  Illustrated  French  Readers.) 

A  Second  Series  of  Tales  by  Erckmann-Cliatrian  is  in  preparation  and  will  be 

issued  shortly. 

Crown  8vo.     Illustrated.    2s. 


JUST  PUBLISHED.    EIGHTH   EDITION.    Revised  and  Enlarged. 
Crown  8vo.    3s.  6d. 


Bv  PERCY    GROOM,    M.A.    (Cantab,    et    Oxon.).    D.Sc.    (Oxon.),    F.L.S., 

P'.R.H.S. ;  Assistant  Professor  of  Botany  in  tlie  Imperial  College  of  Science  and 

Technology ;  formerly  Exam.ner  in  Botany  to  the  University  of  Oxford. 

With  ^75  Illnsti-ations. 


CERTIFICATE    EXAMINATION.     June  and  December,  1909. 

Edited,  with  Introduction 
3.  {BeWs  English  Classics.) 


and  Notes,  by  T.  Dcrp  Barsett,  B.A.    ! 
Notes,  separately.     Is. 

SHAKESPE&RBS  JULIUS  CAESAR.   Edited,  with  Intro- 

(liielion  and  Notes,  by  T.  DuFF  BiRXETI,  B.A.     2s. 
Notes,  separately.    Is. 

CAESAR:  DE  BELLO  GAI.LICO.  Books  in.  and  IV. 
Edited,  with  Introduction.  Notes.  Exercises,  and  Vocabulary,  by  P.  H. 
CoLsox,  M..A..  Ct.  M.  Gwtther,  M.A.,  and  the  Rev.  A.  W.  Upcott,  M.A. 
With  numerous  lUusti-ations,  Maps,  and  Plans,    is.  6d.  each. 

{Bell's  Illustrated  Classics.) 

Translation.    Is.  (Bell's  Classical  Translations.) 

VIRGII.:     AENEID.      Booli;  III.      Edited,  with  Introduction, 

Notes,  and  Vocabulary,  by  L.  D.  ■Wainwkight.  M.A.    With  Illustrations 

ami  Mail.     Is.  6il.  {Bell's  Illustrated  Classics.) 

Transiacion.     Is.  {Bell's  Classical  Translations.) 

VIROIL:    AENEID.      Book  XI.      Edited,   with  Introduction, 

Notes,  and  Vocabiilarv,  by  L.  D.  Wainwright.  M.A.    With  numerous 

Illustrations.    Is.  6d.  { Bell'. 1 1llustrated  Classics.) 

Translation.     Is.  {Bells  Classical  Translations.) 


Notes,  and  Vocabulary 
Is.  6d. 
Translation.    Is. 

Book   IV.       Edited,    with    Introduction, 

by  H.  Latter,  M.A.    Wirh  numerous  II  ustrations. 

{Bell's  Illustrated  CI  .ssics.) 

{Bell's  Classical  Translations.) 

EUTROPIUS.     Books  I.  and   II.     Edited,   with  Introduction, 
Nntes,  nnd  V.-oabularv,  by  J.  G.  SPENCEE,  B.A.     With  numerous  Illustra- 
tions and  .Map.     Is.  6d.  {Bell's  Illustrated  Classics.) 
Translation.     5s.  {Bohn's  Classical  Library.) 

EURIPIDES:  HECUBA.     Edited  by  the  Rev.  A.  W.  Upcott, 
Head   Jlaster  of    Christ's    Hospital.^    With    Introduction,    Notes', 

Appendices  and  Vocabulary, 

nd  numeious  Illust'ati' 

{Hell's  Illustrated  Classics.) 
{Bell's  Classical  Translations.) 

XENOPHON  :  ANABASIS.  Books  II.  and  in.  Edited,  with 
Introduction,  Notes,  and  Vocabulary,  by  E.  C.  Makchant,  M.A.  With 
Illustrations  and  Map.    Is.  6d.  each.  (Bell's  Illustrated  Classics.) 

Translation.    Books  I.  and  II.    Is.    Books  III.  and  IV.    Is. 

{Bell's  Classical  Translations.) 

London:    GEORGE    BELL   &    SONS,  Portugal  Street,  Kingsway,  W.G. 



[Jan.  1,  1909. 



Many  thousands  of  these  desks  have  been  sold. 

The  proportions  of  the  different  parts  of  the 
STANTON  DESKS  are  carefully  arranged  in 
relation  to  each  other  :  the  desk  portion  slides 
backwards  and  forwards,  allowing  the  edge  of 
the  desk  to  be  vertically  over  the  edge  of  the 
seat  when  used  for  writing,  and  also  providing 
ample  room  for  standing  or  sitting  comfortably 
at  other  times. 

is  constructed  so  a>;  to  accommodate  Pupils  of 
different  ages  and  devi<l(ipmcnt. 

All  the  movements  are  automatic. 

All  the  adjustable  parts  are  Iron. 

There  are  no  springs  to  get  out  of  order. 

The  Desks  are  adjustable  by  inches. 

The  Seats  are  adjustable  by    ,■  inches. 

The  Desks  and  Seats  are  adjustable  inde- 

The  Foot  Rail  is  adjustable  to  3  positions. 

Shallow  Lockers  are  provided  so  that  the 
correct  position  for  writing  as  regards 
the  shoulders  is  preserved.  The  locker 
also  slides,  thus  allowing  the  correct 
position  to  be  assumed  both  for  reading 
and  writing. 


(Protected  by  several  Patents.) 


The  Association  will  send,  where  desired,  a  skilled  expert  for  consultation  as  to  the  best  utilization  of  the  available 
space,  and  also  to  take  instructions  for  the  drawing  up  of  the  necessary  plans  and  specifications  and  the  submission  of 
estimates. — This  entirely  without  charge. 

Having  a  vast  experience  in  this  class  of  work,  the  Association  can  guarantee  that  all  work  entrusted  to  them  will  be 
carried  out  in  a  scientific  and  satisfactory  manner. 

In  many  instances  the  Association  have  permission  to  refer  intending  Customers  to  work  done  by  them,  and  would 
mention  that  they  have  lately  fitted  up 

The  New  Science  Kooms  at  Charterhouse  and   The  New  Science  Schools  at  Bulwich  College, 
and  are  now   fitting  up,  amongst  others. 

The  Merchant  Venturers'  College  at  Bristol   and    The  New  Science  Kooms  at  Epsom  College. 
-For  estimates  nf  all  kinds  and  full  ■piirticulars,  post  free,  apply  as  at  foot. 


Till'  Stafioticrij  mnuufactured  by  the  Association,  is  the  1>est  of  its  hin/l. 
EXERCISE    BOOK    No.   21,  just  issued,  contains  80  pages   of  good   Cream-laid  Paper,  bound  in   strong,  flexible, 

leatherette  cover,  thread  stitched,  at  16s.  6d.  per  gross.     A  good  Twopenny  Book. 

These  Books  are  supplied  in  all  the  usual  rulings  and  in  six  distinct  colours — maroon,  scarlet,  dark  blue,  light  blue. 

dark  green,  and  light  green.     Orders  for  2  gross  printed  with  name  of  School  on  a  tinted  label  that  tones  with  the 

cover  without  extra  charge.     {Specimen  will  be  sent  post  free  on  application.) 
In  addition  to  the  above,  the  Association  holds  the  largest  stock  of  all  kinds  of  Scholastic  Stationery,  inclndins' — 

Science  and   Physics   Note   Books, 
Science  and    Plotting   Paper, 
Cartridge   Paper, 
Drawing  Books, 

Laboratory   Note    Books, 
Examination   Paper, 
Blotting  Paper, 
Reporters'  Note   Books, 

Nature   Note   Books, 
Foolscap   Paper, 
Note   Books, 
Book-keeping  Books, 

Brushvifork  and  Colour  Books,  &c.,  &c., 

so  that  Customers'  immediate  requirements  can  be  at  once  supplied. 





42    HOLBORN    VIADUCT,    LONDON.    E.G. 

London  :  Printed  by  C.  F.  HODGSON  &  Son,  2  Vewton  Street.  Kinesway.  W.C.  :  and  Published  by  Fbanois  Hodoson.  89  Parringdon  Street,  E.C. 
[Entered  at  the  New  York  Post  OIBce  as  Sucond  Class  matter.] 


^  A*-  -'-/>-     X 


3ioiirnal    of   tijf   €oUtst  of  ^rfcfptor^. 

Yol.  LXII.]  New  Series,  No.  574.  FEBRUARY  1,  1909. 

(Published  Monthly,  price,  to^t-'f 
■;        Members,  6rf. ;  61/  Pus^.  7d. 
iAnmial  Snhscriptiim,  Is. 





The  next  Monthly  Jleeting  of  the  Members  will  take 
plHCe  on  Wednesday,  the  17th  ot  February,  at  7.30  p.m., 
when  Professor  J.  J.  TixcLAY  will  read  a  Paper  on 
"  Reward  and  Punishment  in  School." 

A  discussion  will  follow  the  reading  of  the  Paper. 

Members  have  the  privilege  of  introducing  their 


The  First  Course  of  Lectures  (Thirty-seveuth  Annual 
Series),  by  Prof.  .1.  Adams,  M.A.,  B.Sc..  F.C.P.,  on 
"  The  Psychological  Bases  of  Teaching  and  Educa- 
tion," will  commence  on  Thursdav,  February  4th.  at 
7  p.m. 

The  purpose  of  the  Course  is  to  give  teachers  an 
opportunit.v  to  study  at  first  hand  the  principles  that 
underlie  the  practice  of  their  profession.  The  lecturer 
will  treat  his  subject  in  such  a  way  as  to  fit  in  with  the 
requirements  of  the  College  in  connexion  with  the  ex- 
aminations for  the  Associateship,  the  Licentiateship, 
I  and  the  Fellowship  ;  but  his  main  purpose  will  be  to 
present  the  matter  in  such  a  way  as  to  make  it  of  practi- 
cal service  to  the  teacher.  The  reading  of  the  students 
will  be  guided,  and  problems  set  for  their  exercise.  All 
the  illustrations  in  the  lectures  will  be  dmwn  from 
actual  experience  in  the  schoolroom,  and  will  include 
the  results  of  current  experimental  methods.  The  Fee 
for  the  Course  is  Half-a-Guinea.  The  Lectures  will  be 
delivered  on  Thursday  Evenings  at  7  o'clock,  at  the 
College,  Bloomsbury  Square,  W.C.  For  Siillabns,  see 
page  47. 


Diplonia.8 — The  next  Examination  of  Teachers  for 
the  Dii)lomas  of  the  College  will  commence  on  the 
30th  of  August,  1909. 

Practical  Examination  for  Certificates  of 
Ability  to  Teach.— The  next  Practical  Examina- 
tion will  be  held  in  February,  1909. 

Certificate  Examinations.— The  Midsummer 
Examination  for  Certilicates  will  commence  on  the 
29th  of  June,  1909. 

Lower  Forms  Examinations.— The  Midsum- 
mer Examination  will  commence  on  the  29th  of  June 

Professional  PreliminaryExaminations.- 

These  Examinations  are  held  in  March  and  September. 
The  Spring  Examination  in  1909  will  commence  on  tlie 
2nd  of  March. 

Inspection  and  Examination  of  Schools. 

—Inspectors  and  Examiners  are  appointed  b.v  the 
College  for  the  Inspection  and  Examination  of  Public 
and  Private  Schools. 

The  Regulations  for  the  above  Examinations  can  be 
obtained  on  application  to  the  Secretary. 

C.  R.  HODGSON,  B.A.,  Secretary. 
Bloomsbury  Square,  W.C. 



The  attention  of  Candidates  is  drawn  to  the  Ordinary 
and  Honours  Diplomas  for  Teachers,  which  are  strongly 
recommended  as  suitable  for  those  who  are  or  intend  to 
be  teachers. 

Examinations  are  held  at  Aberdeen,  Birminghai 
Blackburn,  Brighton.  Bristol,  Cardiff,  Croydon,  Devon- 
port,  Edinburgh,  Glasgow,  Hull,  Inverness,  Leeds, 
Liverpool,  London,  Manchester,  Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
Norwich,  Nottingham,  Oxford,  St.  Andrews.  Sheffield 
Swansea,  and  several  othei  towns. 

information  regarding  the  Examinations  may  be  ob 
tained  from  the  Sbcretart,  L.L.A.  Scheme,  The 
University.  St.  Andrews. 



Warde)i : 
Miss   FRANCES   H.   MELVILLE,   M.A. 

UNIVKRSITT    HALL,    for    Women 
students,  was  opened  in  1896.  under  the  govei 
ment  of  the  University  of  St.  Andrews. 

The  usual  Corpse  of  Study  at  University  Hall  is 
preparation  for  the  Degree   Examinations  of  the  U 
versity  of  St.  Andrews,  of  which  all  the  Classes  and 
Degrees  in  Arts,  Divinity,  Science,  and  Medicine 
open  to  women  on  the  same  terms  as  to  men. 

The  Sessions  of  Residence  are  the  two  University 
Sessions,  viz.  the  Winter  Session.  October  to  March 
the  Summer  Session  (Optional),  April  to  June. 

University  Hall  fees  for  residence — Winter  Session, 
£30-£50;  Summer  Session,  £15-£25. 

Matriculation  and  Class  Fees  avei-age  £10  for  the 
Winter  Session. 

For  further  information,  apply  to  the  Warden, 
University  Hall,  St.  Andrews,  Fife. 

Biploma  CoiTCspon^ence 
Colleae,  Xt&. 

Principalr-3 .  W.  Knipe,  L.C.P.,  F.RS.L. 
Vice-Principal— a.  U.  Hooke,  B.A.,  Hons.  Lond. 

Specially  arranged   Course.i  for 


B.A.,  B.D.,   B.Sc, 

A.C.P.,    L.C.P.,    &c. 

on  application  to  the  Secretary. 




Training  College  for  Women  Secondary  Teachers. 
Principal  — flhs   Catherine  I.    Dodd,   M.A.    (late 
Lecturer  in  Education  in  the  Manchester  University). 

Students  are  prepared  for  the  Oxford,  the  Cambridge, 
and  the  London  Teacher's  Diploma.  Special  arrange- 
ments made  for  Students  to  attend  the  School  of  Geo- 
g  aphy. 

Two  Scholarships  of  £40  each  are  offered  students 

ith  a  degree  entering  Cherwell  Hall  in  January  1909. 

Exhibitions  and  Scholarships  awarded  in  December 
and  July.— Apply  to  the  Principal. 


{For  particidars  of  the  above,  .lee  following  pages.) 





















{For  particulars  of  the  above,  seefollowing  pagtt.) 





(UttiuerBtfg  Corresponbence 
Coffege  ^fubente 



To  Matricula.tion,  and  Guides  to  the 
Hie^her  Examinations  of  London  Uni- 
versity, post  free  from  TllK  Secrbtart,  Bur- 
lington House,  Cambridge ;  or  from  the  London 
Office  of  University  Correspondence  College, 
32  Red  Lion  Square,  Holbom,  W.C. 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

Great  Marlborough  Street,  London,  W. 

Patron:  His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Leeds. 

Dr.  F.  J.  Karn,  Mus.Bae.  Cantab.,  Principal. 

G.  Augustus  Holmes,  Esq.,  Directorof  Examinations. 


PLATING,  SINGING,  THEORY,  and  all  brunches 
of  Music  will  be  held  in  London  and  400  Provincial 
Centres  in  April,  when  Certificates  will  be  granted  to 
all  successful  candidates. 

The  Higher  Examinations  for  the  Diplomas  of  Asso- 
ciate (A.L.C.M.),  Licentiate  (L.L.C.M.),  the  Teachers' 
Diploma,  L.C.M.,  and  Fellowship  (F.L.C.M.)  take 
place  in  July  (June  for  Scotland  and  Ireland)  and 

Gold  and  Silver  Medals  and  Book  Prizes  are  offered 
for  competition  according  to  the  Regulations. 

Local  School  Centres. — Full  particulars  with  refer- 
ence to  the  formation  ot  these  Centres  will  be  forwarded 
to  Princip  Is  of  Schools  upon  application. 

SILLABUS  for  1909,  together  with  Annual  Report, 
is  now  ready^  and  may  be  had  of  the  Secretary. 

In  the  Educational  Department  students  are  received 
and  thoroughly  tnlined  under  the  liest  Professors  at 
moderate  fees. '  The  College  is  open  10  a.m.  to  9.30  p.m. 

A  COURSE  ot  TRAINING  in  Pianoforte  and  Singing 
for  Teachers  is  held  at  the  College. 

VACATION  LESSONS  for  Teachers  and  others  are 
given  at  Easter,  August,  and  Christmas. 

T.  WEEKES  HOLMES,  Secretary. 





York  Place.  Baker  Street,  London,  \V. 

The  HALF-TERM  begins  on  THURSDAY',  Febru- 
ary IStli.  1909.  Lectures  are  given  in  preparation  for 
all  examinations  of  the  University  of  London  in  Arts, 
Science  and  Preliminary  Medicine,  for  the  Teacher's 
Diploma,  London,  for  the  Teacher's  Certificate,  Cam- 
bridge, and  for  the  Cambridge  Higher  Local  Examina- 

Special  Course  ot  Scientific  Instruction  in  H.vgiene, 
recognised  by  the  Sanitary  Inspectors'  Examination 

Six  Laboratories  are  open  to  students  for  Practical 

Students  may  attend  the  Art  .School  who  are  not 
taking  other  subjects  at  the  Colleze. 

A  Single  Course  in  any  subject  may  be   attended. 

Regular  Physical  Instruction  is  given  free  of  cost  to 
students  who  desire   it    by  a  fully  qualified  Woman 

Students  can  reside  in  the  College. 

Full  particulars  on  application  to  the  Principal. 

Head  of  the  Department  .—Miss  Mary  Morton,  M.A. 

Students  are  admitted  to  the  Training  Course  in 
October  and  Januarv.    Entrance  Scholarships. 

Applications  should  be  sent  to  the  Head  of  the 


OF  THE  R.A.M.  and  R.C.M. 


Patron  :  His  Majesty  the  King. 
President:  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales,  K.G. 

Examinations  in  Theory  at  all  Centres  in  March  and 
November;  in  Practical  Subjects  at  all  Centres  in 
March-April,  and  in  the  London  District  and  certain 
Provincial  Centres  in  November-December  also.  En- 
tries forthe  March-April  Examinations  close  Wednesday, 
February  10th,  1909  tor,  with  exti-a  fee,  February  18th). 

Held    three    times  a  year,    viz.,  March-April,  June- 
July,  and  October-November.     Entries  for  the  March- 
-ipril   Examinations  close  Wednesday,  February  3rd, 
1909  (or,  with  extra  fee,  February  lltli). 

Specimen  Theory  Papers  set  in  past  years  ( Local  Centre 
or  School)  can  be  obtained  on  application.  Price  3d. 
per  set,  per  year,  post  free. 

S.vUabuses  A  and  B,  entry  forms,  and  any  further 
information  will  be  sent  post  free  on  application  to— 
JAMES  MUIR.  Secretary. 

15  Bedford  Square.  London,  W.C. 
Telegi"ams:  "  Associa,  London." 


Breams  Buildings,  Chancery  Lane,  E.C. 

Principal— G.  Armit age-Smith,  D.Lit.,  M.A. 

The  College  provides  approved  courses  of  Instruction 
ECONOMICS,  LAWS,  under  Recognized  Teachers  of 
the  University. 

Well  appointed  Laboratories.    Facilities  for  research. 

Full  particulars  on  application  to 

H.  Wells  Fames.  Secretary. 



Prineipnl— Miss  M.  H.  Wood.  M.A.,  Lit.D., 

Girton  College,  Cambridge  Classical  Tripos. 

A  residential  College  providing  a  year's  professional 

training  for  Secondary  Teachers. 

Preparation  for  the  London  and  the  Cambridge 
Teachers'  Diploma.  Ample  opportunity  for  practice 
in  teaching  science,  languages,  mathematics,  and  other 
subjects.  Fees  £65  to  £75.  Admissions  in  January  and 

For  particulars  apply — The  Principal,  Training 
College,  Cambridge. 





Tutorial    Institute, 


Principal— J.  F.  EWEN,  M.A.,  Honours. 

Vice-Principal— B.  J.  DALLAS,  M.A.,  Wrangler, 
Scholar  of  King's  College,  Cambridge. 
Lectnrers  and  Tutors — 
J.  W.  HORROCKS,  D.Lit.,  I  W.  Clarke,  A.R.C.S., 

M.A.,       Fellmo      Royal\      National      Scholar      in 

Historical  Society.  \      Biology. 

P.  Duffy,  B.A.,  Hons.        j  J.  Rollings,  B.Sc.  Hons. 
V.  Stranders,  M.A.  Lond.  I  R.  B.  Leb,  B.A..  B.Sc. 
H.  W.  Mayo,  B.A.,  B.Sc,    S.  Kahlenbbeg.  Ph.D. 

L.C.P.  I  H.    M.     Bradley.    B.A.. 

A.  FiTZPAYNE,  Higher        i     A.C.P. 

N.F.U.  I 

Special  Preparation,  Orally  and  by  Correspondence  loi 
all  Higher  Qualifications  for  Teachers. 

Full  Instruction,  Typical  Questions,  Model  Answers, 
Solutions,  Careful  Correction,  Expert  Hints,  Prompt 
Individual  Attention,  Moderate  Fees. 

During  the  last  twelve  yeiirs  the  Principal  s  Students 
have  been  credited  with  over  2500  Successes  at 
the  following  Examinations. 

ninlnmac  in  Education,  Cambridge  and  London 
UipiUIllas  Specialattenlion  to  Theoretical  Subjects 
by  Correspondence. 

Lr  P      ^""  ''""I'se  £2-  12s.   6d.       Exceptional 
•  \itlt     SiKipss.     iJiploma  Guide  Free. 
In^AKmaHiai-a      Inter.    Science    or    Inter.   Arts. 
llllcnilCUIalCi     'I'lie  best  Tuition, CorreJipondence 
orOr:il.    £1.  lis.  6d.  <:ich  Subject. 

Bi        p  Cf»      SuLctss    at     recent    Exams.       Full 
,A.,   D.oL.     Course,  any  single  Subject,  £a.  28. 
Degree  G-uide  Free. 

LI  *  During  the  last  ten  years  many  times  the 
•  Lfi\t  number  of  successes  of  any  other  Tutor. 
Oral  Classes.  Evenings  and  Saturdays.  Single  Subjects, 
£1.  lis.  6d.     Xew  Practical  Guide  to  L.L.A.  Free. 

HlitUiyr:  \  i\na\c!  Numerous  Successes,  many  in 
Igner  LOCaiS.  Honours.  Also  Oral  Tuition. 
Complete  Course,  £1.  lis.  6d.  New  Practical  Guide 
to  Higher  aiid  Senior  Locals. 

Cf /tohal  Certiticates  are  the  most  valuable  of  the 
rrUCUCI  Higher  Exams,  for  Mistresses  in  Kinder- 
garten and  Preparatory  Schools.  Thorough  preparation. 
Orallv  and  by  Correspondence.  Ten  Tutors.  Excellent 
results.    New  Froebel  Guide  Free. 


rman  of  the  Committee— Hh-  W.  JIather,  LL.D. 

Treasurer— 1At.  C.  G.  Montefiore,  M.A. 
Secretary— IHv.  Arthur  G.  Symonds,  M.A. 


Principal— TA'iss  E.  Lawrence. 

Head  Mistress— tiiss  A.  Yklland. 

Students  are  trained  for  the  Examinations  of  the 
National  Froebel  Union  and  other  Examinations. 

TWO  SCHOLARSHIPS  of  £20  each,  and  two  of  £15 
each,  tenable  for  two  years  at  the  Institute,  are  offered 
annually  to  Women  Students  who  have  passed  certain 
recognized  Examinations. 

Prospectuses  can  be  obtained  from  the  Frincipax. 


Full  preparation  for  Public  Examinations. 
British  College  of  Physical  Education :   English  and 
Swedish  systems.    Massage  and  Remedial  Work. 
Board  of  Education  :  Science. 
Swimming  and  Sports. 

Schools  supplied  with  fully  qualified  Sports  Mistresses. 

For  particulars  apply— Miss  E.  Spelman  Stanger, 

Trevena.  Sunray  Avenue,  Denmark  Hill,  London.  S.E. 

On  the  Pure  Oral  System. 
11  FiTZROY  Square,  London,  W. 
There  are  several  Vacancies  for  Students  and  Pupils 
at  this  Training  College  and  School.    Good  Apiioint- 
ments  are  easily  obtainable  by  Students  on  the  comple- 
tion of  their  training.    For  nil  particulars  apply  to  the 



This  College  provides  a  year's  Professional  Training 
for  educated  women  who  intend  to  Teach. 

The  I  ourse  is  supervised  by  the  Edinburgh  Provincial 
Committee  for  the  Training  of  Teachers  and  is  recog- 
nized by  the  Scotch  Education  Department  and  by  the 
Cambridge  Teachers'  Training  Syndicate. 

Prospectus  and  further  particulars  from  the  Principal, 
Miss  51.  R.  Walker,  5  Melville  Street,  Edinburgh. 

ST.       MART'S       COLLEGE, 
Paddinston,  W. 
(attached  to  Secondary  School  and  Kindergarten). 
Recognized  by  the  Board  of  Education  as  a  Training 
College  for  Secondary  Teachers. 
In  connexion  with  London  University. 
Principal— Wiss  H.  L.  Powell, 
Associate  of  Newnham  College,  Cambridge  (late  Princi- 
pal of  the  Cambridge  Training  College) ; 

Miss  N.  G.  R.  Taylor,  M.A.  (Trin.  Coll.,  Dublin), 
Camb.  Mental  and  Moral  Tripos,  Oxford  University 

Teacher's  Diploma. 
Students  prepared  for  the  Cambridge  or  London 
Teacher's  Diploma,  and  the  Certificates  of  the  National 
Froebel  Union.  Practice  in  Secondary  and  Primary 
Schools.  University  Lectures.  Fees,  without  residence, 
18  to  24  guineas  per  annum :  with  residence,  60  to  75 
guineas  per  annum.     Four  Bursaries  of  £20  a  year  each. 

The  Principals    of  the   Normal  Correspondence 

College  have,  through  the  courtesy  of  the  College 

of  Preceptors,  issued  the  following 

Free   Guides. 

100  pages. 

75      „ 
published  the  following  Guides. 

120  pages. 

1.  A.C.P. 

2.  L.C.P. 
.S.  F.C.P. 

And  have  al 
4.  PREL.  CERT. 
.5.  CERTIFICATE.  92      „ 

6.  MATRICULATION.  84      ,, 

7.  IRISH  UNIVERSITY.  i>«      ,, 


These  Guides  are  supplied  gratis  to  all  who  men- 
tion this  paper  and  state  they  intend  sitting  for 
examination.  ,  ,   -      -    ii. 

"  They  are  written  by  experts  whose  advice  is  the 
best  procurable."— -BdMOTrt"""'  News. 

"Will  undoubtedly  help  greatly  towards  m.c- 
aeas."— Schoolmistress. 


47  Melford  Road.  East  Dulwich,  S.E.,  and 
110  AvoNDALK  Square,  London,  S.E. 

Sostel  for  Students,  30,  32,  34  Warrington  Crescent,  W.    -LT-L    a,  Paris,  » ^l"';f°^^^^!l:Z?"'' 
Apply— Principal.  '  avec  Anglais  pour  corrections  mutueues. 

FOR  SECONDARY  TEACHERS.       .     . 
Conducted  by  the  Community  of  St,  M:iry  the  Virgin. 
(Atflliated  to  the  Oxford  Training  Delegacy  and  Re- 
cognized by  the  Cambridge  Syndicate  and  the  Board  of 

'^StSdent's  prepared  for  Oxford  or  Cambridge  Teaching 
Diplomas.    Fees,  £60  to  £65. 
Appl.v— Sister  Superior. 

ONSIEUR  DEPUISET,  Instituteur 

■X  Paris,  36  rue  Daubenton,  desire  correspondre 


Feb.  1,  1909.] 




55   AND   56   Chancery   Lane. 


SCIENCE,  B.A.,  and  B.Sc.  Classes  (small)  Day  and 
Evening.  M.A.  Classes.  B.A.  Honoui-s  Classes.  Ele- 
mentary Greek  Class. 

Classes  and  Tuition  tor  I.egal  and  Medical 
Preliminaries,  Acoonntants',  Scliolarship 
Examinations,  Previous,  Sesponslons.  and 

Papers  Corrected  for  Schools.     Vacation  Tuition. 

Private  tuition  lor  all  Examinations. 

Prospectus  and  full  details  on  application  to  R.  C.  B. 
Kerin,  B.A.  Lond.,  First  of  First  Class  Classical 
Honours,  Editor  of  "  Phaedo."  "  Pro  Planeio,"  4c. 


1892-1908.— London  Matric,  155;  Inter.  Arts,  So.,  and 
Prel.  Sci..  155.  6  m  Hons. ;  B.Sc,  1896-1908,  25 ;  B.A., 
1891-1908,  111,  18  in  Hons.  ;  Medical  Prelim.,  274;  Rcs- 
ponsions  and  Previous,  78;  Law  Prelim.,  75;  other 
buceesses,  430. 

U.A.  CIiASSICS,  10. 


V-^  Classes  or  Private  Lessons  in  all  Subjects  for  all 
Examinations,  &e.,  at  moderate  fees.  Special  tuition 
for  Medical  Prelims,  and  DiPLOMi  Exams.  Manv 
recentsiiecesses.— F.  J.  Borland,  B.A.,  L.C.P.  (Science 
and  Math.  Prizeman),  Victoria  Tutorial  Colleee, 
28  Buckingham  Palace  Road,  S.W.;  and  Stalheim 
Brunswick  Road,  Sutton,  Surre.v. 
Schools  visited  and  Examinations  conducted 

IDlniversit^    ITutonal 

{Affiliated  to  University  Correspondence  College.) 

WALTER  J.  DICKES,  B.A.(Lond. 

FOR     EXAMINATIONS,     &c. 


DUPLOY.VN  SHORTHAND.-Pupils  received 
by  Certihcated  Teacher.  Thorough  Tuition  and  mo- 
derate terms.  Schools  visited.  Book-keeping  under- 
taken for  businesses.— Miss  Bush,  2J5  High  Holborn 
London,  W.O. 


3Iann(i,r:    Mr.  E.  S.  WEYMOUTH,   M.A. 
Assistanf  Mill,,,, It,- :    Miss  J.  WATSON,  M.A. 


(formerhi  27  Southampton  Street,  Straii,!.) 


Anntuilly.for  the  Inst  nine  years,  abmit  lOO  students 
of  University  Tutoriai  College  have  passed  London 

Morning,  Afternoon,  and  Evening  Classes  in  prepara- 
tion for  the  Matriculation  Examination  of  the  University 
of  London  commenced  Monday,  January  2Sth,  and  may 
be  taken  up  at  any  time  at  proportionate  fees. 

In  the  Compulsory  Subjects  and  the  more  important 
Optional  Subjects  the  Morning  Class  is  divided  into 
Senior  and  Junior  Sections.  These  Sections  work  simul- 
taneously, so  that  a  student  who  attends  the  Senior 
Section  in  his  stronger  subjects  may  at  another  time 
pay  special  attention  to  a  weak  subject  in  the  Jimior 
Section.  The  Lectures  are  supplemented  by  Exercise 
Classes  and  frequent  Test  Examinations,  and  a  strict 
record  is  kept  of  each  student's  progress. 

Classes  are  also  held  tor  the 

College  of  preceptors' 

and  the 

Cltg  anCi  (5U1I66  Entrance  Ejamination. 




gbucafionaC  JVgenfs, 

158    to    162     OXFORD     STREET. 
LONDON,    W. 

Telegrams- "TUTORESS,  LONDON." 
TelephoDe-No.  1136  City, 

-Vll  communications  should  be  addressed  to 

University  Tutoriai  College, 

32  Red  Lion  Square,  Holborn,  W.C. 


Oxford  and  Cambridge  Hig-her  locals. 
Teachers'  Diplomas,  Oxford  and  Cam- 
bridge Locals,  Previous,  Besponsions, 
Preceptors,  and  Msdical  Preliminary, 
&c. ;  also  Medical  Examinations. 


XJ.B.P.I.  Candidates   have,    during   the  last  thirteen 

years,  passed  various  groups  in  the  Cambridge  Higher 

Local  (137  in  the  Class),  including  23  (3  in  the 

First  Class),  December,  1908. 


LT.E.P.I.  Candidates  have  passed  the  Oxford  Higher 
Local  during  1903-8. 

Moderate  Fees. 
.  Hundreds  of  Candidates  successful  in  Medical  Exam- 

LOCAL  EXAMINATION  (42  paces)  sent 
I  ■nitis  to  Candidates:  Is.  to  Nuu-candidates. 

STUDENTS,  especially  intenilinc  Teachci-s 
(2b  pages),  gratis. 

'^■^'^fl^?r°,^?,  O^  PUBLICATIONS  (chie  v 
01(1  C.H.L.  Examination  Papers,  with  or  without 
.\nswers) ,  sent  on  application  to  the  :M.vx ager. 


Principal  — Mr.  J.  CHAELESTON,  B.A. 

(Honours  Oxon.  and  Lond.) 

TUTORS.-The  Staff  includes  Graduates  of  London, 
Oxford,  Cambridge,  and  Royal  Universities. 

METHOD.— Thoroughly  individual  system,  which 
ensures  the  closest  attention  to  the  needs  of  each 

Rapid  Preparation  for  :— 
B.A.  AND  B.SC, 



Burlington  Correspondence  College. 

This  Agency  is  under  distiuffuisht^d  patrona 
including  that  of  thf   Principals  of 
many  of  our  leadimj  Schools. 



duce TJniversitv  and  other  qualified  ENGLISH 
Schools  and  Private  Families. 


duce University,  Trained,  and  other  qualifi.'d 

to  Girls'  and  Boys'  Schools. 

(ili.)  LADY     MATRONS     AND     HOUSE- 

duce  well  qualified  and  experienced  LADY 
MISTRESSES  to  Boys'  and  Girls'  Schools. 

No  charge  is  made  to  Principals,  and  no  charge 
of  any  kind  is  made  to  candidates  unless  an  en- 
gagement he  secured  through  this  Agency,  when 
the  terms  are  most  reasonable. 


A  separate  Department,  under  the  dirert 
management  of  one  of  the  Principals,  is  devoted 
entirely  to  the  negotiations  connected  with 
the  Transfer  of  Schools  and  Introduction  of 

in  close  and  constant  communication  with  the 
Principals  of  nearly  all  the  chief  Girls'  and 
Boys'  Schools  in  the  United  Kingdom,  to  many 
of  whom  they  have  had  the  privilege  of  acting 
as  Agents,  and  having  on  their  books  always  a 
large  number  of  thoroughly  genuine  ScIiooIh 
for  Sale  and  Partnerships  to  negotiate,  as  well 
as  the  names  and  requirements  of  numerous 
would-be  purchasers,  can  offer  unusual  facilities 
for  satisfactorily  negotiating  the  TRANSFER  of 
SCHOOLS,  and  arranging  PARTNERSHIPS. 

No  charye  is  made  to  Purchasers^  and  there  is 
no  charge  to  Vendors  unless  a  Sale  or  Partner- 
ship be  effected  through  this  Agency. 

All  communications  and  enquiries  are  treated 
in  the  strictest  confidence, 


a  carefully  organized  Department  for  the 
introduction  of  Pupils  to  Schools  and  other 
Educational  Establishments.  No  charge  is 
made  for  registration. 

Any  negotiations  entrusted  to  MESSRS.  TRUMAN  & 
KNIGHTLEY  receive  prompt  and  careful  attention, 
every  effort  being  made  to  save  clients  as  much 
time  and  trouble  as  possible. 

Full  particulars  will  be  forwarded  on  applicatiu 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 





The  Medical  School  of  the  Middlesex 
Hospital  has  been  largely  rebuilt  and  equipped 
to  meet  the  most  recent  educational  require- 

In  addition  to  Clerksliips  and  Dresserships, 
Sixteen  Resident  Appointments  are  annually 
open  to  all  General  Students.  Also  Medical, 
Surgical,  and  Obstetric  Registrars  are  appointed 

Scholarships  and  Prizes  to  the  value  of  £860 
are  awarded  annually. 

Full  particulars  may  be  obtained  on  appli- 
cation to 

Mr.  J.   MURRAY,   M.B.,   F.R.C.S., 
Dean  of  the  Medical  School, 

Middlesex  Hospital,  London,  W. 




The  SUMMER  SESSION,  1909,   will   be  opened  on 
Monday,  April  26th.  

The  College  is  complete  in  all  Departments, 


for  all  Preliminary  and  Intermediate  Subjects. 


are  awarded  annually  of  the  aggregate  value  of  £430. 

Twenty-two  Hospital  and  Teaching  APPOINTMENTS 

are  made  yearly. 

For  Prospectus  and  details  of  fees  apply  to— 





The  SUMMER  SESSION  will  begin  on  May  3rd.  1909. 

(Students  who  have  recently  passed  the  College  of 
Preceptors'  Examination  are  advised  to  enter  forthwith 
to  prepare  for  the  Conjoint  Examinations  in  July  next .) 

The  Hospitiil  contains  608  Beds,  \vhich  are  in  constant 

ENTRANCE  SCHOLARSHIPS.— Five  Scholarships 
will  be  competed  for  in  September,  1909.  Two  in  Arts  of 
the  value  of  £100  and  £50,  and  three  in  Science  of  the 
value  of  £150,  £60,  and  £50.  Stiulcnts  who  enter  in 
Mav,  if  otherwise  eligilile.  nic  ulile  to  compete. 

APPOINTMENTS.— Hospital  aiijioiiitments  are  made 
strictly  in  accordance  witli  tlie  merits  of  the  Candidates, 
and  witliout  cxtia  juivment. 

DENT.\I,  Si'llooL.— A  recognized  Dental  School  is 
attached  to  ttie  Hospital,  which  affords  to  Students  all 
the  instruct  ion  required  for  a  Licence  in  Dental  Surgery. 

PRIZES  AND  SCHOLARSHIPS  are  awarded  to 
Students  in  their  various  years,  amounting  in  the 
aggregate  to  more  than  £650. 

RESIDENTIAL  COLLEGE.— The  Residential  Col- 
lege accommodates  about  50  Students  in  addition  to  the 
Resident  Staff  of  tlie  Hospital.  It  contains  a  large 
Dining  Hall,  Reailiiig  Rucu!.  Library,  and  Gymnasium 
for  the  of  thi'  Students'  Clnl.. 

I  or  Pro-<|,erlus.  |Kn'l iciilnrs  of  the  Scholarships,  and 
further  111  loll  I  uit  iijiph  to  I  lir  Dniu,  Dr.  H.  L.  Eason, 
Guy's  Hospilul.  London  llnilL'.-.  S.  K. 





Broad  SANCroiRT  ano  Caxton  Street,  S.W. 

The  Summer  Session   begins  on  April   19th. 

Special  Terms  given  to  So7is  of  Medical  Men. 

On  April  14th  and  15th  the  following  Scholarships 
may  be  competed  for    by   students   entering   in   the 
Summer  Session : — 

University  Scholarships     ...    70  guineas  and  £60, 

Two  in  Arts £60  and  £40. 

Two  in  Science         £60  and  £40, 

Dental  Scholarship £20, 

For  Prospectus  and  further  particulars,  apply  to 

E,  ROCK  CALEV,  F.R.C.S.,  Dean 




AH  papers  relating  to  this  year's  Competition 
for  Prizes,  given  by  the  Royal  Society  pou 
THE  Prevention  of  Cruelty  to  Animals,  for 
the  best  Essays  on  the  Duty  of  Kindness  to 
Animals,  were  issued  on  December  14,  1908. 
The  only  addresses  of  Private  and  other  Schools 
available  to  the  Society  are  derived  from  London 
and  Suburban  Directories,  covering  a  radius  of 
twenty  miles  from  Charing  Cross. 

In  the  event  of  no  delivery  of  papers  ha\'ing 
been  made  by  post,  I  shall  be  glad  to  send 
parcels  on  receipt  of  applications  from  Principals. 

No  Essay  received  after  February  27th  next 


105  Jermyn  Street,  St.  James's,  S.W. 





Leicester  Square,  London,  "W",C. 

The  SUMMER   SESSION,  1909,  will  commence  on 
Monday,  May  3rd,  , 

The  Royal  Dental  Hospital  was  founded  in  1858  at 
Soho  Square,  and  in  March,  1874,  was  removed  to 
l^eicester  Square,  The  increased  demands  made  on  it 
by  the  public  and  the  rapid  growtti  of  the  Medical 
School  necessitated  the  erection  of  an  entirely  new 
building.  The  new  Hospital  was  opened  in  March,  1901, 
and  is  complete  in  every  detail  with  modern  appliances,  1 
and  the  School  portion  of  the  building  thoroughly 
equipped  for  teaching  purposes.  The  chnic  of  the  ! 
Hospital  is  unrivalled.  In  1908, 109,659  operations  were 

The  following  Scholarships  and  Prizes  are  open  for 

The  Entrance  Scholaesbip,  of  the  value  of  £20, 

awarded  in  October, 
The  Saunders  Scholarship,  of  the  value  of  £20, 
The  Storer-Bennett  Research  Scholarship, 

of  the  value  of  £50, 
The  Alfred  Wooduouse  Scholarship,  of  £35, 
The  Robert  Wooduouse  Prize,  of  the  value  of 


The  instruction  in  Mechanical  Dentistry  as  required 
for   the   Dental  Cm*riculum  can  be  obtained  at  this 

Further  particulars  concerning  Fees,  Scholarships, 
&c.,  can  be  obtained  on  application  to 

The  Dean, 

The  SUMMER  SESSION  Mill  begin  on  April  20tli. 
The  Medical  School  provides  courses  of  Instruction 
coverin:  the  ENTIRE  MEDICAL  CURRICULUM  for 
the  Degrees  of  the  Universities,  for  the  Diplomas  of 
M,R.C.S.,  L.R.CP,    All  Courses  are  recognized  by  the 
University  of  London  for  Internal  Students, 

SIX  ENTRANCE  SCHOLARSHIPS,  v.ilue  £145  to 
£25  coniprli'il  tor  in  Si-]iloinl«T  next.    Candidates  join- 
ing the  Soliool  in  .biniinr.v  or    >  |.ril  an- eli.L'il.Ir. 
Completo  Hanill.ool,  on  iippliration  to  thr  IlKAX, 

Conies  of  Regulations  tor  the  Triple  Qualification  of 
this  Board  L.R.C.P,E.,L.R.C.S.E.,andL.F.P,  &  S.G.), 
containing  dates  of  Professional  Examinations  for  year 
1909,  Curricnium,  &c.,  may  be  had  on  application 
to  James  Robertson,  Solicitor,  54  George  Square, 
Edinburgh,  Inspector  and  Treasurer  for  Edinburgh:  or 
from  Ai.EVANDKR  Duncan.  B.A.,  LL.D..  Faculty  Hall, 
242  St.  Vimrnt  Stri'ot,  Glasgow,  Inspirtoraud  Treasurer 
forGlasirou.  Inap]ilyin-  for  cojiios.  ]ilease  state  the 
date  of  cuuiui.'iiccm'  til  <.'/'  iiirdiail  nlii.hi. 

Educational  Handwork  Association. 

i/rfwi? -The  Right  Ho 

A.   H.   UVKE  ACI.AMI. 

Summer  Courses 

in    all    IIRASCUES   OF 


will  ue  held  at 

from  July  26th  to  August  21st,  1909. 

stud. .Ills  are  prepaivil  for  llie  KMUninations  of  the 
INSTITUTE  hy  specially  (pialiliod  T.aelieis. 

Hostel  accommodation  provided. 

For  particulars  write  to  J.  Spittle,  Hon.  Sec,  47 
Spring  Street,  Huddersfleld. 

The  Faculties  of  the  College  are  :— 
The  Faculty  of  Arts,  including  the  Slade  School  of 
Fine  Art,  the  Indian  School  and  the  Depart- 
ments of  Economics  and  of  Architecture. 
The  F'aculty  of  Laws. 
The  Faculty  of  Science. 
The  Faculty  of  Engineering. 

The  Faculty  of    Medical  Sciences,  including   the 

Department  of  Public  Health. 

Students  desiring  to  take  Undergraduate  Courses  in 

any  one  of  these  faculties  should  matriculate  eitlier  in 

June  or  September,  in  order  to  enter  the  College  in 


ENTRANCE  SCHOLARSHIPS  in  the  Faculties  of 
Arts,  Laws,  Science,  and  Engineering  will  be  awarded 
on  the  resulis  of  Examinations  to  be  held  in  Jlay  ;  and 
in  the  Faculty  of  Medical  Sciences  on  tlie  results  of 
Examinations  to  beheld  in  September. 

Special   provision   is    made    for    Post-graduate  and 
Research  work  in  all  sui  'jects  taught  at  the  College. 
For  further  particulars  apply  to 





Prospectus  and  full  particulars  of  any  of  the  following 
will  be  forwarded  on  application  :— 
COURSES   FOR   THE  Degree    Esaminations  of 

the  University  of  London. 
Department    op    Biblical    Philology    and 

Secondary  Training  Department. 
Day    Training    Colleges    for    Elementary 

Teachers  (Men  and  Women). 
Department  of  Engineering. 
Applied  Chemistry.   t  of  Economic  Biology. 

Courses   for   the  Degree   Examinations  of 

the  University  of  London. 
De.ntal  Department. 

Diploma  in  Pubi.ic  Health  or  State  Medicine. 
Public  Health  Lab  ratory, 

The  College  allords  facilities  for  Research  and  Post- 
graduate work  in  all  the  important  branches  of  .\rts. 
Science,  and  Medicine. 

JAMES  ^WTY.Vi.  Registrar. 



>         Author  of  the  "SPEAKING  VOICE  " 

(Curwen,  Ltd.), 
STAMMERING   and   all   other   Speech  and   Voice 
Defects  cured. 

Author  of  "STAMMERING."    "CLEFT  PALATE 
SPEECH,"  "  LISPING."  by  post  Is,  IJd. 

18  Earl's  Court  Square,  London, 

Feb.  1,  1909.] 




ChanceUor:    The  Risht  Hou.  A.  J.  BALFOUR,  M.P..  D.C.L.,  LI,. IX.  &c. 

Rector:    Th,-  Ripht  Hon.  GEORGE  WYNDHAM,  AI.P.,  LL.D. 

Principal  aud  Vice-ChanceUor :    Sir  WILLIAM  TURNER,  K.C.B.,  D.C'.L..  LL.D.,  D.Sc,  M.B.,  &c. 

Secretary  of  Senatus:    Professor  Sir  LUDOVIC  J.  GRANT,  Bart.,  B.A.,  LL.D. 

Tlip  Winter  Session  befrins  about  the  beKinniug  of  October,  and  closes  about  the  middle  of  JIarcli :  (In-  Summer  Session  extends  from  about  the  beginnin).' 
of  May  to  tlie  end  of  July. 

The  University  embraces  Six  Faculties,  viz. :  Arts,  Science,  Divinity,  Law,  Medicine  ana  Surgery,  and  Music,  in  all  of  which  full  instruction 
is  given  and  Decrees  are  conferred.  There  are  many  different  avenues  to  tlie  Arts  Degrees,  the  graduation  subjects  embracing  Englisli,  History,  Modern  Languages, 
Science,  &c.,  besides  Ancient  Languages,  Philosophy,  Mathematics,  &c.  The  Widennig  of  the  Arts  Curriculum  permits  to  a  greater  extent  than  formerly,  the  Combination 
of  Arts,  Science,  Medical  or  Special  Studies,  and  it  lias  been  shown  by  successes  of  Edinburgh  students  in  the  Civil  Service  Examinations  that  it  is  possible  to  combine 
study  for  Degrees  in  Arts,  Science,  or  Law  with  preparation  for  this  and  other  Special  Examinations.  In  addition  to  the  Ordinary  and  Honours  Degrees  in  Arts, 
the  Higher  Degrees  of  D.Litt.,  D.Phil.,  and  D.Sc.  are  conferred.  Education  in  Military  subjects  is  given  in  connexion  with  the  Scheme  of  allotment  of  Array  Commissions  to 
Graduates  of  the  University.  Degrees  in  Science  (B.Sc.  and  D.Sc.)  may  be  taken  in  Pure  Science,  Engineering,  aud  in  Public  Health,  and  the  Degree  of 
B.Sc.  in  Agriculture  and  in  Forestry.  There  are  fully  equipped  Science  Laboratories,  and  other  necessary  appliances,  in  all  tliese  Departments.  The  curriculum 
in  Divinity  affords  a  thorough  training  in  Theological  subjects,  and  in  Hebrew",  Arabic,  and  Syriac.  Tlie  Degree  of  Bachelor  of  Divinity  (B.D.)  is  conferred.  The 
Law  Faculty,  besides  furnishing  the  professional  equipment  necessary  for  those  intending  to  practise  in  Scotland,  contains  Chairs  in  Jurisprudence  and  Public 
International  Law,  Constitutional  Law  and  History,  Roman  Law,  and  Political  Economy,  as  also  Lectureships  in  other  important  branches  of  Law,  and  is  thus  adapted 
for  students  preparing  for  the  Civil  Service  Examinations,  and  for  legal,  political,  and  administrative  appointments  generally.  The  Degrees  of  Bachelor  of  Laws  (LL.B.) 
and  Bachelor  of  Law  (B.L.)  are  conferred.  The  Faculty  of  MeHicine  has  a  full  curricuUim  in  Medicine  and  Surgery,  and  is  equipped  with  very  extensive  Laboratories 
and  all  other  necessary  appliances  for  Practical  Teaching.  Ample  facilities  are  afforded  for  Clinical  Instruction  at  the  Royal  Infirmary,  Maternity  Hospital,  Royal 
Hospital  for  Siclc  Children,  Hospital  for  Infectious  Diseases,  and  Royal  Asylum  for  the  Insane.  Four  Degrees  in  Medicine  and  Surgery  are  conferred  by  the  University, 
viz. :  Bachelor  of  Medicine  (M.B.),  Bachelor  of  Surgery  (Ch.B.),  Doctor  of  Medicine  (M.D.),and  Master  of  Surgery  (Ch.M.),  and  tliese  Degrees  qualify  for  practice  througli- 
out  His  Majesty's  dominions,  and  for  admission  to  the  Naval,  Military,  and  other  Public  Medical  Services  in  the  United  Kingdom.  A  Diploma  in  Tropical  Medicine 
and  Hygiene  (D.T.M.  &  H.)  is  conferred  on  Graduates  in  Medicine  of  the  University,  and  a  University  Certificate  in  Tropical  Diseases  is  also  conferred 
on  qualified  Medical  Practitioners  who  have  attended  Courses  in  the  University  on  practical  Bacteriology  and  Tropical  Diseases.  In  Music  also  there  is  a  full  course  of 
study  for  graduation,  and  the  Degrees  of  Mus.B.  and  Mus.D.  are  conferred. 

The  University  Staff  consists  of  41  Professors,  62  Lecturers,  and  over  50  Assistants  and  Demonstrators.  The  annual  amount  available  tor  Fellowships,  Scholarships, 
Bursaries,  Prizes,  &c.,  is  about  £18,660.    Facilities  are  afforded  for  research  in  scientific  and  other  subjects. 

Women  may  attend  the  Classes  in  Arts,  Science,  Divinity,  Law,  and  Music,  and  they  are  admitted  to  graduation  in  Arts,  Science,  Law,  Medicine,  aud  JIusic,  the 
training  for  Degrees  in  Medicine  being  afforded  by  well  equipped  e.xtra-academical  Schools. 

Information  regarding  Matriculation,  the  Curricula  of  Study  for  Degrees,  &c.,  the  Examinations  for  Fellowships,  Scholarships,  &c.,  may  lie  obtained  from  the  Deans 
OP  THE  Faculties,  or  from  the  Clerk  of  Se.vatus  ;  and  full  details  are  given  in  the  University  Calendar,  published  by  James  Thin,  55  South  Bridge,  Edinburgh- 
price  3s.  6d.  by  post.  The  Preliminary  and  Degree  Examination  papers  in  each  of  the  Faculties  are  also  pubhshed  by  Mr.  James  Thin,  viz.— Arts  and  Science  Pi-elimiuary 
papers  and  Bursary  papers.  Is. :  Medical  Preliminary  papers,  6d. ;  Degree  papers  :  Arts,  Is. ;  Science,  9d. ;  Divinity,  Law,  Medicine)  and  Music.  6d.  each. 

December,  1908.  By  authority  of  tlie  Senatus,  L.  J.  GRANT.  Serretnrii  nf  Scnatits. 


(Established  oter  70  Years.) 

Proprietors : — 
Messra.  eRITFITHS,  SMITH,   POWELL   &   SMITH, 

Offices  .—34  Bedford  Street,  Strand ;  and 
22  Henrietta  Street,  Covent  Garden,  London,  W.C. 

Telegraphic  Address .— "  Scliolasque,  London." 
Telephone  .—7021  Gerrard. 

Head  Masters  and  Principals  of  Public  and 
Private  Schools  of  engiigiug  qunlilied  and 
well  reeommenileil  Eiisilish  or  Foreign  Resident,  Non- 
resident, or  \  isiting  Assistant  Masters,  can  have  eligible 
Candidates  introduced  to  them  (free  of  charge)  by 
stating  their  requirements  to  Messrs.  Griffithb, 
Smith,  Powell  &  Smith. 

A  List  of  Easter,  1909,  Vacancies  will  be 
forwarded  on  application  to  Graduates  and  other 
well  qualified  Assistant  Masters  seeliing  appoint- 
ments for  next  term. 

Schools  Transferred  and  Valued.  Partner- 
ships arranged.  No  charg^e  unless  sale 
effected.  List  of  Boys'  and  of  Girls'  Schools 
and  School  Partnerships  for  Sale,  sent  Gratis 
to  intending-  Purchasers,  TO  WHOM  NO 

Assistant  Mistresses. 

Head  Mistresses  and  Principals  of  Public 
and  Private  Schools  requiring  English  or 
Foreign  Assistant  Mistresses  can,  on  appli- 
cation to  Messrs.  GRIFFITHS,  SMITH, 
POWELL  8c  SMITH,  have  suitable  Candidates 
placed  in  immediate  communication  with 
them  free  of  charge. 

A  List  of  Easter,  1909,  Vacancies  will  be 
forwarded  to  English  and  Foreign  Assistant 
Mistresses  and  other  Teachers  on  applica- 
tion.   Liberal  Salaries. 



23  Southampton  Street,  Bloomsbury  Square,  W.C, 

74  GiowER  Street,  London,  W.C. 

(Under  the  management  of  a  Committee  appointed  by 
the  Teachers'  Guild,  College  of  Preceptors,  Head 
Mistresses'  Association,  Association  of  Assistant 
Mistresses,  and  Welsh  County  Schools  Association.) 

THIS  Agency  lias  been  establislied  for 
tlie  inirpose  of  enabling  Teachers  to  find  work 
without  unnecessary  cost.  All  fees  have  therefore 
been  calculated  on  the  lowest  basis  to  cover  the 
working  expenses. 

No  Registration  Fees  are  charged  to  members  of  the 
above  Associations,  and  their  Commissions  are  reduced. 

Hours  for  Interviews: 

11  a.m.  to  1  p.m.,  and  3  to  5  p.m. ; 
Saturdays,  11  a.m.  to  1  p.m.,  and  2  to  3  p.m. 
When  possible,  special  appointments  should  be  :ii 

Reffistrar.  Miss  ALICE  M.  FOUNTAIN. 


L.R.A.M..  A.R.C.iVl. 

(Lafe  Head  of  Music  Depart  mm  f ,  Sldnners'  Company's 
School,  1890-1905,  Dirrclress  of  Music  and  Lecturer 
on    Voice    Frodnclion    at   Ihc    Goldsmiths'    Training 

College  for  Teachers), 
Teacher  of  Siaging  and  Voice  Production  at  the  London 

County  Council's  Training  Colleges  and  Schools, 

announces  that  slie  receives  Pupils  for  Pianoforte,  Solo 

Singing,  aud  Voice  Production  (for  Singers  and  Speakers) 

at  )ier  Studios  at 

Advice  given  to  Students  desiring  to  enter  the  j^Iusical 

profession  to  teacli  Voice  Production.     Scliools  and 

Colleges  visited. 

Principals  desiring  trained  Teachers    for    Reading, 
Elocution,  Voice  Production,  and  Class  Singing  are  in. 
vited  to  apply  to 


14  Park  Place  Villas,  W. 

^__  by  a  Committee  of  Representatives  of  the 

following  Bodies  .— 








'  Registrar  :    :\lr.    E.    A,  VIRGO. 

The  object  of  this  Agency  is  to  render  assistance 
at  a  minimum  cost  to  Masters  seeking  appointments. 
The  lowest  possible  fees  are  therefore  charged. 

A  PROSPECTUS  will  be  sent  ON  APPLICATION. 

Interviews  (preferalilv  by  appointn.eiit)  12  p. 111.     Satunlays,  12  1..111.-I  p.m. 

Telephnne-Cit.v  2257. 



Froebel  Society,  4  Bloomsbury  Square,  W.C. 

The  Froebel  Society  lias  on  its  register  teachers  hold- 
ing the  Certificates  o'f  the  National  Froebel  Union,  the 
Royal  Drawing  Society,  the  R.A.M.,  and  the  R.C.M., 
College  of  Preceptors,  &c. 

No  Fee  is  charged  to  employers  until  an  engagement 
is  made.— Miss  'Temple  Orme,  LL.D.,  Secretary. 




s  open  to  Enpiipements  for  preparing  pupils  for 
the  Oxford  Local  and  other  Esaminations  in  Esperanto. 
Schools  or  Private  Tuition.  London  aud  near  Suburbs. 
Several  years'  successful  experience  in  Lecturing  and 
Class -Teaching.  Apply  (in  the  first  instance  by  letter), 
121  Castellain  Mansions,  Maida  Vale.  W. 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

7r^T'^^S  AN  ADVERTISEMENT  X^o^^^ 
The  Self-Filling  and  Self-Cleaning  Perfection  Fountain  Pen(worth  15/-) 
to  Teachers  for  4-  only,  or  3  Pens  for  10/6. 
This  >s!iiiinlveitis.'iii,-iitoHVr,  and  willlir  withdrawn  shortly. 
Money  returned  if  not  fvUly  satisfied.    Guaranteed  tor  2  years. 


Description:—  fills  and  il. 
press,  a  (ill— fitted  with  large  14-calat  l-oUI  ndi,  ii  idunii  lipiLil.  f-'iiaran- 
teed  to  last  for  vears.  No  other  Pen  like  it  for  reliahilit.v,  ste;ul.v  flow 
and  smooth  writing.    Every  Pen  a  pleasure. 

Makers — 

THE  RED  LION  MANUFACTURING  CO.,  Ltd., 71  High  Holborn,  London,W.C. 

No  need  to  buy  any  other  Pen  while  this  offer  lasts. 

T,,  oblain    llus  admntiffe.  meiitinn   -  Tlir  F.diiniUiimd   Times.- 


Board  of  Education  Circular  No.  599. 

"The  pupils  sliuuhi  be  eaTeltdl.v  trained  to  under- 
stand    tlif     chninolof^icjil     sequence     of    events." 

Cbc  'Britannic"  Bislorical  6coarapDp  Books. 

fcnrelating  History,  Geograjjhy,  and  Map  Drawing.     In  Two  I'arts. 

Part  I.  From  the  Roman  Invasion,  B.C.  55,  to  the  Wars  of  the  Roses,  a.d.  1485. 

Part  II.   Prom  the  Tndors,  A.D.  14S5,  to  the  Crimean  War,  a.d.  1856. 

Parts  I.  and  II.,  per  doz.,  net,  38.    Single  copies,  post  free,  4d. 

CDe  'Susfl^stions"  Bistorical  Orawins  Cards. 

pom-  Sets  of  24  Cards  in  Cloth  Case.     Pacli  Card  eontanis  si'vei-al  Draw- 
nigs  done  in  a  style  suitable  tor  copying  by  children,  illustratmg  Costnmes, 
Weapons,  Buildings,  Furniture,  &c.,  &c.    Periods  illustrated  :— 
.Set  A.    Ancient  Britons  to  Anglo-Saxons.  |    Set  C.    Tudors  to  Hanoverians. 
Set  B.    Xormans  to  Tudors.  I    Set  D.    European  History. 

Price,  per  Set,  Is.  6d. 
Specimen  Cards  and  Parjes  of  nhore,  together  with  illustrated  Catalo{/it^. 

(lioiiiii  detailed  lists  of  i-nntents,  sent  post  free  on  application. 
^^11^  CHARLES  &  DIBLE,  10  Paternoster  Square,  LONDON,  E.G.  mmm^^ 



For  flu's  series  of  Articles,  see  "The  Journal  of  Education." 
INTRODUCTORY  ARTICLZS,  by  Professor  Adams  [November, 
1906];  CLASSICS,  bv  H.  G.  Hart  [December,  1906];  ENGIiISH, 
by  Arthur  Bdrrell  [January,  1907];  FRENCH,  by  Cloudksley 
Brereto.n-  [February  and  March,  1907]  ;  SCIZiNCE,  bv  T.  Percy 
NUNX  [April,  1907] ;  NATURE  STUDY,  by  T.  Kav.moxt  [Way, 
1907] ;  HISTORY,  by  S.  S.  F.  Fletcher  [June,  1907]  ;  PHYSICAL 
TRAINING,  by  Colonel  Malcolm  Fox  [July,  1907]  ;  DRAWING, 
by  W.  E.  Sparkes  [August,  1907] ;  DOMESTIC  SCIENCE,  by 
Alice  Kavenhill  [October,  1907]  ;  GEOMETRY,  by  II.  Winifred 
Stckge  [December,  1907]  ;  GEOGRAPHY,  by  Dr.  A.  J.  Herbert- 
son  [January,  1908];  MUSIC  TEACHING,  by  Arthur  Somervell 
[June,  1908];  ARITHMETIC,  by  P.  B.  Ballard  [July,  1908]. 
Subscription  is  7s.    per  annum;  single  numbers,  8d.  post  free. 

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ise  of  publication,  contiiining:  original  designs  by 




The  lirst  four  prints  created  particuhir  interest  at  the  Moral  Education  Congress. 
yrospectus  grutin ;   Prints  sent  on  approvnl. 

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PRICE    Is. 

London  :  SHERRATT  &  HUGHES,  Soho  Square ; 
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53   HIGH    HOLBORN,   LONDON.  W.O. 

THE     HEAD     I>riSTRKS8     of     the 

1  LONDON  ORPHAN  ASVl.l'M  at  AVattord  is 
retiring  on  tho  ground  ot  liealtli  after  twelve  .vears' 
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fore (lesirons  of  s.-cni-ins  as  soon  as  possible  a  thoroughly 
ennipeli'nl  ami  exjxrienced  successor. 
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I  i  ,  I  -  ..[  training  is  up  to  the  standard  of  the 
i:r  I.     I    .  1 1  Examinations. 

l;(  Miirii;  ,  ,|.rnence essential. 

lull  particulars  may  be  obtained  ot  Mr.  H.  C. 
AttMlGER,  Secretary,  London  Orphan  Asylum  Ollice, 
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WEIGHTS  &  MEASURES  '^'^^^c"  °°)^«a1.|!^.';-fORE'°'-^«s 

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the  Enghsh  Weights  and  Measures.  1  p;  ij,^^.^  ^^  j^^^^^  ^j  Littei-ature  Francaises ;  Doctorat. 

The  Metric  System  is  now  being  taught  in  all  Schools,       Reduction  of  50  ',  on  railway  fares  from  Dieppe  or 
and  is  being  largely  used  by  Manufacturers  throughout    Calais  to  Rennes.    Applv  for  Prospectus  to 
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Itetail,  Price  Id.,  Post  Free  IJd. 
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useful  Forms  for  Business.    By  A.  K.  Isbister,  M.A. 
LL.B.,  late  Dean  of  the  College  of  Preceptors. 
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Feb.  1,  1909.] 





(Incorpoi-dted  by  Royal  Clmrter.) 

Xectures  for  Zcacbcvs 



To  be  delivered  by  Professor  J.  ADAMS,  M,A.,  B.Sc,  F.C.P.,  Piofessor  of  Edu- 
cation in  the  University  of  London. 

The  First  Course  of  Lectures  (Thirty-seventh  Annual  Series)  will  commence  on 
Thursday,  February  4th,  at  7  p.m. 

The  purpose  of  the  Course  is  to  give  teachers  an  opportunity  to  study  at  first  hand 
the  principles  that  underlie  the  practice  of  their  profession.  The  lecturer  will  treat 
his  subject  in  such  a  way  as  to  lit  in  with  the  requirements  of  the  College  in  con- 
nexion with  the  examinations  for  the  Associateship,  the  Licentiateship,  and  the 
Fellowship  ;  but  his  main  purpose  will  be  to  present  the  matter  in  such  a  way  as  to 
make  it  of  piuctical  service  to  the  teacher.  The  reading  of  the  students  will  be 
guided,  and  problems  set  for  their  exercise.  All  the  illustrations  in  the  lectures 
will  be  drawn  from  actual  experience  in  the  schoolroom,  and  will  include  the 
results  of  current  experimental  methods. 


I.  (Feb.  4.)  The  Data  of  PsycJioIof/y  :  unique  chai-acter  of  consciousness  : 
generic  consciousness :  insulation  of  the  individual  consciousness  :  polarity  of  con- 
sciousness: the  objective  and  the  subjective  :  the  self  and  the  ego  :  nature  of  the 
soul :  evolution  of  personality  :  interplay  of  personalities  :  self-realization  as  goal  of 
education :  the  teacher's  lever. 

II.  (Feb.  11.)  Psychology  as  an  Educational  Instrument :  prevalent  misunder- 
standing: Miinaterberg's  theory:  nature  of  hypostasis:  the  exploded  faculty 
psychology  :  distincticji  between  soul  and  soul  content :  education  as  a  process  of 
assimilation  of  and  by  tho  external  world :  apperception  :  dynamic  view  of  know- 
ledge :  Herbert  Spencer's  view  of  the  educational  value  of  knowledge. 

III.  (Feb.  18.)  Presentational  Processes :  Sensation  and  the  senses  :  the  "pre- 
ferred sense  "  :  practical  applications  of  the  theory  of  preferred  sense :  the  training 
of  tlie  senses  :  distinction  between  sensation  and  perception:  meaning  and  limits 
of  observation  and  experiment;  the  "gaping  point":  the  area  of  observational 
activity:  distinction  between  observation  and  inference:  the  movable  inference 

IV.  (Feb.  25.)  Representational  Processes :  distinction  between  gathering  and 
elaborating  material :  conception  :  the  static  and  dynamic  view  of  ideas :  ideas  as 
forces:  changes  in  the  activity  of  a  given  idea:  copresentation  and  interplay  of 
ide-as :  hierarchy  of  ideas  :  the  fixed  idea  :  marginal  and  focal  ideas :  the  possibility 
of  the  subconscious  influence  of  ideas. 

V.  (March  4.)  Soul -build  ing :  nature  and  scope  of  association  :  usual  limitation 
to  idea-* :  really  of  general  application :  association  makes  habits  possible:  advan- 
tages and  disadvantages  of  habit  forming :  the  "growing  point":  accommodation 
and  co-ordination :  the.old  and  the  new  laws  of  the  association  of  ideas  :  Paulhan's 
view :  manipulation  of  association  in  teaching. 

VI.  (March  11.)  Memory:  relation  to  personal  identity:  physical  basis  of 
memory :  possibility  of  improving  memory  as  a  natural  power :  the  associat  i  ■  e  and 
the  nitional  memory:  mnemonics  and  the  memoria  technica  :  mediate  and  imme- 
diate recall :  temporary  and  permanent  memory :  the  natmv  of  the  memory  implied 
in  "  cram  "  :  rote-leaming:  relation  between  memory  and  general  intelligence. 

VH.  (March  18.)  "  Tlte  Busy  Faculty  "  :  unjustified  depreciation  of  the  imagina- 
tion :  differentiation  from  memory :  jesthetic  and  practical  spheres  f  imagination  : 
■'  (lay-dreaming"  :  need  to  imagine  processes  as  well  as  results  :  misleading  use  of 
the  word  "ideal":  the  need  for  clearly  imaged  ends  in  pi-actical  life:  application 
to  the  teaching  of  Geography,  History,  Arithmetic,  and  Geometry :  imtigination  as 
a  drag  on  thought. 

VIII.  (April  29.)  Beaulation  of  Conseiottsness :  nature  of  attention:  relation 
to  interest:  teachers' distrust  of  interest :  confusion  with  pleasure  :  interest  and 
attention  as  cause  and  effect :  various  classifications  of  the  kinds  of  attention : 
the  physiological  basis  of  attention :  the  alternation  between  concentration  and 
dilTusion  :  possibility  of  degrees  of  attention. 

IX.  (May  6.)  Reasoning:  technical  distinctioa  between  judgment  and  reason- 
ing: both  included  in  popular  term  thinking:  fundamentally  an  adaptation  of 
means  to  ends  on  the  ideational  plane :  thinking  may  be  called  the  purposive  aspect 
of  apperception :  laws  of  thought  as  thought :  the  most  fundamental  law  of  all 
thinking:  induction,  deduction,  and  fallacies. 

X.  (Alay  13.)  Feelings  aiid  En/of  ions  :  the  pleasure-pain  tone  that  accompanies 
the  activities  of  the  snul :  unjustified  depreciation  of  the  emotions:  driving  power 
of  spiritual  life:  relation  to  ideas:  expression  of  the  emotions,  and  the  various 
theories  connected  with  it :  practical  applications  to  school  work  :  control  of  the 
emotions  :  relation  between  feeling  and  desire. 

•  XI.  (May  20.)  Desire  and  Will:  activity  of  desire:  relation  to  possibility  of 
attainment:  expectation  of  success:  evolution  of  will  out  of  desire:  nature  and 
function  of  motive:  fallacy  of  "the  strongest  motive"  theory:  subjective  and 
objective  aspects  of  the  will :  what  is  meant  by  training  the  will  and  breaking  the 
will :  the  problem  of  the  free  will  of  educator  and  educand. 

XII.  (]\Iiiy  27. 1  Temperament  and  Character :  various  meanings  attached  to  thr 
tri  Ml  /,■„,,,  ,■,,,,  ,,/  in  ancient  and  modern  times :  accepted  fl;i--sil"u';aiiiiis :  jiliysical 

t;li>i'  .       >!  I  he  temperaments  :  permanency  of  temper; tM  :    iins^iMf  nioMi- 

'i'  I  '  '"  ' '!■  :  iHf  element:  influence  of  temperament  on  rii:ir;Mi(  r  :  rlKiractcr 
^^  pi  s  ,11.1  I  h,  ;i  rhissification:  use  and  abuse  of  schemes  of  cl;issit>  niu  clKnacters. 

The  Fee  for  t/ie  Course  of  Twelve  Lectures  is  Half-a-Guinea. 


By  GEO.  REG.  GILL,  F.R.G.S. 


(a)  An  Aid  to  Commercial  pursuits. 

(b)  A  Natural  Treatment  of  Nature's  Laws. 

(c)  Evidencing  the  entire  Earth's  surface  as  the  abode  of  man 

— in  a  realistic  form. 
The  treatment  embodies  three  necessary  forms  of  material  which  prove 
more  economical  than  the  out  of  date  methods. 

(1)  A  distinctly  new  collection  of  Contour  Relief  Maps. 

(2)  Key  Demonstration  Maps  with  novel  features. 

(3)  Scholars'   Companion  Text   Books  forming  adjuncts  to  the 


*«•  The  Lectures  will  be  delivered  on  Thursday  Evenings,  at  7  o'clock,  at  the 
College,  BlooinsVmry  Square,  W.C— Members  of  the  College  have  free  admission  to 
the  Cimi-sc. 

As  a  knowledge  of  Euclid  is  beneficial  to  the  Reasoning  powers,  so  this  system 

of  Geographical  training  is  necessary  for  the  realization  of  up-to-date 
methods  In  all  branches  of  commerce. 

I.     Gill's  New  Contour  Relief  Maps. 

size  60  in.  ■  40  la.  (full). 


The  Mountains,  Valleys,  Rivers,  and  Contours  stand  out  as  actual 
facts.  They  are  true  to  Nature — tmbreakable  .iiid  light  —  (18  lbs.). 
The  series  is  reproduced  from  the  original  models  by 
GEO.  REG.  GILL,  F.R.G.S., 
prepared  during  many  years  of  research  and  experiment,  and  from  the 
most  recent  available  material.  The  effect  attained  is  precisely  that 
which  one  would  expect  to  find  were  it  possible  to  view  the  Earth's 
surface  from  a  position  in  space      Nearly  Ready — 



II.    The  Sphere  Key  Maps. 

60in.x40in  ,  on  Rollers  and  Varnished,  12s. 

This  entirely  new  series  forms  a  Political  Commercial  Key  to  the 
above  Nature  Slaps.  Many  novel  and  educational  points  have  been 
embodied.     Countries  at  nboi-e  in  tJie  press  and  ready  shortUi. 

III.  Scholars' Adjuncts  to  the  Lecture. 

Illustrated  by  new  Relief  and  other  Maps,  designed  to  record  the  teach- 
ing points  made  during  the  lecture.     In  the  press  and  read;/  shortly. 


By  REGINALD  GILL,  F.R.G.S.,  London  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

Id.  each  net. 


Though  not  lequirinp;  the  Pupil  to  compile  the  actual  outline,  the  Normal  Test 
Maps  supply  sufficient  data  in  Art  Colours  to  enable  him  to  do  the  work  correctly. 
By  this  means  the  objection  against  all  other  Outline  Maps  that  the  Pupil  has  no 
pi-aci  ice  in  diuwin^  the  contour,  is  removed. 

British  Isles  &  North  Sea.  Europe.  Balkan  Peninsula.    Africa. 

England  and  Wales.  France.  Russia,  N.  America. 

Scotland  German  Empire.    Asia.  United  Stales. 

Ireland.  Italy.  India.  Australia. 

A  Key  to  the  whole  nftlie.w  .)/«/..;  i.t  i.i.iii,;/.  ciifitted  The  Sphere  Atlas,  li.  Od. 

IMPORTANT.— T/iosf  iiileresfed  who  are  considering  the  reconstruc- 
tion of  their  fnmcr  vietliods  <if  tearhinri  Geography  should  postpone 
their  decision  until  tliene  innks  are  is.ined. 

The  approved  edition  used  by  the  most  successful  schools  entering  for  the 
Universities'  Local  Examinations. 


Pages  of  the  "  set  "  liooks  in  these  .subjects,  Guides  and  Syllabus  Extracts 
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Graduated  and  arranged  by  Rev.  F,  M.^RSHALL,  ^NI.A,, 

and  C,  CuiiwoRTii,  M.A. 


List  uost  free. 

London:  GEORGE  GILL  &  SONS.  Ltd.  (Sole  Licensees),  13  Warwick  Lane, E.G. 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

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known  Junior  School  Shakespeare,  which  omits  everything  that  might  bo  thought  undesirable  in  class  reading. 
The  Merchant  of  Venice.         Coriolanus.  Twelfth  Night.  iVIacbeth. 

Julius  Czesar.  King  Richard  II.  Hamlet.  King  Lear. 

As  You  Like  It.  King  Richard  III.  King  Henry  Vili.  Midsummer  Night's  Dream. 

King  Henry  V.  The  Tempest.  King  John. 

The  above  Plays  may  also  be  had  in  the  Junior  School  Shakespeare,  with  Notes,  price  Sd.  or  lOd.  each. 



Selected  and  Arranged  by  E.  P.  SCOTT,  LL.D.,  and  K.  T.  WALLAS,     In  Two  Books.     Each  Is.  6d.  net.     Crown  Svo,  cloth  boards. 
A  collection  of  English  Verse,  much  of  it  contemporary,  designed  to  illustrate  the  extended  conception  of  patriotism  that  is  developing  in 
the  national  literature,  both  in  the  mother  country  and  in  her  scattered  family  of  young  nations. 
The  Poems  have  been  grouped  according  to  their  subject ; — 

Book    I — Echoes  from  History- Britain  Overseas    The  Sea— The  Changing  Year. 
Book  II.— The   English   Countryside    Home-Exile    Compatriots— The  Call   to  Serve— The  Call 
to  Happiness. 
"  We  welcome  one  of  the  best  antbologries  of  modern   English  verse   tha,t  it  has  been  onr  fortnne  to  meet.    It  is  full  of  grood 
things  cnlled  from  little  known  sources,  together  with  mnch  that  has   attained  to  classical  rank  without  always  being  readily 
accessible."— <.'"  a  rrf  mi*. 


BLACKIE  &  SON   will  be  pleased   to   send   full  lists   of   Books   suitable   for  Oxford  and 
Cambridge  Local  Examinations,  1909,  post  free  on  application. 

BLACKIE   &   SON,    Ltd.,    50   Old    Bailey,    E.C. 

Feb.  1.  1909.] 





Leader :   ' '  For  Private  Profit "   .51 

Notes     52 

The  Teachinjf  ot  English  in  Schools— The  Teachers'  Register— The 
Commercial  Value  of  Languages— Parliamentary  Representation  of 
Higher  Education— [rish  in  the  Xational  University. 

Summary  of  the  Month S-l 

Educational  Conferences  54 

Universities  and  Colleges 57 

Oxford  —  East  London  —  Leeds  —  Glasgow  —  Joint  Matriculation 

Ciurent  Events    61 

Fixtures — Honours— Scholarships  and  Prizes — Endowments  and 
Benefactions — Appointments  and  Vacancies— Literary — General. 
College  of  Preceptors  : 

Half-yearly  General  Meeting  64 

Adjourned  Meeting  of  Council    66 

The  Educational  Ladder  66 

Open  Court :    A  Budget  of  Controversies — mainly  over  Moral 
'EducatioTi  {couliiiiied).     By  Dr.  P.  H.  Hayward 67 

American    National    Education    Association  :    Declaration   of 
Principles,   1908 69 

Scientific  Method  in  the  Study  of  Education.     Summary  of  a 
Paper  by  Prof.  Fiudlay  and  Mr.  P.  Sandiford,  M.Sc 70 

Reviews    71 

Principles  of  Secondary  Education  {De  Garmo)  :  Vol.  I.,  The 
Studies  ;  Vol.  II.,  Processes  ot  Instruction— My  Story  (Hall  Caine) 
—A  Scrap  Book  of  Elementary  Mathematics  (White). 

General  Notices ''i 

First  Glances 76 

Mathematics    77 

TLbc  Ebucational  ITtines. 

Private  Profit ' 

Mark  Twain  begins  one  of  his  books  with 
a  pretty  eulogy  of  the  ass,  but  goes  on  to 
say  :  "  Instead  of  being  complimented  when 
we  are  called  an  ass,  we  are  left  in  doubt."  In  Board  of 
Education  circulars  a  certain  class  of  schools  are  described 
as  being  conducted  for  private  profit.  It  is  quite  possible 
that  nothing  offensive  is  meant  by  the  phrase,  but  the 
private-school  masters  are  in  doubt.  The  time  has  long  gone 
by  when  it  was  considered  disgraceful  to  take  fees  for  giving 
instiuction.  Had  they  lived  to-day,  the  Sophists  would 
not  have  felt  called  upon  to  apologize  for  accepting  the  due 
reward  of  their  laboui-s.  None  of  our  modern  teachers  emu- 
late those  of  the  olden  times  who,  according  to  J.  R.  Green, 
used  to  think  so  little  about  fees  as  to  leave  them  lying 
about  in  the  classroom — sometimes  to  the  profit  of  the  less 
scrupulous  pupils  who  were  already  in  arrears.  The  teacher 
of  to-day,  no  doubt,  like  Brooks,  "  disdains  a  vulgar  trade,'" 
but,  unlike  that  famous  club-foundei-,  he  no  longer  "  blushes 
to  be  paid."  This  change  of  attitude  marks  teachers  of  all 
grades ;  so  it  is  at  least  ungenerous  to  select  one  class  and 
label  it  as  specially  given  over  to  the  desire  for  gain.  As  a 
matter  of  fact,  many  a  private  teacher  would  very  gladly 
exchange  gains  with  his  jDublic  colleague.  The  teacher 
under  a  public  authority  works  quite  as  much  for  the  sake 
of  money  as  does  the  private- school  ma.ster.  Money  that 
comes  direct  from  the  parents  should  carry  no  stigma,  just 
as  money  that  comes  by  the  more  roundabout  way  of  the 
public  purse  should  carry  no  pi-estige.  Thei-e  is  a  subtle 
distinction  in  ordinary  speech  between  a  public  servant  and 
a  servant  of  the  public.  The  official  schoolmaster  is  too 
often  denied  the  first  title,  but  this  injustice  is  no  excuse 
for  attaching  the  second  title  to  those  who  have  private 

No  slur  is  attached  to  a  medical  man  because  he  practises 
his  profession  for  private  profit.  He  is  none  the  less  atten- 
tive to  the  interests  of  his  patients  because  he  insists  upon 
their  paying  him  a  reasonable  fee.  The  comparison  here 
has  a  closer  bearing  on  our  subject  than  would  at  first  sight 
appear ;  for  there  is  an  increasing  tendency  for  medical  men 

to  seek  public  appointments.  The  recently  instituted  system 
of  medical  inspection  is  excellent  so  far  as  it  goes  ;  but  it  is 
unlikely  that  it  will  be  allowed  to  remain  as  it  is.  It  is 
already  being  asked :  What  is  the  good  of  inspection  unless 
something  is  to  he  done  in  cases  where  grave  but  remediable 
defects  have  been  discovered  ?  Inspection  must  be  followed 
by  treatment,  and,  if  the  treatment  is  to  be  in  the  hands  of 
the  public  doctor,  what  is  to  become  of  the  private  practi- 
tioner ?  We  shall  have  circulars  from  Whitehall  penal- 
izing doctors  who  practise  for  j^rivate  profit. 

It  may  be  objected  that  it  is  somewhat  trifling  to  make 
so  much  of  a  mere  phrase,  and  the  contention  may  be 
willingly  granted  if  the  natui'al  conclusion  follows — that, 
since  it  is  so  trifling  a  matter,  there  can  surely  be  no 
objection  to  I'emove  a  phi'ase  that  displeases  those  to  whom 
it  is  applied  and  does  not  specially  please  those  who  use  it. 
Why  not  cut  out  "  conducted  for  private  profit  "  and  sub- 
stitute "  conducted  for  private  enterprise  "  ?  Were  this 
change  adopted  there  would  not  only  be  no  longer  any 
possibility  of  reading  a  sinister  meaning  into  the  oflicial 
description,  but  the  new  phrase  would  be  really  an  accurate 
description  of  what  the  private-school  master  claims  to  be. 
Enterprise  implies  alertness,  suggests  efficiency,  and,  above 
all,  calls  up  ideas  of  progressiveness  and  openness  to  new 
ideas.  It  is  at  least  not  unreasonable  to  maintain  that  the 
private  schools,  by  the  very  fact  that  they  are  free  from 
official  restrictions,  are  in  a  better  position  to  initiate  new 
lines  of  development  than  those  that  are  under  public  con- 
trol. There  is  at  the  present  moment  great  danger  of  the 
secondary  schools  of  this  country  being  reduced  to  a  very 
undesirable  state  of  uniformity.  Centralized  inspection  of 
schools  almost  inevitably  leads  to  an  unwholesome  sameness. 
The  Board  of  Education  is  fully  alive  to  this  danger  and 
is  doing  all  it  can  to  avert  it,  though  it  cannot  altogether 
eliminate  the  levelling  tendency.  The  desirability  of  con- 
sidering the  special  needs  of  each  school  area  is  now 
generally  recognized,  and  it  is,  perhaps,  in  this  connexion 
that  the  private  schools  have  their  strongest  claim  to  public 

Signs  are  not  lacking  to  indicate  the  rise  of  a  demand  for 
a  different  type,  or  different  types,  of  school  from  that  which 
is  being  stereotyped  throughout  the  country.     This  is  par- 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

ticularly  marked  in  the  case  of  girls'  schools.  It  would 
almost  appear  that  the  high-school  type  of  gir'l  is  being 
produced  in  greater  numbers  than  there  is  any  demand 
for.  High-school  training  for  girls  appears  to  have  fallen 
into  a  vicious  circle.  Girls  are  prepared  at  their  high 
school  for  the  University.  When  they  have  finished 
with  the  University  they  find  that  the  one  thing  they 
are  specially  fitted  for  is  to  be  high-school  mistresses. 
So  back  they  go  to  the  schools  and  train  more  girls  to 
do  as  they  have  done.  It  will  naturally  be  objected  that  all 
the  girls  trained  at  high  schools  do  not  go  to  the  Univei-sity, 
but  the  trouble  is  that  they  are  all  trained  as  if  they  were  to 
go  there.  The  same  objection  might  be  raised  against  the 
girls'  high  schools  that  was  formerly  raised  against  the 
Universities  themselves,  when  it  was  maintained  that  their 
teaching  was  carried  on  as  if  all  their  students  were  to 
become  University  professors.  Parents  are  getting  a  little 
tired  of  having  their  girls  all  brought  up  in  the  same  way, 
and  are  looking  about  for  other  types  of  schools.  It  is 
natural  that  they  should  turn  to  the  private  school,  and  it  is 
equally  natural  that  the  private-school  teacher  should  do  all 
she  can  to  meet  the  reasonable  demands  of  the  parents. 
This,  indeed,  is  the  weakness  in  the  private-school  position. 
It  may  be  said  that  a  teacher  who  must  consult  the  wishes 
of  parents  is  no  freer  than  the  teacher  who  must  satisfy  a 
hard-hearted  Board  of  Education  and  a  swarm  of  specialist 
inspectors.  The  private-school  master  may  well  appeal  to 
actual  experience  to  show  that  schools  such  as  his  have 
actually  shown  greater  elasticity  than  those  under  public 
control.  He  might  even  go  the  length  of  arguing  that 
parents  are  anxious  for  the  true  interests  of  their  children 
and  are,  after  all,  not  imbeciles.  But,  as  a  rule,  the  private- 
school  master  feels  the  parent  diificulty  and  would  be  glad  of 

It  is  at  this  point  that  the  compromise,  never  far  from  the 
mind  of  an  Englishman,  suggests  itself.  Why  not  seek  to 
combine  the  advantages  of  both  systems  ?  Why  not  call  in 
the  Board  of  Education  to  support  the  private-school  master 
when  the  parents  make  unreasonable  demands  P  Why  not 
get  His  Majesty's  Inspector  to  play  Mr.  Jorkins  to  the  master's  Mr.  Spenlow  ?  After  all,  this  is 
what  the  really  efiicient  private  schools  demand.  The  usual 
defect  of  the  private  school  is  the  insulBciency  of  the  ac- 
commodation and  the  inadequacy  of  the  staff  and  apparatus. 
If  now  a  given  school  is  able  to  satisfy  the  Board  of  Educa- 
tion that  in  these  essentials  it  is  quite  up  to  the  standard 
exacted  from  schools  under  public  control,  there  does  not 
appear  to  be  any  just  cause  to  regard  it  as  inferior.  But 
may  we  not  go  further  ?  In  the  case  of  such  a  school, 
why  should  we  stop  short  at  recognizing  it  as  efiicient  ?  On 
what  grounds  is  a  public  grant  to  be  refused  ?  In  the  case 
of  residential  schools  that  draw  from  all  parts  of  the  country 
and  the  colonies,  it  may  fairly  be  objected  that  they  do  not 
form  a  part  of  the  local  system  of  education  ;  but  when  a 
boys'  or  girls'  school  does  for  its  neighbourhood  exactly 
the  same  sort  of  work  as  is  done  by  a  municipal  school,  the 
only  difierence  being  that  it  is  conducted  by  private  enter- 
prise, there  does  not  appear  to  be  any  valid  objection  to  its 
being  aided  from  the  public  funds.  It  provides  school  places 
that  would  otherwise  have  to  be  provided  for  by  the  Local 

Authority,  and  therefore  effects  a  saving  on  the  capital  out- 
lay of  the  district.  An  educational  area  ought  to  welcome 
any  master  with  enterprise  enough  to  provide  a  number  of 
school  places  on  the  easy  condition  that  he  should,  under 
the  same  conditions  of  efficiency  as  the  municipal  schools, 
share  in  the  public  grants.  The  exact  amount  of  the  fee  to 
be  charged  might  be  a  matter  for  arrangement,  and  a 
reasonable  maximum  might  be  fixed — a  maximum  that 
might  considerably  exceed  the  fee  in  the  municipal  schools. 
It  has  to  be  remembered,  in  dealing  with  this  matter  of  fee, 
that  the  parents  of  pupils  in  such  a  school  as  this  are  among 
the  heaviest  conti-ibutors  to  the  school  rate  ;  and  it  does  not 
seem  fair  that  they  should  get  no  direct  benefit  from  the 
rates  merely  because  they  desire  a  somewhat  different  kind 
of  education  from  that  supplied  by  the  local  schools  under 
public  control. 


We  are  glad  that  the  English  Association,  in  the  multi- 
plicity of  the  subjects  within  the  purview  of  its  operations, 
is  giving  attention  to  the  teaching  of  English  in  the  schools. 
The  examinational  results  of  such  teaching  appear  to  be  open 
to  considerable  improvement.  Some  blame  the  teachers — of 
course  ;  others  blame  the  examiners.  Very  likely,  examiners 
and  teachers  do  not  always  operate  from  the  same  stand- 
point, and  the  pupils  fall  through  between  them.  Still,  we 
ai'e  more  inclined  to  blame  the  system :  the  conditions  and 
the  methods.  It  may  be  simple  enough  for  educated  adults 
to  write  English  with  fluency  and  effect,  but  it  is  very  far 
from  a  simple  exercise  for  school  children ;  they  may  speak 
their  thoughts  on  any  subject  with  freedom  and  clearness, 
but  it  is  a  very  different  effort  to  express  the  same  things  in 
writing.  We  will  venture  a  suggestion  or  two  on  the  most 
essential  points.  Prom  a  tolerably  wide  experience  of  exami- 
nations, we  are  driven  to  conclude  that  the  first  reform 
necessary  is  to  insist  on  distinct  and  facile  handwriting  ;  the 
hand  should  write,  as  it  were,  automatically,  without  dis- 
tracting the  attention  of  the  writer  from  the  subject.  The 
grammar  of  English,  strictly  i-egarded,  is  so  insignificant 
that  it  need  be  little  insisted  upon  :  indeed,  the  whole  mecha- 
nism of  English  for  the  purpose  of  composition — and  this, 
we  take  it,  is  almost  the  sole  grammatical  puipose  that  need 
in  general  be  considered — can  be  easily  taught  with  the  most 
trifling  incidental  references  to  grammar,  and  without  even 
the  mention  of  any  of  those  technical  terms  that  vex  the  soul 
of  Prof.  Sonnenschein  (and  others).  [The  method,  with 
examples  and  exercises,  has  been  exhaustively  illustrated  in 
a  little  volume — "  First  Work  in  English  "  (Longmans) — • 
which  was  favourably  discussed  about  a  generation  ago  by 
the  late  Prof.  Meiklejohn  in  a  course  of  lectures  at  the  College 
of  Preceptors.  The  book,  we  should  add,  is  not  intended  for 
direct  aid  in  examinations  ;  it  is  intended  to  utilize  grammar 
for  composition,  and  is  only  indirectly  an  aid  to  examinations.] 
The  rest  of  the  task  will  consist  in  the  judicious  selection  of 
subjects  for  composition,  in  limiting  correction  to  the  more 
outstanding  faults  (to  obviate  discouragement),  and  in  re- 
quiring frequent  exercises  for  practice.  The  necessary  prac- 
tice involves  a  demand  for  more  time  ;  but  this  time  would  be 

Feb.  1,  1909. 



more  than  compensated  in  later  stages  by  tlie  acquired  grasp 
of  the  language.  The  studj^  of  English  as  literature  is  a 
subsequent  consideration  ;  but  it  will  be  of  little  avail  with- 
out a  trained  discrimination  of  the  good  and  the  less  good  in 

In  view  of  the  discussion  of  the  question  of  a  Teachers' 
Register  by  the  Head  Masters  and  the  Assistant  Masters  at 
their  annual  meetings,  the  Morning  Post  (January  15)  re- 
views the  position.  "  It  is  before  all  things  desirable 
to-day,"  saj-s  our  contempoi'aiy,  "  that  teaching-  should  be 
fully  recognized  as  one  of  the  liberal  professions,  and  the 
mark  which  distinguishes  these  professions  from  all  others 
is  that  they  control  the  qualifications  of  all  their  members.'' 
The  need  for  a  Register  was  recognized  by  the  Board  of 
Education  Act  of  1899,  "  but  the  history  of  the  Registration 
question  since  that  date  reflects  little  credit  on  the  Board  of 
Education,  which  then  came  into  being."  Willing  co-opera- 
tion with  the  teachers'  representatives  "  has  never  been 
given."  "  Instead  of  doing  everything  in  their  power  to 
bring  about  Registration,  the  Board  have  done  a  great  deal 
to  hinder  it,  and  by  their  action  have  brought  matters  to  a 
veritable  impasse."     Our  contemporary  concludes  : 

The  motive  behind  their  action  is  difficult  to  discover.  It  may  be  that 
they  sincerely  desire  to  prevent  the  teaching  profession  from  becoming 
a  profession  in  any  proper  sense  of  the  word,  that  thej-  desire  the 
teachers  to  become  mere  officials  subordinate  to  a  bureaucracy  iu  White- 
hall. On  the  otlier  hand,  it  may  be  a  matter  of  purely  personal  idiosyn- 
crasy. Whatever  be  the  motive,  their  action  hardly  tends  to  enhance  the 
dignity  of  the  Board. 

It  is  anything  but  agreeable  to  make  or  to  reproduce  such 
strictures  upon  the  Board  of  Education,  and  we  should 
heartily  welcome  the  earliest  possible  removal  of  the  grounds 
of  dissatisfaction. 

In  discussing  the  commercial  value  of  languages  it  is  well 
to  distinguish — as  usual.  "A  knowledge  of  languages  is 
not  necessary  to  success  in  business,"  says  a  City  merchant. 
■  Take  a  score  of  men  in  the  City  earning  £3,000  a  year, 
and  you  will  probably  find  that  scarcely  one  of  them  can 
sustain  a  conversation  in  any  language  but  his  own.  It  is 
breadth  of  outlook,  grit,  and  adaptability  rather  than  know- 
ledge of  foreign  languages  that  make  for  success  in  com- 
merce." These  qualities,  no  doubt,  must  be  possessed  by 
the  Napoleons  of  finance  and  by  the  Chevaliers  of  industry 
and  commerce  ;  and  it  is  the  anthropologist-biologist  that 
must  tell  us  how  to  obtain  them.  Yet  it  is  extremely 
probable  that  the  best  natural  equipment  would  be  not  in- 
considerably aided  by  a  competent  knowledge  of  the  lan- 
guages of  commerce — the  £3,000  might  be  turned  into 
larger  figures.  The  school,  however,  has  chiefly  to  do  with 
the  main  body — the  much  more  numerous  and  humbler 
members — of  the  commercial  army,  to  whom  a  knowledge  of 
one  or  more  foreign  languages  may  be  the  indispensable 
means  of  getting  and  maintaining  a  post  where  the  Napo- 
leonic qualities  have  less  scope  than  the  routine  duty  of 
executing  the  directions  of  a  superior.  It  is  enough  to 
justify  the  claims  of  modern  languages  if  they  give  the 
student  a  footing  in  the  business  world  and  a  chance  of 
rising,  and  about  that  there  is  no  room  for  question.  One 
may  be  an  admirable  linguist   and  yet  fail  in  business  ;   but 

a  man  with  ordinary  business  qualities  will  be  enormously 
helped  by  a  knowledge  of  the  languages  pertinent  to  his 
particular  class  of  business.  As  a  means  to  an  end,  lin- 
guistic knowledge  is  all  to  the  good,  to  say  nothing  of  its 
value  as  culture. 

Did  we  not  hear  something  lately  of  a  proposal  to  have 
secondary  education  represented  specially  in  the  House  of 
Commons  on  the  analogy  of  the  N.TJ.T.  ?  It  is  said  that 
the  elementary  teachers  have  derived  benefit  from  the 
presence  of  representatives  in  the  House.  Why,  then, 
should  secondary  teachers  not  reap  advantage  from  a 
similar  arrangement  r"  The  question  seems  to  resolve  itself 
into  simple  elements  :  to  find  the  money  and  to  find  the  man 
(or  men).  Yet  the  processes  may  not  prove  so  very  simple 
in  the  working  out.  From  Canada  we  hear  of  a  movement 
with  a  similar  purpose,  but  of  quite  another  type.  The 
three  great  Universities  of  the  Dominion — McGill,  Toronto, 
and  Laval  (Quebec) — aspire  to  the  privilege  of  representa- 
tion on  the  pattern  of  University  representation  in  this 
country ;  and  it  is  reported  as  probable  "  that  an  Act 
e.stablishing  this  new  departure  will  be  passed  next  session." 
The  Universities  are  within  their  right  in  endeavouring  to 
magnify  their  importance  and  to  look  closely  after  their 
interests.  It  is  for  the  Dominion  Parliament  to  consider 
their  claims  in  the  light  of  the  public  interest.  The  special 
representation  of  Universities  in  this  country  is  an  anomaly 
that  is  not  universally  regarded  as  a  success.  But,  if  the 
Canadian  Universities  gain  their  point,  they  will,  no  doubt, 
be  cited  as  an  argument  for  the  maintenance  of  the  British 
anomaly  when  it  comes  to  be  assailed,  as  it  is  tolerably 
certain  to  be  assailed,  in  the  next  Bill  for  adjusting  electoral 
conditions.  A  fancy  franchise  is  not  easily  to  be  justified 
in  a  democratic  country. 

The  whole  of  Ireland  is  in  uproar  over  the  place  of  the 
Ii-ish  language  in  the  economy  of  the  National  Universitv. 
and  the  Irish  journals  are  filled  with  reports  of  meetings, 
speeches,  and  letters  seething  with  controversy.  The  Cor- 
poration of  Dublin,  after  one  vain  attempt  to  assemble  a 
quorum,  has  at  last  voted,  24  to  1,  "  that  the  Irish  language 
should  be  made  an  essential  subject  for  Matriculation  in 
the  new  Irish  University  from  its  inception,  if  the  University 
is  to  be  an  Irish  and  national  institution  in  fact  as  well  as 
in  name."  The  County  Councils,  and  other  public  bodies. 
have  passed  resolutions  in  the  same  sense,  generally  intimat- 
ing at  the  same  time  that,  unless  Irish  be  made  compulsory, 
they  will  "  hold  the  rint."  The  Standing  Committee  of 
the  Roman  Catholic  Bishops,  however,  while  declaring  theii 
profound  interest  in  the  work  of  the  National  University. 
and  "■  looking  forward  to  the  day  when  the  Irish  language 
will  again  be  spoken  throughout  the  country  and  will  iu 
consequence  become  largely  the  medium  of  instruction  iu 
the  constituent  colleges,"  have  pi-onounced  against  compul- 
sion and  represented  that,  in  order  to  reach  the  desired 
stage,  "  by  far  the  best  means  is  to  set  up  in  the  colleges 
bright  centres  of  Gaelic  study  that  will,  by  their  light  and 
by  their  rewards,  attract  young  Irishmen  within  the  s|)here 
of  their  Irish  influence.'  To  this  the  "  Sinn  Fein  "  replies 
that  the  "  credulity  of  the  Bishops  has  made  them  the  easy 



[Feb.  1,1909. 

victims  of  English  intrigue,  and  declares  tliat,  if  the  Senate 
of  the  National  University  agree  with  the  Bishops,  then  the 
people  must  treat  the  new  University  as  an  enemy."  It  is 
little  wonder  that  an  ulterior  purpose  is  sought  for  in  the 
action  of  the  "  Sinn  Fein  "  and  Gaelic  League,  when  one 
considers  the  unpractical  character  of  the  contention  in  ex- 
isting circumstances,  when  only  a  very  small  number  of 
matriculants  know  any  Irish,  whether  spoken  or  written. 
Probably  the  commanding  position  of  the  Chancellor,  Arch- 
bishop Walsh,  will  settle  the  question  definitely  on  the 
Senate.  But  the  movement  is  undoubtedly  significant ;  and, 
though  Irish  may  not  be  made  compulsory,  it  ought  to  have 
free  scope  for  development. 



The  Annual  General  Meeting  of  the  Incorporated  Association 
of  Head  Masters  was  opened  at  the  Guildhall  under  the  presi- 
dency of  the  Rev.  Dr.  A.  W.  Upoott,  Christ's  Hospital,  on 
January  12.  The  Lord  Major  attended  in  state  and  welcomed 
the  members  of  the  Association.  Dr.  Upcott,  in  his  presidential 
address,  said  that,  whatever  views  might  be  taken  of  the  provi- 
sions of  the  Education  Act,  19u2,  it  had  left  an  indelible  mark 
upon  the  history  of  education  in  this  country — largely,  he 
thought,  for  good.  The  Act  had  aroused  an  unprecedented 
amount  of  real  and  intelligent,  if  not  always  wisely  guided, 
interest  in  education  all  over  the  country.  The  School  Boards 
did  a  great  deal  for  elementary  education,  but  the  Education 
Committees,  controlling  as  they  did  both  primary  and  secondai-y 
education  and  composed  of  men  and  women  drawn  from  a  wider 
and  more  liberal  basis  than  the  old  School  Boards,  had  done  a 
Tast  deal  more.  With  regard  to  the  status  and  character  of  the 
teacher,  he  maintained  that  no  system  of  education,  however 
sound,  would  be  truly  and  permanently  successful  unless  they 
had  the  right  persons  to  carry  it  into  practice.  The  question  of 
inspection  was  at  present  hardly  ripe  for  public  discussion.  He 
believed  inspection  to  be  a  healthy  tonic  for  both  head  and 
assistant  masters.  With  reference  to  the  question  of  the  regis- 
tration of  teachers.  Dr.  Upcott  said  he  considered  that  the  difii- 
culty  was  capable  of  settlement  without  interfering  with  the 
principles  of  classification  which  they  were  now  urging  upon 
the  Board.  A  large  proportion  of  teachers  of  music,  di-awing, 
and  other  technical  subjects  were  actually  engaged  in  work  in 
primary  and  secondary  schools  which  came  alreadj'  under  their 
proposed  classification  ;  those  who  were  not  so  engaged  could  be 
included  by  the  simple  extension  of  their  scheme  so  as  to  include 
the  technological  class  now  i-ecoguized  by  the  Board  as  forming 
a  third  department  of  education.  The  following  resolutions  were 
adopted  after  discussion  : 

That  the  Association  is  of  opinion  that,  with  regard  to  the  free  places 
(now  required  to  form  25  per  cent,  of  admissions),  when  the  total  number 
of  free  places  in  a  school  amounts  to  25  per  cent,  of  the  whole  number 
of  pupils,  it  should  not  be  necessary  in  subsequent  admi.«sions  to  throw 
open  25  per  cent,  of  the  admissions,  provided  always  that  the  25  per  cent. 
of  free  places  in  the  school  is  kept  up  ;  and  that,  where  the  percentage 
approved  by  the  Board  of  Education  is  less  than  25  per  cent.,  the  same 
principles  should  be  applied  to  the  smaller  percentage. 

That  this  Associati^  •u  instructs  the  Council  to  take  such  further  steps 
as  may  seem  good  to  them  to  bring  about  a  plan  of  registration  in  con- 
cert with  other  educational  societies  willing  and  qualified  to  co-operate  ; 
and  is  of  opinion  that  no  efficient  Registration  Council  can  be  formed 
which  is  based  on  particular  subjects  of  teaching  rather  than  on  the 
general  type  and  grade  of  the  education  represented. 

That  this  Association  takes  steps  to  secure  an  adequate  scheme  for  the 
superannuation  of  masters  in  secondary  schools,  in  conjunction  with 
the  Association  of  Education  Committees  and  other  bodies. 

That  this  Association  is  of  opinion  that  the  time  has  come  when  the 
representation  in  Parhament  of  teachers  in  secondary  schools  should  be 

That  this  Association  welcomes  the  report  of  the  Classical  Association 
on  the  pronunciation  of  Greek. 

That,  in  the  opinion  of  this  Association,  [a]  the  salaries  offered  in  con- 
nexion with  head  masterships  of  secondary  schools  have  in  several  recent 
oases  been  utterly  inadequate ;  and  {l>j  that  the  Coimcil  be  instructed  to 
take  action  in  the  matter. 

That  this  Association  regards  with  approval  attempts  made  to  remove 

the  inconsistencies  of  grammatical  teriuinology  which  confront  ; 
student  who  has  to  deal  with  several  languages  simultaneously. 
Prof.  Sontienschein,  D.Litt.  (University  of  Birmingham),  spoke 
on  the  last  subject  by  special  invitation.  On  the  motion  of 
Mr.  W.  W.  Sawtell  (Uxbridge),  the  following  rider  was  added  : 

That  this  Association  recommends  the  Council  to  take  steps  to  meet 
the  Classical  Association,  the  Modem  Languages  Association,  and  the 
Enghsh  Association  to  formulate  a  scheme  of  common  terminological 
usage  on  definite  lines. 

The  Annual  General  Meeting  of  the  Incorporated  Association 
of  Assistant  Masters  in  Secondary  Schools  was  held  (January  8) 
at  St.  Paul's  School,  West  Kensington,  the  new  chairman,  Mr. 
W.  A.  Newsome,  B.A.  (Stationers'  School),  presiding.  The  fol- 
lowing resolutions  were  passed ; — 

1.  Tenure. That,  in   the   opinion   of   this   Association,   no   assistant 

master  shall  sign  an  agreement  («)  if  it  provides  for  the  possibility  of  his 
dismissal  at  any  time  other  thati  at  the  end  of  a  schod  tei-m,  and  after 
at  least  two  months'  notice  has  been  given  him,  save  in  cases  of  grave 
misconduct ;  (A)  or,  if  it  does  not  provide  that  before  the  dismissal  takes 
effect,  the  assistant  master  concerned  shall  be  given  the  opportunity  of 
appearing,  with  or  without  the  help  of  a  friend,  before  the  governing 
body  in  his  own  defence. 

2.  Siiperanniialion  Fund. — That,  in  the  best  interests  of  secondary  edu- 
cation, it  is  imperative  that  the  Board  of  Education  should  take  all 
necessary  steps  for  the  early  estabUshment  of  a  Superannuation  Fund 
for  Teachers  in  recognized  secondaiy  schools.  Such  a  scheme  .should 
provide  for  (a)  contributions  to  the  fund  from  the  teacher  and  the  govern- 
ing body ;  (4)  the  expenses  of  management  being  borne  by  the  State  ; 
(c)  the  provision  by  the  State  of  a  disablement  allowance  ;  {d)  the  pos- 
sibility of  the  teacher  migrating  from  school  to  school  without  loss  of 
pension  rights. 

3.  Federal  Council.— That  this  Association  deeply  regrets  the  with- 
drawal of  the  Head  Masters'  Conference  from  the  Federal  Council. 

4.  Teachers'  Registration  Council. — That  this  Association  instructs  the 
Executive  to  move  the  Federal  Council  to  take  such  further  steps  as  may 
seem  good  to  them  to  bring  about  the  formation  of  a  Registration 
Council  in  concert  with  duly  accredited  representatives  of  other  bodies 
desirous  and  qualified  to  co-operate. 

5.  FronuiiciatioH  of  Greek.  —  That  this  Association  approves  of  the 
scheme  for  the  pronunciation  of  ancient  Greek  foi-mulated  by  the  Classical 
Association  ;  with  a  preference  for  pronunciation  of  n  diphthong  and 
1)  as  close  and  open  e  respectively,  for  that  of  the  aspirates  ^,  6,  x, 
as  p,  t,  k,  followed  by  a  strong  breath,  and  for  u  like  German  modified  a. 

The  Twenty-fifth  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Association  of  Assis- 
tant Mistresses  in  Public  Secondary  Schools  was  held  on  Jan- 
uary 9.  The  chair  was  occupied  by  Miss  E.  M.  Bancroft  (Redland 
High  School,  Bristol),  who  was  declared  to  have  been  re-elected 
President  of  the  Association.  Miss  C.  L.  Laurie  (The  Ladies' 
College,  Cheltenham),  in  presenting  the  report  of  the  Federal 
CouncU,  said  the  constitution  of  the  proposed  Registration 
Council  had  occupied  much  attention  during  last  year,  but 
nothing  had  been  done  in  the  matter.  The  Associations  of 
Assistant  Masters  and  Assistant  Mistresses  had  agreed  on  the 
previous  day  to  ask  the  Federal  Council  to  convene  a  conference, 
as  representative  as  might  be  possible  of  the  teaching  profession, 
to  consider  the  subject,  and  that  request  would  come  before  the 
Federal  Council  on  an  early  day.  The  President,  in  her  address, 
remarked  on  the  Bndowe'd  Schools  (Masters)  Act  :  she  had 
received  an  unhesitating  assurance  from  Mr.  Runciman  that 
women  teachers  were  included  within  the  operation  of  the  clause 
which  provided  that  a  master  should  receive  a  proper  period  of 
notice  before  dismissal  and  that  there  should  be  a  possibility 
of  appeal.  The  draft  scheme  for  the  registration  of  teachers 
was  not  without  significance  for  them  in  view  of  its  inclusion 
of  women  among  the  members  of  the  proposed  Registration 
Council.  Ground  for  the  old  reproach  against  the  teaching  pro- 
fession that  it  lacked  organization  was  ceasing  to  exist,  and  of 
late  there  had  been  unexampled  signs  of  union  among  members 
of  the  profession  in  the  pursuit  of  ideals.  The  division  of  work 
was  becoming  accentuated,  and  teachers  tended  more  and  mori- 
to  become  specialists.  The  question.  What  was  an  ideal  cur- 
riculum? was  still  with  them.  In  an  overcrowded  curriculum 
some  subject  must  suffer,  and  usually  that  subject  was  one 
which  had  a  first  claim  to  consideration — the  mother  tongue. 

Miss  Jowitt  (Training  College,  Bristol)  initiated  a  discussion 
concerning  pensions  for  teachers.  The  meeting  passed  a  series 
of  resolutions  declaring  that  any  pension  scheme  proposed  by 
the  Association  should  be  national,  that  it  should  have  Govern- 
ment security,  and  that  all  teachers  should  be  eligible  for  it ; 
that  the  retiring  age  should  be  fifty-five  years,  but  the  option  of 
continuing  work  after  that  age  should  be  granted  if  the  govern- 

Feb.  1,  1909.] 



ing  body  of  a  school  should  so  desire ;  that  the  scheme  should 
be  compulsory ;  that  the  teacher's  contributions  towards  the 
pension  fund  should  be  on  a  sliding  scale,  increasing  automati- 
cally with  increases  of  salary  ;  that,  the  scheme  being  compulsory, 
contributions,  or  a  certain  proportion  of  them,  should  be  re- 
turnable in  the  event  of  a  teacher's  retirement  before  reaching 
the  age  at  which  a  pension  would  become  payable,  but  that  no 
teacher  with  less  than  two  years'  service  should  receive  any  re- 
payment ;  and  that  the  minimum  annual  pension  should  be  £50. 
Miss  Laurie,  in  a  paper  on  the  principles  that  should  underlie 
the  planning  of  the  science  curriculum  in  girls'  secondary  schools, 
urged  that  the  main  reason  for  teaching  science  was  to  make 
children  familiar  with  scientific  method.  She  pleaded  for  an 
historical  course  of  science  specially  suitable  for  the  last  year  of 
school  life  and  for  those  pupils  who  had  not  received  any 
scientific  training.  Miss  Wood  (Leeds  High  School)  read  a 
paper  outlining  a  school  course  of  science  applied  to  domestic 
life  in  which,  she  said,  she  was  trying  to  work  out  the  ideas  of 
Prof.  Smithells,  of  Leeds  University.  The  great  object  of  this 
new  kind  of  science  teaching  was  to  make  common  things  and 
ordinary  phenomena  the  beginning  of  scientific  instruction,  and 
to  develop  scientific  methods  in  connexion  with  the  facts  of 
everyday  life.  The  household  and,  above  all,  the  kitchen 
abounded  in  things  which  could  be  made  objects  of  scientific 
investigation,  and  she  outlined  the  training  in  science  given  in 
the  "  kitchen  laboratory  "  which  has  been  provided  in  the  new 
high  school  buildings  at  Leeds. 

The  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Association  of  Public-School 
Science  Masters  was  held  at  Merchant  Taylors'  School  on  Jan- 
uary 12.  Sir  Clifford  Allbutt,  Regius  Professor  of  Physic  in 
the  University  of  Cambridge,  the  President,  delivered  an  address 
upon  "The  Function  of  Science  in  Teaching."  What  did  they 
mean  by  science  'i  They  did  not  contemplate  experimental 
science  only:  they  inohided  the  pristine  idea  of  all  orderly  know- 
ledge, of  analysis  of  concepts  of  whatever  origin,  for  the  con- 
struction of  systems  of  affirmative  propositions.  Science — that 
was  to  say,  scientific  method — penetrated  into  all  the  studies  of 
the  modern  school,  as  into  all  life.  No  doubt  action  might  be 
"  sicklied  o'er  "  by  too  much  thought,  too  much  trust  in  analysis, 
and  therein  was  engendered  the  distrust  wiiich  the  humanist 
had  always  felt  of  the  scientist,  for  he  winced  to  see  the  flower 
of  literature  stiilened  into  a  diagram.  Yet  supreme  creative 
faculty  might  be  contemporary  with  analytic  power.  It  was 
still  said  tiiat  boys  were  not  of  an  age  for  natural  science,  but 
were  they  at  a  stage  when  imagination  could  best  be  nurtured 
on  food  more  generous  than  natural  science  was  supposed  to  be.'' 
Abstract  science,  he  would  admit,  was  not  a  rich  food  for  the 
imagination,  though  it  imparted  to  it  a  scope  and  virility  which 
preserved  it  from  rhetoric  and  sentiment.  The  healthy  common 
boy  sliould  be  outward  bound,  busy  in  the  common  range  of 
wonderful  visible  things.  Did  they  seek  to  foster  the  boy's 
seriousness,  curiosity,  and  handiness  ?  Memory  had  to  be  culti- 
vated and  the  duty  of  drudgery  had  to  be  realized.  Classics  was 
becoming  more  of  a  living  subject,  thanks  to  the  new  history, 
the  new  geography,  and  the  like ;  but  he  claimed  that  science 
had  wrought  these  changes,  and  that,  without  leaving  other 
studies  undone,  natural  science  would  do  much  to  ensure  success 
in  the  retention  of  a  boy's  natural  qualities.  He  had  some  bias 
against  abstract  science  for  boys,  though  he  admitted  that  some 
mathematics  must  enter  into  the  curriculum.  In  the  upper 
forms,  however,  there  should  be  a  more  extensive  differentiation 
than  at  present,  according  to  the  bents,  and  perhaps  even  accord- 
ing to  the  vocations,  of  the  pupils.  At  any  rate,  science  was  not 
a  holjby,  nor  even  a  modern  system  of  utilitarian  ingenuity:  it 
was  a  way  of  observing  and  interpreting  everything,  and  he  pro- 
tested that  to  box  off  science — or  classics  either  for  that  matter — 
artificially  on  a  "  modern  "  or  any  other  "  side  "  was  to  perpetuate 
an  unnatural  schism.  An  education  which  was  not  modern  was 
-an  anachronism.  He  did  not  desire  to  see  head  masters  more 
specifically  scientific  than  linguistic,  but  he  who  would  mould  a 
school  should  inspire  it  as  a  whole  and  be  in  full  and  under- 
standing sympathy  with  ever}'  part  and  function  of  it.  A  vote 
of  thanks  was  accorded  to  Sir  Clifford  Allbutt  for  his  address. 
Mr.  Latter  (Charterhouse),  Mr.  Berridge  (Malvern),  Mr.  J.  R. 
Eccles  (Gresham's  School,  Holt),  Mr.  R.  E.  Thwaites  (Leicester), 
theRpv.  A_.  Cortie  (Stony hurst),  and  Mr.  0.  J.  Gardiner  (Chelten- 
ham) generally  agreed  that  both  the  modern  and  classical  sides  of 
a  school  should  be  merged  up  to  the  age  of  fourteen,  several  of 
them  declaring  that  in  their  schools  a  common  curriculum  did 
now  obtain.     The  remainder  of  the  morning  session  was  devoted 

to  an  address  from  Mr.  M.  I).  Hill  (Eton)  on  the  anthropometric 
measurements  being  carried  out  at  Eton,  where,  he  said,  about 
400  boys  had  now  been  measured.  He  pleaded  for  the  universal 
adoption  of  similar  methods  in  other  schools,  the  chief  aims 
being  to  investigate  the  ethnology  of  Great  Britain ;  to  obtain 
curves  of  growth  for  different  ages  for  different  parts  of  the 
body  ;  to  detect  any  physical  irregularities  ;  and  to  measure  the 
results  of  courses  of  gymnasium  and  the  like. 

In  the  afternoon  papers  on  science  curricula  in  public  schools 
were  read,  followed  by  a  brief  discussion.  Mr.  G.  F.  Daniell 
dealt  with  the  report  of  the  British  Association  upon  "  The 
Sequence  of  Studies  in  Science";  Mr.  W.  D.  Eggar  (Eton)  spoke 
of  "  Geography,  considered  as  a  Science  Su'oject,"  declaring  that 
the  class  subject  "  Geography  "  had  expanded  until  it  had  lost  all 
identity.  The  ideal  treatment  would  be  to  teach  its  component 
parts,  as  physiography  and  elementary  geology  on  the  one 
hand  and  commerce  and  history  on  the  other ;  Mr.  R.  G. 
Durrant  (Marlborough)  considered  "To  what  Extent,  and  at 
what  Stage,  should  Prevalent  Views  on  the  Is'^ature  of  Solu- 
tion be  taught  in  Schools  ?"  and  Mr.  G.  H.  Martin  (Bradford), 
referring  to  "  Science  for  the  Classical  Side,"  said  that  the  only 
form  of  science  which  seemed  to  be  of  real  interest  to  boys  who 
would  drop  the  subject  at  the  end  of  about  three  j'ears  was  one 
which  was  not  only  of  immediate  application,  but  which  also 
furnished  the  basis  of  a  future  hobby.  Subsequently  Mr.  C.  J. 
Gardiner  (Cheltenham)  commented  on  the  refusal  of  the  General 
Medical  Council  to  recognize  public  schools  as  institutions  where 
medical  education  might  be  commenced.  It  was  announced  that 
Prof.  H.  E.  Armstrong  (City  and  Guilds  Institute)  had  been 
elected  President  for  the  coming  year. 

The  Private  Schools  Association  (Incorporated)  held  its 
Annual  General  Meeting  at  the  College  of  Preceptors  on  Janu- 
ary 8.  Dr.  F.  Arthur  Sibly,  who  was  elected  honorary  President 
for  1909,  said  that  his  work  had  been  inspired  and  su.stained 
by  a  deep  conviction  that  the  fight  the  Association  was  waging 
for  freedom,  variety,  and  elasticity  in  education  was  a  fight  of 
supreme  national  importance.  Tlie  confidence  reposed  in  him 
by  the  Council  during  his  three  years'  tenancy  of  the  chairman- 
ship had  also  been  a  great  inspiration  to  him  in  the  arduous  and 
anxious  work.  He  was  happy  to  feel  assured  that  the  status  of 
the  Association  itself  was  now  higher  than  it  had  ever  been  and 
that  very  great  success  had  attended  the  work  in  which  it  had 
been  engaged.  He  felt  confident  of  the  final  victory  of  the 
principles  for  which  they  contended.  The  Hon.  Secretary  (Mr. 
W.  L.  Thompson,  Newcastle)  read  the  annual  report.  It  had 
not  been  thought  necessary,  he  said,  to  state  again  their  protest 
against  an  all-embracing  State  system  of  education.  That  pro- 
test and  the  grounds  on  which  it  was  based  must  be  perfectly 
well  known  by  all  who  had  taken  the  slightest  interest  in  the 
great  problem  of  educational  reform  which  had  during  the  past 
few  years  increasingly  exercised  the  minds  of  those  who  were 
solicitous  for  the  national  welfare.  The  members  of  the  Associa- 
tion were  second  to  none  in  patriotism,  and  entertained  as  sin- 
cerely as  any  the  hope  that  this  England  of  ours  might,  through 
educational  reform  or  any  other  reform,  be  enabled  to  maintain  its 
proud  position  in  the  forefront  of  the  nations  of  the  world.  But, 
while  they  recognized  the  need  for  avoiding  intellectual  waste 
through  lack  of  educational  advantages  for  those  who  were 
mentally  fitted,  but  unable  through  want  of  means,  to  profit  by 
those  advantages,  they  regarded  the  bringing  of  all  secondary 
education  under  State  control  as  an  experiment  of  an  extremely 
costly  nature,  which  was  as  unnecessary  as,  owing  to  the  very 
doubtful  character  of  its  results,  it  was  unjustifiable.  It  was 
also  reported  that  financially  the  Association  was  in  a  sounder 
condition  than  it  had  been  for  some  years  past. 

At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Association  of  Directors  and 
Secretaries  for  Education,  the  President  (Mr.  W.  A.  Adams, 
Secretary  to  the  Bristol  Education  Committee)  welcomed  the 
declaration  of  the  Primate  in  his  letter  of  December  -3  to  the 
Minister  of  Education  that  "  contracting  out  schools  must  be 
the  exception  and  not  the  rule."  If  this  were  not  so,  a  set-back 
would  be  given  to  the  cause  of  national  education  and  an  injury 
done  to  much  of  the  constructive  and  unifying  work  of  the  last 
five  years.  One  of  the  chief  hindrances  to  progres.s  was  the 
financial  strain  on  local  authorities,  as  in  the  medical  inspection 
of  scholars  and  the  feeding  of  necessitous  school-chiklren.  There 
were  still  many  urgent  educational  reforms  that  would  doubtless 
be  undertaken  by  local  authorities  if  Whitehall  would  only  bear 
a  fair  share  of  the  cost :  for  example,  the  reduction  of  the  size 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

of  classes,  and  the  replacement  of  supplementary  by  certificated 
teachers.  Kelief  to  the  rate-paj'er  might  be  given  in  several  waj's. 
The  grants  for  infants  and  for  older  scholars  should  be  made  uni- 
form. Mr.  Mclveuna's  superior  limit  of  7-5  per  cent,  of  the  total 
cost  of  elementary  school  maintenance  should  be  accompanied  bj- 
a  condition  that  the  grant  should  in  no  case  be  less  than  two- 
thirds  of  the  total  cost,  including  loan  charges,  medical  inspec- 
tion, &c.  And  the  period  of  repayment  for  new  school  buildiugs 
should  be  extended  to  fifty  years. 

Among  the  important  subjects  discussed  were  the  medical 
inspection  of  children  in  elementary  schools  and  after  treatment. 
In  some  areas  where  there  had  been  medical  inspection  it  was 
found  that  after-treatment  had  not  presented  much  difficulty 
and  had  been  inexpensive,  and  that  the  parents  generallj-  had 
been  disposed  to  pay  due  attention  to  the  doctor's  recommend- 
ations, so  that  the  absence  of  compulsory  powers  had  not  pre- 
sented ovei-whelming  obstacles.  One  large  county  had  set  apart 
£350  to  be  spent  between  now  and  July,  on  after-treatment  under 
a  .scheme  to  be  approved  by  the  Board  of  Education.  Consider- 
ation was  also  given  to  the  Code  of  Regulations  in  reference  to 
"  special  "  subjects  taught  in  elementary  schools,  such  as  cookery, 
woodwork,  gardening.  A  resolution  was  passed  suggesting  that 
the  Code  should  be  so  revised  as  to  give  Local  Education 
Authorities  more  freedom  and  greateren  couragement  to  organ- 
ize instruction  in  handicraft  and  domestic  subjects. 

The  seventh  annual  meeting  of  the  North  of  England  Confer- 
ence was  held  at  Manchester  on  January  7  to  9,  Bishop  Welldon 
(Dean  of  Manchester)  President.  The  effective  business  began 
on  January  8,  when  Dr.  Welldon  delivered  his  presidential 
address,  and  discussions  were  held  on  the  incidence  of  the  cost 
of  education,  the  supply  of  teachers,  the  teaching  of  languages, 
and  the  training  of  girls  in  domestic  subjects.  On  January  9, 
the  questions  treated  were  the  co-ordination  of  the  curricula  in 
primary  and  secondary  schools,  the  place  of  the  higher  elemeutary 
school  in  the  scheme  of  education,  tlie  relation  of  the  University 
to  evening  teaching  in  industrial  centres,  and  methods  of  teach- 
ing mathematics.  A  varied,  important,  and  interesting  pro- 

The  English  Association  held  its  annual  general  meeting  on 
January  15  and  16.  The  report  stated  that  the  central  body 
numbered  432  members — an  increase  of  148  during  the  year. 
The  numlier  of  local  branches  in  England  had  increased  from 
three  to  six,  and  altogether,  with  the  Scottish  Branch,  there  wei-e 
1,2S1  members  and  associates — an  increase  of  313.  Prof.  Saints- 
bury  was  elected  President.  Prof.  W.  P.  Ker  spoke  on  "  Ko- 
mance."  The  eighteenth  century,  he  said,  was  generally 
considered  anti-romantic  in  literature,  but  it  kept  up  the  supply 
for  its  children,  while  the  nineteenth  century,  which  came  iu 
with  a  great  romantic  revolution  in  literature,  cut  off  the  tradi- 
tion of  romance  amongst  the  simple,  imliterary  people,  took  away 
the  Seven  Champions  from  the  schoolboy,  and  the  ballads  from 
the  country-side.  In  the  nineteenth  century  almost  everywhere 
the  old  popular  traditions  of  romance  had  withered  up.  The 
fairy  tales  which  once  were  English  were  known,  if  known  at 
all.  mostly  through  Grimm. 

On  the  question  of  English  in  elementary  schools.  Miss  Gill 
(Head  Mistress,  L.C.C.  Laxton  Street  School)  read  a  paper  sum- 
marizing her  own  experiences  in  endeavouring  to  give  a  taste  for 
literature  to  girls  from  poor  homes,  who  entered  school  at  seven 
and  a  half  and  left  to  go  to  work  at  fourteen.  The  aim  was  not 
so  much  to  impart  knowledge  as  to  lay  a  foundation  for  thought 
and  to  give  the  girls  the  power  to  seek  knowledge  of  a  right 
kind  for  themselves.  The  pupils  took  home  the  knowledge  they 
had  gained  at  school,  and  there  were  many  instances  of  parents 
being  interested  and  the  local  libraries  being  visited  for  books  on 
art  and  literatui-e.  Mr.  J.  W.  Samuel,  B  A.  (Bead  Master,  Mill- 
wall  Higher  Elementary  School),  observed,  in  the  course  of  a 
paper,  that  onlj'  regular  practice  in  reading  aloud  under 
skilled  teachers  could  act  as  an  antidote  to  mispronunciation  of  j 
vowels  and  to  the  vicious  elimination  of  the  final  consonant  so 
prevalent  i)i  North,  South,  and  East  London.  The  double  dialect 
was  very  prevalent — that  wns  to  sa}',  while  in  school  the  child 
would  speak  decently,  but  would  at  once  fall  into  the  Cockne3' 
idiom  when  he  went  into  the  plaj'ing  Held.  A  conference  on  "  Kx- 1 
aminations  in  English"  was  opened  by  .Mr.  VV.  Jenkyn  Thomas 
(Head  Ma-ter,  Hackney  Downs  Secondary  School),  who  de-  | 
clared  himself  frankly  anti-examiner.  The  British  parent  believed  [ 
in  multiplicitj'  of  examinations,  and  schoolmasters  had  to  submit ' 
to  his  belief,  either  partly  or  absolutely.     He  was  tired  of  hear-  ' 

ing  schoolmasters  held  responsible  tor  every  deficiency  in  Englisk 
education,  and  even  in  English  life.  The  style  of  teaching  was- 
the  result  of  the  way  examination  questions  were  set.  and  in 
nearly  every  case  the  examiners  were  as  much,  if  not  more,  tO' 
blame.  It  was  generally  agreed  that  English  was  neither  written, 
nor  spoken  correctly,  and  a  man  or  woman  could  obtain  the 
highest  University  honours  in  English  without  being  able  to- 
speak  it  correctly. 

The  Annual  General  Meeting  of  the  Modern  Language  Asso- 
ciation was  held  at  Oxford  on  January  12.  The  Vice-Chancellor 
of  the  University  (Dr.  T.  H.  Warren,  President  of  Magdalen) 
delivered  an  address  of  welcome  to  a  large  representative- 
audience.  Lord  Pitzmaurice,  the  President,  then  took  the  chair. 
Prof.  Fiedler,  of  Oxford,  presented  the  annual  report.  The 
membership  now  stood  at  730,  an  increase  of  forty  or  fifty  on 
the  year.  The  Master  of  Caius  introduced  the  report  on  the 
training  of  modern  language  teachers,  in  which  the  Committee 
expressed  the  hope  that  everything  was  rapidly  tending  towards 
rendering  compulsory  some  kind  of  training  for  modern  language- 
teachers.  The  Hon.  Treasurer  (Mr.  Allpress)  submitted  the 
financial  statement,  and  moved  that  the  life  membership  be- 
reduced  from  seven  guineas  to  five,  and  this  was  agreed  to.  On 
the  motion  of  Mr.  Milner-Barry  (Berkhamsted),  seconded  by 
Dr.  Breul  (Cambridge),  a  resolution  was  carried  unanimously 
welcoming  the  recent  change  in  the  Board  of  Education  regula- 
tions for  secondary  schools,  which  allowed  greater  freedom  to 
schools  in  the  choice  of  languages  to  be  taught,  and  hoping  that 
the  Board  would  take  further  steps  to  encourage  the  study  of 
German  in  secondary  schools. 

Lord  Pitzmaurice,  in  his  presidential  address,  pleaded  more 
particularly  for  a  knowledge  of  modern  languages  in  their 
bearing  on  international  intercourse  and  the  amenities  of  societj'. 
"  The  exaggeration  of  I'acial  pride  and  the  intensification  of  racial 
hatred  is  one  of  the  modern  forms  which  barbarism  has  assumed 
in  its  war  against  civilization  and  progress."  So  wrote  Sir 
William  Ramsay,  uttering  his  warning  from  among  the  ruin.-? 
of  the  cities  of  St.  Paul  iu  the  remote  parts  of  Asia  Minor. 
Now  for  this  exaggeration,  which  disgraced  movements  otherwise 
productive  of  great  deeds  and  arising  out  of  noble  aspirations,, 
the  only  remedy  was  a  knowledge  of  languages  so  that  different 
races  and  nations  might  understand  each  other  and  not  perish  in 
fratricidal  contests  arising  out  of  a  want  of  mutual  comprehen- 
sion. Did  anybody  doubt,  for  example,  that  the  widespread 
knowledge  of  the  French  language  and  literature  in  this  country 
was  one  of  the  causes  of  the  present  good  feeling  between  France 
and  England,  rendering  as  it  did  extensive  international  inter- 
course comparatively  easy?  If  they,  as  an  Association,  were 
urging  on  the  Education  Office  more  extended  opportunities  for 
the  teaching  of  German  to  be  given  in  those  secondary  schools 
of  which  the  curriculum  came  under  official  influences,  they 
were  acting  not  merely  as  educational  enthusiasts  nor  as  school- 
masters, but  as  promoters  of  an  international  work,  who  wished 
to  carry  the  light  of  peace  and  goodwill  into  the  obscure  regions 
of  mistrust  and  doubt.  On  the  motion  of  the  Vice-Chancellor,. 
seconded  by  Mr.  H.  W.  Eve,  Dean  of  the  College  of  Preceptor.'i, 
a  vote  of  thanks  was  passed  to  Lord  Fitzmaurice  for  his  addre.s.s. 
In  the  afternoon  Prof.  Lanson,  of  the  University  of  Paris,  speak- 
ing in  French,  delivered  an  address  on  the  subject  of  "  How 
Voltaire  wrote  his  Letters  on  England  "  ;  Prof.  Fiedler  gave  an 
address  in  German  on  Goethe's  "  Faust." 

Next  day  Mr.  O.  Siepmann  (Clifton)  read  a  paper  on  "  Some 
Aspects  of  German  Education,"  comparing  German  and  Enulish 
schools  and  deprecating  the  rigidity  of  parts  of  the  German 
system.  The  Rev.  H.  J.  Chaytor  (Plymouth  College)  introduced 
a  lively  discussion  on  "  The  Teaching  of  French  and  German  to 
Middle  and  Higher  Forms."  Personally  he  thought  German 
best  to  begin  with,  and,  where  only  one  language  was  taught,  it 
should  be  German.  At  the  afternoon  session  Mr.  H.  A.  ]j. 
Fisher  (New  College)  read  a  brilliant  paper  on  "  Our  Insularity  " : 
"  England  indeed  was  an  island,  but  of  all  islands  the  least 

The  Annual  Report  of  the  Geographical  Association  records- 
a  large  increase  of  members  during  1908.  While  91  members 
have  been  lost  by  death  or  resignation.  211  members  have  been 
added  to  the  ro  I,  making  the  total  membership  79:! — a  I'ecord 
annual  increase.  The  niembershi|)  now  includes  teachers  of 
every  grade,  school  inspectors,  and  others  interested  in  geo- 
graphical eiiucation,  both  at  home  and  abroad.  During  the  first 
term  of  the  year  a  series  of  six   lectures  on  "  Methods  of  Geo- 

Feb  1,  1909.] 



■iji-aphical  Instruction  "  were  delivered  in  the  Botanical  Lecture 
"L'heatre  of  University  College,  London ;  and  it  lias  been  decided 
to  hold  monthly  meetings  of  the  Association  chiefly  in  London 
'for  the  purpose  of  lectures  by  geographical  experts  and  for  the 
reading  of  papers  by  practical  teachers  and  others.  At  the 
request  of  many  members  a  lending  library  of  geographical 
hooks  has  been  formed.  The  Geographical  Teacher  has  been 
issued  regularly.  The  series  of  articles  on  counties  or  natural 
regions  of  the  British  Isles  is  being  continued.  The  lectures 
■given  in  London  in  the  spring  of  1908  have  appeared  in  it.  One 
■of  the  most  important  activities  of  the  Association  is  the  answer- 
ing of  letters  from  members  about  book?,  maps,  apparatus,  &c. — 
.a  work  that  has  increased  considerably. 

The  Board  of  Education  has  issued  as  a  Blue  book  (Cd.  -IWO) 
the  reports  from  those  Universities  and  University  colleges  in 
■Great  Britain  which  participated  in  the  Parliamentar}'  grant  for 
University  colleges  in  the  year  1906-7.  The  present  volume  is 
the  first  of  a  series  in  which  all  the  reports  in  any  one  volume 
relate  to  the  same  academical  year.  It  is  much  to  be  regretted 
■(as  Nature  justly  remarks)  that  the  Board  of  Education  makes  no 
attempt  to  collate  the  particulars  provided  concerning  the  seven- 
teen institutions  participating  in  the  annvial  grant,  which  now 
amounts  to  £100,000.  It  is  at  present  a  long  and  tedious  process 
to  compare,  say,  the  income,  the  endowments,  number  of  staff, 
.and  students  of  one  institution  with  those  of  another.  The 
arrangement  of  the  volume,  in  fact,  compares  very  unfavourably 
with  the  similar  report  of  the  United  States  Commissioner  of 
Education  published  at  Washington.  The  Board  of  Education 
may  earn  very  easily  the  gratitude  of  students  of  the  progress 
■of  higher  education  in  this  and  other  countries  by  including  in 
the  report  of  next  year  a  series  of  tables  summarizing  and  com- 
paring the  educational  condition  of  things  in  the  Universities 
and  University  colleges  here  concerned.  It  would  then  prove 
possible  to  understand  more  precisely  why  certain  institutions 
are  selected  to  receive  a  Treasury  grant  while  others  are  pre- 

The  Visual  Instruction  Committee,  appointed  by  the  Secretary 
■of  State  for  the  Colonies,  has  issued  for  various  parts  of  the 
Empire  a  series  of  seven  lectures  on  the  United  Kingdom,  illus- 
trated by  lantern  slides.  The  edition,  which  was  prepared  for 
the  Indian  Government,  is  now  made  available  for  use  in  this 
country.  The  lectures,  written  by  Mr.  H.  J.  Mackinder,  have 
been  published  on  behalf  of  the  Committee  by  Messrs.  AYaterlow 
.&  Co.,  and  may  be  obtained  with  or  without  the  illustrative  slides 
from  Messrs.  Newton  &  Co.,  32  Fleet  Street,  E.G.,  from  whom 
.particulars  can  be  obtained  on  application.  The  lectures  on  the 
Colonies  and  India,  for  which  a  special  fund  was  raised  by  a 
committee  of  ladies  presided  over  by  Lady  Dudley  and  under 
the  patronage  of  H.R.H.  the  Princess  of  Wales,  are  in  active 
preparation,  and  it  is  hoped  that  the  first  series  will  be  issued  in 
the  coming  year.  

The  total  attendance  at  the  Teachers'  Guild  Modern  Languages 
Holiday  Courses  in  1908  was  112  ;  at  Tours,  24;  at  Honfleur,  56; 
at  Neuwied,  2(j ;  and  at  Santander  6.  This  was  a  somewhat 
smaller  total  than  in  1907,  owing  to  a  considerable  reduction  of 
entries  at  Tours  and  Neuwied,  not  entirely  counterbalanced  by 
the  increased  bumhers  at  Honfleur  and  Santander.  Of  the 
students,  44  were  men  and  68  women.  This  year,  for  the  first 
time.  Certificates  of  Proficiency  on  examination  by  the  Teachers' 
Guild  were  awarded  ;  hitherto,  the  certificates  have  been  given 
by  the  local  teachers  on  their  own  responsibility.  The  courses 
will  be  repeated  in  the  same  four  centres  in  August,  1909.  A 
new  course,  which  will  be  of  a  specially  practical  and  commercial 
character,  will  also  be  started  at  Liibeck,  under  the  local  guidance 
of  Dr.  Sebald  Schwarz,  Director  of  the  Realschule. 

The  Rev.  A.  G.  Butler,  Fellow  of  Oriel  College,  Oxford,  died 
at  Torquay.  He  was  an  assistant  master  at  Rugby  under 
Dr.  Temple,  and  he  was  the  first  Head  Master  of  Haileybury 
College.  He  was  the  Butler  of  "Butler's  Leap"  at  Rugby,  head 
of  the  Rugby  eleven  in  1848,  and  winner  of  the  racquet  pairs  at 
Oxford  in  18.5-5.  

Much  regret  will  be  felt  for  the  death  of  Prof.  H.  G.  Seeley 
F.R.S.,  Professor  of  Geolog}'  at  King's  College.  He  was  edu- 
cated at  Cambridge,  where  he  became  assistant  to  Prof.  Sedg- 
wick and  did  valuable  original  work  in  Palaioutolog}^  He  was 
a  cousin  of  the  late  Sir  John  Seeley.  He  conducted  for  many 
years  Saturday  excursions  from  London  to  study  geological 
phenomena  locally.  

The  Rev.  D.  W.  Simon,  D.D.  Edin.,  died  at  Dresden  on  Jan- 
uary 17  in  his  seventy-ninth  year.  He  was  chief  agent  for 
Germany  of  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society,  1863-69; 
Principal  of  Spring  Hill  College,  Birmingham  (now  Mansfield 
College,  Oxford),  1869-84 ;  Principal  of  the  Theological  Hall  of 
the  Scottish  Congregational  Churches,  Edinburgh,  1884-92;  and 
Principal  of  Yorkshire  United  Independent  College,  1893-1907. 
He  translated  several  important  German  theological  books, 
notably  Dorner's  "  History  of  the  Doctrine  of  the  Person  of 
Christ,"  and  wrote  numerous  theological  works. 

There  were  293  candidates  for  the  Cambridge  Higher  Local 
Examination  held  in  December.  The  class  list  now  pviblished 
shows  that  in  Group  B  (for  Latin,  French,  spoken  French, 
German,  and  spoken  German)  6  candidates  gained  First  Class, 
14  Second  Class,  and  52  Third  Class.  In  Group  C  (for  Arith- 
metic and  Mathematics)  1  candidate  gained  First  Class,  6  Second 
■Class,  and  79  Third  Class.  In  Group  D  (for  Logic,  Psychology, 
Political  Economy,  and  History  of  Education)  no  candidates 
gained  First  Class,  4  get  Second  Class,  and  6  Third  Class.  In 
Group  H  (for  English  History,  European  History,  Greek  History, 
and  Roman  History)  7  candidates  were  placed  in  the  First  Class, 
29  in  the  Second  Class,  and  28  in  the  Third  Class. 


(From  our  oivn  Correspondent.) 
Though  the  Lent  Term,  when  there  is  rather  a 

Oxford.  dearth  of  interests,  is  often  selected  by  reformers 
or  firebrands  (as  they  are  termed  by  their  opponents), 
we  do  not  seem  at  present  to  be  above  the  crater  of  anything 
very  volcanic  :  possibly  the  movement  for  the  reform  of  Congre- 
gation might,  in  the  view  of  some,  be  described  as  that.  The 
idea  of  the  reformer  is  that  now  Oxford  has  become  such  a 
"residential  town  "  the  Masters  of  Arts  who  are  qualified  by 
residence  as  members  of  Congregation  without  being  Professors 
or  College  teachers  may  well  become  a  powerfvil  outside  party 
and  have  a  large  influence  on  University  questions  :  so  it  is  pro- 
posed to  limit  Congregation  to  those  who  are  intimately  con- 
nected with  University  or  College  work.  It  may  be  urged  on 
the  other  side  that,  in  the  first  place,  those  who  would  be  dis- 
qualified have,  in  many  cases  either  as  coaches  or  schoolmasters, 
a  considerable  interest  in  many  subjects  which  come  before  Con- 
gregation ;  that,  secondly,  the  point  of  view  of  those  who  live 
detached  from  caucuses  or  college  jealousies  is  in  itself  a 
valuable  asset ;  and,  lastly,  that  those  who  do  not  take  an  interest 
— and  an  active  interest — in  University  questions  are  not  often 
to  be  found  in  Congregation,  and  so  that  a  removal  of  these 
from  the  register  would  be  to  do  an  injustice  to  the  others. 
After  all,  the  election  to  the  Boards  of  Faculties  is  now  limited 
to  teaching  members  of  the  University  in  the  diflerent  subjects. 

As  your  correspondent  failed  to  supply  you  with  notes  at  the 
end  of  last  term,  it  is  well  here  to  refer  to  the  appointment  of 
Mr.  D.  G.  Hogarth  to  succeed  Mr.  Evans  as  Keeper  of  the  Ash- 
molean.  Mr.  Hogarth,  after  a  successful  career  as  a  Demy  of 
Magdalen,  settled  down  first  as  a  Tutorial  Fellow  in  his  own 
College ;  but  his  interests  lay  elsewhere,  and  he  was  elected, 
(I  think)  the  first  Craven  Fellow  under  the  new  system.  Since 
then,  with  Mr.  Evans  or  "  on  his  own,"  he  has  been  engaged  in 
archfeological  investigation  in  Asia  Minor  and  elsewhere.  Some 
of  his  earlier  experiences  of  the  less  esoteric  kind  he  gave  to 
the  world  some  years  ago  in  that  very  readable  book,  "A 
Wandering  Scholar  in  the  Levant."  His  new  appointment  will 
not  debar  him  from  journeys  "cognoscendae  antiquitatis. 

Another  appointment  in  a  different  field  is  that  of  Mr.  Selbie 
to  succeed  Dr.  Fairbairn  at  Mansfield.  Mr.  Selbie  is  not  a 
stranger  to  the  place,  as  he  was  a  tutor  at  Mansfield  in  the  days 
of  its  infancy,  but  he  has  not  been  in  Oxford  for  a  good  many 
years.  It  is  not  an  easy  task  to  succeed  Dr.  Fairbairn,  who, 
after  patient  years  of  struggling  with  a  considerable  amount  of 
jealousy  and  suspicion,  gradually  won  himself  a  position  as  a 
leader  and  teacher  in  this  home  of  conservative  tradition. 

Our  new  Greek  Professor  delivered  his  inaugural  lecture  on 
January  27,  the  subject  being  "  The  Interpretation  of  Ancient 
Greek  Literature."  He  is  also  taking  part  in  what  may  be  said 
to  be  "  teaching  for  the  schools "  by  delivering  a  course  of 
lectiires  on  Homer. 

Moreover,  he  is,  with  Mr.  Cyril  Bailey,  of  Balliol,  taking  a 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

leading  part  in  the  production  or  reproduction  of  the  "  Frogs  " 
of  Aristophanes  bj-  the  O.U.D.S.  The  Society,  as  on  the  ])revious 
occasion  (wlien  Mr.  Bailey,  Mr.  Godley,  and  Mr.  Hogarth  gave 
advice),  is  calling  in  external  and  expert  assistance  not  merely  to 
ensure  cori-ectness  of  details,  but  also  to  secure  actors  who  know 
Greek.  We  can  all  remember  one  unfortunate  Greek  play. 
With  the  exception  (we  hear)  of  one  scene  which  was  excused  in 
the  previous  pi-oduction.  the  play  will  be  much  on  the  same 
lines  as  ou  the  first  occasion  (and  the  music  of  Sir  Hubert  Parry 
will  again  be  used),  though  the  translation  will  be  not  that  of 
Mr.  Godley  and  Mr.  Hogarth,  but  Prof.  Murray's  own. 

Though  the  river  is  full  of  boats,  it  is  too  early  to  say  much 
of  the  prospects  either  of  the  Varsity  ci-ew  or  of  the  Torpids. 
It  is  high  time  that  we  won  the  Boat  Race  again.  Our  prospects 
for  the  sports  and  the  Association  match  are  said  not  to  be 
particularly  bright,  but  the  hockej-  team  is  reported  to  be  well 
above  the  average  and  to  be  unusually  strong  in  the  half-back 
line.  It  is  remarkable,  when  one  looks  at  the  names  of  the 
liockey  teams  (South,  West,  East,  &c.)  selected  for  the  various 
trial  matches,  to  see  how  the  pendulum  has  swung,  and  whereas 
a  few  years  ago  University  players  were  not  considered  first  class, 
the  reverse  is  now  the  case. 


An  era  in  the  history  of  the  East  London 
College  was  marked  by  the  session  which  came 
to  a  close  with  August  last.  The  work  of  the 
College  became  an  integral  part  of  the  Universitj'  of  London. 
Two  matters  remain  to  be  settled  :  the  rearrangement  of  the  Com- 
mittees, which  should  include  a  jjrovision  for  the  representation 
of  the  staff  on  the  governing  body,  and  a  conference  with  the 
other  schools  of  the  University  on  the  question  of  the  fees  to  be 
charged  to  students.  Every  ho]De  is  entertained  that,  before  the 
conclusion  of  the  session  1908-9,  the  College  will  have  received 
full  recognition  of  its  position  as  the  University  College  for 
East  London  from  the  Senate  of  the  University,  from  tlie  Local 
Education  Authority,  and  from  His  Majesty's  Treasury. 

The  Annual  Report  of  the  Universitj-  Textile 

Leeds.  Department  shows  that  great  progress  has  been 

made  in  the  session  1907-8.     A  feature  of  the  past 

session  has  been  the  carr3'ing  out  of  inventions  in  warp-shedding 
mechanism.  During  the  session  the  classes  were  attended  by 
137  students.  In  the  technological  examinations  of  the  City  and 
Guilds  of  London  Institute,  Leeds  students  proved  very  success- 
ful. In  the  four  subjects  in  which  the}'  competed,  they  won  five 
first  prizes  out  of  a  total  of  eight  awarded,  two  second  prizes,  and 
one  third  prize  ;  and  they  carrried  off  all  the  prizes  in  the  subject 
of  Coal-tar  Products. 

A  KESOLUTiox  of  the  Scottish  Modern  Languages 
Glasgow.  Association    was    submitted    to   the    Universitj" 

Court,  suggesting  the  earliest  possible  reform  of 
the  Bursai-y  Examination,  so  as  to  give  equal  chances  to  modern 
languages  candidates  with  candidates  in  other  subjects,  and  the 
reorganization  of  the  Modern  Language  Honours  School,  so  as  to 
allow  of  honours  being  taken  in  French  and  German  separately. 
The  Principal  stated  that  these  matters  were  under  the  considera- 
tion of  Cominittees  of  the  Senate. 




The  Joint  Matriculation  Board  of  the  four 
Universities  of  Manchester,  Liverpool,  Leeds, 
and  Sheffield  has  just  issued  its  Report  for  the 
year  1908.  The  Board  conducts  the  matric- 
ulation examination  on  behalf  of  the  four  Universities,  and  in 
the  past  year,  for  the  first  time,  the  examination  has  been  held 
under  the  supervision  of  education  authorities  at  eight  local 
centres,  at  which  127  candidates  presented  themselves.  The 
examination  was  also  taken  as  a  form  examination  at  28  schools. 
The  total  number  of  candidates  at  the  Julj-  examination  was 
1,695  against  1,294  in  the  previous  July,  while  in  September  the 
number  was  519  against  438  in  the  pi-evious  year.  As  many 
candidates  take  the  examination  a  year  before  they  leave  school, 
those  who  hold  the  certificates  are  now  allowed  to  present  them- 
selves in  a  few  subjects  at  the  higher  standard  for  supplementary 
certificates.  On  behalf  of  the  Education  Committees  of  Lanca- 
shire and  Cheshire,  the  Board  has  conducted  examinations  for 
the  award  of  Senior  Exhibitions  and  Intermediate  Scholarships 
offered  by  these  Committees.  It  has  also  formulated  a  scheme, 
which  has  been  accepted  bj-  the  four  Universities,  for  the  in- 
spection and  examination  of  schools. 


2    &    3  THE    SANCTUARY,    WESTMINSTER,     S.W. 

[FOUNDED     1829. 


President— THE  BISHOP   OF  LONDON.  Vice-President— THE   LORD    HARRIS. 

Chairman— THE  DEAN  OP  CANTERBURY.  Deputy-Chairman— SIR  PAGET   BOWMAN,  Bart. 

Secretary— W.  N.  NEALE,  Esq.  Actuary  and  Manager— PRANK  B.  WYATT,  Esq.,  F.I.A. 

The  Society  offers  the  BENEFITS  of  MUTUAL  LIFE   ASSURANCE   without  personal  liability  on 

highly  favourable  terms  to 



Accumulated  Fund,  £4,351,137.  Annual  Income,  £471,097. 

Bonuses  Distributed,  £4,256,464. 


Notwithstanding  the  Icnrness  of  the 
Premiums  charged,  the  BONUSES  are 
NEW  AND  SPECIAL  Application  Is  invited  for  the  PRO- 
POLICIES.  SPEOTUS,  and  Leaflets  explaining  two 
newr  Policies,  with  valuable  Options. 


Premium  —  about  one  half  the  usual  rate  — during  first  ten 

2.  PENSION  POLICIES.    I'remiums  returnable  with  compound  interest  in 

caso  of  death  or  surrender  before  pension  age.    Option  to  commut«  for 


Assurances  without  profits,  at  low  rates  of  premium,  may  be  effected, 
and  Life  Annuities  on  favourable  terms  may  be  purchased,  by  any 
person  irrespective  of  any  special  qualification  by  relatiousMp  to  the 


Age  next 


1               £1,000 

1  Payable  at  Age  60 

1     or  earlier  Death, 


Payable  at  Death. 

£.      s.        d. 

£.        s.       d. 


20      1      8 

27      3      4 


23     3      4 

32    10    10 


26    10      0 

40       1       8 


31       1      8 

51       5      0 

Note. — Under  the  Reduced  Premium  System  (explained  in  Prospectus)  four- 
fifths  only  of  tliese  Premiums  need  be  paid,  the  other  one-lifth  remaining  a  charge- 
to  be  repaid  out  of  Bonus. 

No  Agents  employed  and  no  Commission  paid  for  the  intro- 
duction of  business,  w^hereby  £10,000  a  year  is  saved  to  the 

Assurances  ca-a  be  effected  by  direct  cotninunlcatlon 
with  the  Office,  2&S  THE  SANCTUARY,  WESTMINSTER,  S.W^ 

Feb.  1,  1909.]  THE  EDUCATIONAL  TIMES.  59 

Professor  iBeikkjofen  Series^ 


Messrs.  MEIKLEJOHN  &  HOLDEN  beg  to  announce  that  they  have  in  prepara- 
tion a  series  of  PHYSICAL  WALL-iVIAPS  in  Contour.  These  Maps  have  been 
prepared  on  entirely  new  and  ingenious  lines,  and  the  Publishers  feel  certain 
that  this  method  of  presenting  the  Physical  Features  of  a  Country  will  certainly 
supersede  any  system  hitherto  devised.  The  first  Map  of  the  series,  viz.,  SOUTH 
AMERICA,  will  be  ready  early  in  February,  and  the  Publishers  will  be  glad  to 
answer  any  queries   in   regard  to  them. 



A    NEW     GRAMMAR    OP     THE    ENGLISH     TONGUE.       With  Chapters   on   Composition,  Versification,   Paraphrasing,    and 
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THE    SPELLING    LIST    (10,000  Diflaeult  Words).     For  Civil  Service  and  other  Examinations.     With  a  Key  to  Correct  Spelling- 
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COMPOSITION     FOR     SCHOOLS     AND     COLLEGES.       Based  on   Outline   Essays,   with   Exercises  in   Style.      By   C.    H. 
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A    NEW    ALGEBRA.      As  far  as  the   Binomial   Theorem.     Including  Chapters  on   Graphs.     By  G.  Collar,  B.A.,  B.Sc.   (Joint- 
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At  the  Members'  Meeting  of  the  College  of 
Preceptox-s  on  February  17,  Prof.  J.  J.  Findlay 
will  read  a  paper   on    "  School    Eewards  and 

'Clnivcrsit^  tutorial  press,  Xt). 

157  Drury  Lane,   London,   W.C. 

On  February  4,  Prof.  Adams  will  commence  at  the  College 
of  Preceptors  a  course  of  twelve  lectures  to  teachers  on  "  The 
Psychological  Bases  of  Teaching  and  Education."  The 
course  will  be  helpful  to  students  who  are  preparing  for 
the  Diploma  Examinations  of  the  College. 

*  * 

Mlle.  Th.  de  Mayol  de  Lugr^  will  address  the  Societe 
Rationale -fdes  Professeurs  de  Francais  en  Angleterre  on 
"  Une  Femme  du  Second  Empire  "  at  the  College  of  Pre- 
ceptors on  February  27,  at  4  p.m. 

*  * 


Following  are  some  of  the  Courses  of  Advanced  Lectures 
airanged  by  the  University  of  London  for  the  current  term  : 
(1)  Six  lectures  on  "  Roman  Municipal  Institutions,"  by  Dr. 
J.  S.  Reid,  M.A.,  LL.M.,  Litt.D.,  Professor  of  Ancient  His- 
tory in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  at  University  College, 
on  Thursdays,  at  4. .30  p.m.  (began  January  21)  ;  (2)  three 
lectures  on  ''  The  Spanish  Drama,"  by  Dr.  James  Fitzmaurice 
Kelly,  Litt.D.,  F.B.A.,  at  King's  College,  on  Tuesdays 
(February  9,  23,  March  9),  at  4.30  p.m. ;  (3)  eight  lectures  on 
"  The  Principles  of  Illustration,  with  special  reference  to 
Class  Teaching,"  by  Prof.  Adams,  at  the  London  Day  Train- 
ing College,  on  Saturdays,  at  11.30  a.m.  (began  January  23)  ; 
(4)  Lectures  on  "  Composers  of  Classical  Songs  "  (continued), 
by  Prof.  Sir  Frederick  Bridge,  M.V.O.,  D.Mus.,  M.A.,  at  the 
University,  on  Fridays  (February  12,  March  .5,  April  2),  at 
.5  p.m. ;  (5)  eight  lectures  on  "  Physical  Chemistry  and  its 
Bearings  on  Biology,"  by  Dr.  James  C.  Philip,  M.A.,  Ph.D., 
D.Sc,  at  the  Imperial  College  of  Science  and  Technology, 
on  Mondays,  at  .5  p.m.  (began  January  25).  (1),  (2),  (5) 
admission  free,  without  ticket.  (3)  open  without  fee  to 
teachers  ;  admission  cards  from  Prof,  Adams  (give  full  part- 
iculars — name,  address,  school). 

The  following  courses  of  lectures  at  the  University  of 
London,  University  College,  have  been  aiTanged  in  con- 
junction with  the  Education  Committee  of  the  London 
County  Council:  —  (1)  Ten  lectures  on  "  Minnesang  und 
Hofisches  Epos  "  (in  German),  by  Prof.  R.  Priebsch,  Ph.D., 
on  Saturdays,  at  10  a.m.  (commenced  .Lanuary  16)  ;  (2)  ten 
lectures  on  "  The  lUusti'ation  of  Fundamental  Principles 
of  Botany  by  the  Study  of  Simple  Types  of  Vegetable 
Organisms,"  by  F.  E.  Fritsch,  D.Sc,  Ph.D.,  on  Saturdays, 
at  11  a.m.  (commenced  January  23)  ;  (3)  ten  lectures  on 
"  The  Structure  and  Natural  History  of  Common  Animals  ' 
(followed  by  practical  work),  by  W.  N.  F.  Woodland, 
D.Sc,  on  Saturdays,  at  10  30  a.m.  to  1  p.m.  (commenced 
January  23)  ;  (4)  twelve  lectures  on  "Tudor  Prose — More 
to  Bacon,"  by  R.  W.  Chambers,  M.A.,  on  Saturdays,  at 
10.30  a.m.  (commenced  .January  16)  ;  and  (5)  eight  lectures 
on  "  Xational  Eugenics,"  by  Prof.  Karl  Pearson,  F.R.S., 
David  Heron,  M.A.,  and  ]\[iss  Ethel  Elderton,  on  Tuesdays, 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

February  23,  March  2,  9,  16,  23,  Maj-  4,  11,  18,  at  5  p.m. 
Tickets  to  course  (5)  half-price  (10s.  6d.)  to  members  of  the 
CTniversitj^,    to    school    teachers,     and    to     charitable     and 

social  workers. 

*  * 

The  School  Nature  Study  Union  will  hold  its  Annual 
Conference  and  Exhibition  of  Nature  Study  Work  at  the 
London  Day  Training  College,  Southampton  Row,  W.C.,  on 
February  27,  at  3  p.m. 

*  * 

At  the  Child  Study   vSociety,  London    (Parkes  Museum, 

Margaret  Street,  W.),  there  will  be  a  reception  of  American 

teachers  on  Februarj^  11,  at  8  p.m.  ;  and   Mr.  W.  H.  Winch, 

M.A.,  will  discourse  on  "  The  Age  of  Entry  into   School  in 

its  relation  to  Progress,"  on  February  18,  at  8  p.m. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Geographical  Association,  to  be  held 

at  the  North  London  Collegiate  School,  Sandall  Road,  N.W., 
im  Februarjf  26,  at  8  p.m.,  papers  will  be  read  1 1)  on  "  Pic- 
tures as  an  Aid  to  the  Development  of  the  Geographical 
Imagination,"  bj^  Miss  Sophie  Nicholls,  M.A.,  and  (2)  on 
"  The  Correlation  of  Instruction  in  Fhj'sics  and  Geography," 
by  W.  Maclean  Carey.  M.A.,  B.Sc. 
*  * 
Me.  J.  W.  Allen,  M.A.,  will  give  a  course  of  six  lectures 
on  "  English  Medieval  Architecture,"  on  Fridays,  at  4.30 
(beginning  February  5),  at  Bedford  College  for  Women. 
Free  to  London  University  students  and  to  teachers.  Applj- 
to  the  Principal. 

Thk  memorial  to  the  late  Prof.  George  Pixie, 
Honours.         M.A.,  LL.D.,  is  to  take  the  form  of  a  stained- 
glass    window    in    the    ante-chapel    of    King's 
College,  Aberdeen  University. 

#      * 
Prof.  Gilbeet  Mukeay,  M.A.,   LL.D.,  formerly  Fellow  of 
New  College,   Oxford,  has  been  elected  an  Honorary  Fellow 
of  the  College. 

»      * 

The  Geological  Societj'  has  awarded  the  Lyell  Medal  and 
Fund  to  Prof.  P.  F.  Kendall,  of  the  University  of  Leeds,  in 
reoognition  of  his  "  important  contributions  to  the  science  " 
of  geology. 

A  Gilchrist  Studentship,  £100  for  one 

Scholarehips  and      year,    is    open    to    women    graduates    in 

Prizes.  honours  of   the  University  of   London  of 

not  more  than  three  years'  standing  fiom 

their  first  graduation.     Winner  must  take  a  course  of  study 

in  an  approved  institution  in  preparation  for  some  profession. 

Apply  to   the   Principal  (with  three  testimonials  and  three 

references)  by  February  28. 

Downing  College,  Cambridge,  oifers  Minor  Scholarships  in 
Natural  Science  and  Mathematics.  Examination  begins 
March  2. 

Serampoee    College,    Calcutta,     wants 
Endowments  and      £250,000,   to   erect    suitable    buildings,  to 
Beneiactiona.  ,    ,  !•   ,  o  i  ■  r  ± 

establish   seventeen  professorships,  and  to 

create  two  hundred  exhibitions.  In  1827  Frederic  VI.  of 
Denmai-k  gave  the  College  a  University  charter,  with  the 
power  of  conferi-ing  theological  degrees,  but  this  has  hitherto 
been  in  abeyance  from  lack  of  funds. 

m      * 
Sir  Julius  Wernher  has  promised  a  donation  of  £200  for 
ten  j^ears  to  raise  the  stipend  of  the  Taylorian  Professor  of 
German  from  £500  to  £700  a  yeai-. 

The  German  Emperor  has  presented  his  portrait  to  the 
University  of  Oxford.  It  is  painted  by  Alfred  Schwarz,  and 
represents  the  Emperor  in  the  red  robes  and  holding  the 
velvet  cap  of  the  Oxford  D.C.L. 

*  * 

The  late  Mrs.  C.  E.  Warr  has  left  £5,000  to  the  Univer- 
sity of  Cambridge  for  a  Fellowship  or  Scholarship  for  Clas- 
sical Research,  to  commemorate  her  late  husband,  Prof.  G.  C. 

*  * 

The  late  Lady  Louisa  Goldsmid,  widow  of  Sir  F.  H. 
Goldsmid,  Bart.,  has  left  (under  contingencies)  £25,000  to 
Girton  College ;  £15,000  between  University  College  and 
University  College  Hospital  ;  £3,000  to  the  Jews'  Infant 
School,  Commercial  Street  ;  and  £3,000  to  the  London 
School  of  Medicine  for  Women. 

*  # 

Mr.  Alexander  Elder,  of  Southport,   formerly  of  Elder, 

Dempster,  &  Co.,  has  given  £12,500  for  the  foundation  of  a 

Chair  of  Naval  Architecture  in  Liverpool  University'. 

*  * 

The  Churton  Collins  Memorial  Fund  is  to  be  devoted  to 
prizes  for  literature  at  the  Universities  of  Oxford,  Cambridge, 
London,  and  Birmingham — at  the  three  first-named  Uni- 
versities in  connexion  with  their  extension  work ;  at  Bir- 
mingham, as  Birmingham  shall  decide. 

*  * 

The  Goldsmiths'  Company  have  added  to  the  Economic 
Library  of  the  University  of  London  a  large  number  of 
manuscripts,  maps,  and  plans  relating  to  inland  navigation 
and  the  early  days  of  railway  entei'piise  in  this  country — 
mostly  from  the  collections  of  John  Urpetli  Rasti-ick,  an  emi- 
nent contractoi",  and  of  his  son,  Henry  Rastrick,  who  were 
prominent  among  the  earliest  pioneers  of  railway  traffic. 

«      * 


The  Rev.  Dr.  Fairbairn,  on  retiring  from  the  Principalship 

of  Mansfield  College  at  Easter,  will  hand  over,  as  a  gift  to  the 

College,   the    whole    of     his    theological    and    philosopliical 


*  * 

The  late  Mr.  Thomas  McKie,  LL.D.,  Advocate,  Edinburgh, 
has  left  (subject  to  his  widow's  life  interest)  a  very  con- 
siderable sum  to  the  University  of  Edinburgh  to  develop 
and  encourage  in  the  University  (1)  scientific,  medical,  and 
surgical  research  ;  (2)  the  teaching  and  study  of  the  English 
language  and  literature  ;  and  (3)  the  teaching  and  study  of 
modern  languages,  especially  French,  German,  and  Italian. 

*  * 

The    Glasgow   City  Educational  Endowments  Board  have 

given  £500  to  the  Technical  College  towards  the  establish- 
ment of  a  Nautical  School  or  College. 

*  * 

Glasgow  University  has  been  presented  by  a  private  donor 

with  the  valuable  library  of   Celtic  literature  belonging  to 

the  late  Dr.  Macbain,  of  Inverness. 

*  # 

The  sons  of  the  late  Dr.  Geoi'ge  Macdonald,  the  novelist, 

have  presented  to  the  University  of  St.  Andrews  a  collection 

of  Gaelic  MSS.  of  the  late  M'Intosh  Mackay,  LL.D. 

*  * 

At  Bangor  University  College,  the  Eyton  AVilliams  bequest 

of  £10,000  is  to  be  disposed  of   in  one  scholarship  of  £30, 

two  of  £20,  two  of  £15,  and  two  of  £10,  each  tenable  for 

three  years. 

*  * 

Prof.  Gustav  S.  Oim'ekt,  Professor  of  Indian  Tongues  in 
Berlin  University,  formeily  Under  Librarian  of  Windsor 
Castle  Library  and  Professor  of  Sanskrit  in  Madras  Uni- 
versity, has  left  the  residue  of  his  property  to  the  Institution 

Feb.  1,  1909.] 



for  the  Teacliing-  of  Judaic  Science,  Berlin,  to  be  known  as 
the  "  Professor  Clustave  Oppert  Endowment,"  for  a  Chair 
for  the  Teaching  of  Languag-es  and  for  Oriental  Research, 
and,  after  adequate  provision  for  one  chair  (including  a 
pension  fund  to  the  holder  and,  if  necessarj',  provision  for 
his  widow  and  children),  the  balance  of  the  income  is  to  be 
accumulated  until  tjiere  is  sufficient  to  endow  two  such 
chairs,  which  will  be  maintained  in  perpetuity. 

Mr.  G.  M.  Laughlik  has  bequeathed  £20,000  to  Washing 
ton  and  Jefferson  Collea:e. 

Me.  Geoege  H.  Locke,  for  the  past  two 
Appointments        years  Dean  of  the  School  for  Teachers  and 
and  Vacancies.         Professor    of    the  Histoiy  and  Principles 
of  Education  in  Macdonald  College,  McGill 
University,  has  accepted  the  invitation  of  the  City  of  Toronto 
to  be  the  Chief  Librarian  of  the  Muucipal  Libraries  of  the 
city.     Mr.  Locke  was  formerly  Dean  of  the  School  of  Educa- 
tion of  the  University  of  Chicago  and  for  seven  years  editor 
of  the  School  Eevieic. 

*  # 

The  Rev.  W.  B.  Selijie,  M.  A.  Oxon.,  of  Emmanuel  Church, 

Cambridge,  has  been  offered  the  Principalship  of  Mansfield 

College,  Oxford,  in  succession  to  Dr.  Fairbairn. 

Prop.  Abbott  Lawrence  Lowell,  Professor  of  the  Science 
of  Government  in  Harvard  University,  has  been  elected  Pre- 
sident of  the  institution,  in  succession  to  President  Eliot. 

*  * 

Dr.  Benjamin  Ide  Wheeler,  President  of  the  University 

of    California,    has    been    selected  as  this    year's    American 

'■  exchange  "  professor  at  Berlin.     He  will  lecture  on  Greek 

and  Philology. 

*  * 

The  Rev.  Gerald  S.  Davies,  a  house  master  at  Charter- 
house School,  1874-1905,  has  been  appointed  Master  of 
Charterhouse,  in  succession  to  the  late  Rev.  Dr.  Jelf . 

*  * 

Mr.  W.  Morgan  has  been  appointed  Professor  of  Motor-Car 

Engineering  at  the  Merchant  Venturers'  Technical  College, 


The  Rev.  R.  M.  Gwynn,  M.A.,  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  T.C.D., 
has  been  appointed  Warden  of  St.  Columba's  College,  Dublin. 

*  * 

Mr.  J.  TANyUEEEY,  Assistant  Lecturer  in  French,  Man- 
chester University,  has  been  appointed  Lecturer  in  French  in 
University  College,  Dundee  (University  of  St.  Andrews). 

Captain  H.  G.  Lyons,  R.E.  (retired),  Director-General  of 
the  Survey  Department  of  Egj'pt,  has  been  appointed  Lec- 
turer in  Geogr'aphy  in  Glasgow  University. 

The  Rev,  A.  C.  Knight,  B.A.  Oxon.,  assistant  master  and 
assistant  Chaplain,  Royal  Masonic  School,  Bushey,  has  been 
appointed  Head  Master  of  Derbj'  School. 

*  * 

Mr.   a.   Plugge,   B.Sc.  Leeds,  has    been  appointed  Head 

Master  of  Dilworth  School,  New  Zealand. 

Miss  M.  Davie,  B.A.  Lond.,  Head  Mistress,  Truro  County 
School  for  Girls,  has  been  appointed  Head  Mistress  of  the 
Ripon  Secondary  vSchool  for  Girls. 

Mr.  T.  O.  Coui'E,  B.A.  Cantab.,  has  been  appointed  Tutor 
in  St.  Paul's  Missionary  College,  Burgh. 

Captain  J.   E.   Mignon,  late  of  the  Leicestershire  Regi- 
ment, has  been  appointed  Superintendent  of  Physical  Train- 
ing for  the  Surrey  Education  Committee. 
«      * 

Mr.  R.  F.  Cholmeley,  M.A.  Oxon.,  assistant  master,  St. 
Paul's  School,  has  been  appointed  Head  Master  of  Owen's 
School,  E.G. 

Mr.  Fisher  Unwin  is  publishing  a  cheaper 
Items  ■*'         edition  of  Mr.  Thomas  Marshall's  "  Aristotle's 
Theory   of   Conduct " — a   very    helpful   intro- 
duction to  the  "  Ethics." 

*  * 

The   Selborne    Society   has    revived    the    old    title  of   its 

magazine,    -which    will    henceforth    be    called    The    Selborne 

Magazine    {and   Nature    Notes)    and   will    be    published    by 

Messrs.  George  Philip  &  Son,  Fleet  Street,  B.C. 

»      * 

The  "  Treatise  on  Zoology,"  edited  by  Sir  E.  Ray  Lan- 

kester    and    published   by   Messrs.  A.   &   C.   Black,  is    now 

nearing  completion.     Five  volumes  have  already  been  issued 

and  two  more  wall  appear  immediately. 

*  * 

Messrs.  J.  M.  Dent  &  Co.  announce  an  important  serial  in 

sixteen    parts   (Is.  net  each)  on  "  Trees   and  Shrubs  of  the 

British  Isles,   Native   arid  Acclimatized,"  by   C.  S.   Cooper, 

F.R.H.S.,  and  Mr.  Percival  Westell,  F.L.S. 

The    Royal    Female  School  of   Ai-t,    Queen 
General.         Square,    has    been    absorbed    by    the    London 
County    Council    and  transferred   to  the  new 
Central  School  of  Arts  and  Crafts. 

A  Provessokship  of  Astrophysics  (without  salary — pes- 
simo  exemplo)  is  to  be  established  at  Cambridge  ;  a  Pro- 
fessorshijj  of  Gas  Engineering  is  to  be  established  at  Leeds 
in  niemoi-y  of  Sir  George  Livesej' ;  the  Merchant  Venturers 
have  appointed  a  Professor  of  Motor-Car  Engineering  in 
anticipation  of  the  creation  of  a  Bristol  University  ;  and  the 
University  of  Gottingen  has  started  a  Chair  of  Aeronautics, 
which  has  been  entrusted  to  Prof.  Prandtl,  the  Professor  of 
Applied  Mechanics  in  the  University. 

*  * 

The  Council  of  the  Dublin  Chambei'  of  Commerce  has 
unanimously  passed  a  resolution  requesting  the  Royal  Com- 
mission on  University  Education  in  Ireland  to  inquire  into 
the  operation  of  Chairs  of  Commerce  in  Great  Britain, 
"  with  a  view,  if  advisable,  to  the  foundation  and  endowment 
of   a  Chair  of  Commerce  in  the  Dublin  College  of  the  new 

University.  ' 

*  * 

The  University  of  Cambridge  will  celebrate  the  centenary 

of  the  birth  of  Charles  Darwin  and  the  jubilee  of  the  first 

publication  of  "  The  Origin   of  Species  "  towards  the  end  of 

June.       Already    some    two    hundred    delegates    have  been 

appointed  to  represent  institutions  of  learning  in  all  parts  of 

the  world. 

*  * 

At  a  meeting  of  the  General  Council  of  the  Daly  College, 

Indore,   the  Begum   of  Bhopal   outlined   a   scheme  for    the 

foundation   of    a    special   University    to   which    the   Chief's 

Colleges   in  the  various   provinces  would  be  affiliated,  and 

which  might  be  expected  to  raise  generally  the  educational 

standard  of  these  institutions. 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 


The  ordinary  Half-j-early  General  fleeting  of  the  members  of 
the  Corporation  was  held  at  the  College  on  Saturday,  January  23. 

The  Secrktaky  having  read  the  advertisement  convening  the 
meeting,  Professor  Adams  was  appointed  Chairman. 

The  Report  of  the  Council  was  laid  before  the  meeting  and 
was  taken  as  read,  a  copy  having  previously  been  sent  to  every 
member.     It  was  as  follows : — 

Report  of  the  Council. 

The  Council  beg  to  lay  before  the  members  of  the  College  the 
following  Rcj)ort  of  their  proceedings  during  the  past  half-year  : — 

1.  The  Thirty-sixth  Annual  Series  of  Lectures  for  Teachers,  which 
commenced  on  the  13th  of  February  and  ended  on  the  17th  of  December, 
comprised  a  Course  of  Twelve  Lectures  on  ' '  The  Application  of  Psy- 
chology to  the  Work  of  the  School,"  and  a  Courae  of  Twelve  Lectures 
on  "The  Practical  Teacher's  Problems."  Both  Courses  of  Lectures 
were  deUvered  by  Prof.  J.  Adams,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  F.C.P. 

2.  At  the  Summer  Examination  of  Teachers  for  the  College  Diplomas, 
which  was  held  in  the  first  week  in  September,  the  number  of  candidates 
who  presented  themselves  was  343.  I'or  the  Christmas  Examination  568 
candidates  have  entered.  During  the  past  half-year  the  Diploma  of 
Licentiate  has  been  conferred  on  20  candidates,  and  that  of  Associate  on 
76,  who  have  satisfied  the  prescribed  conditions. 

3.  For  the  Christmas  Certificate  and  Lower  Forms  Examinations, 
which  were  held  in  the  second  week  in  December,  the  nvunber  of  entries 
was  about  6,700.  The  Professional  Preliminary  Examination  for 
Certificates  recognized  by  a  number  of  professional  bodies  was  held  in 
the  first  week  in  September,  and  was  attended  by  204  candidates. 

4.  The  Council  have  conducted  during  the  past  half-year  the  Exam- 
ination of  4  schooLs  by  Visiting  Examiners. 

5.  At  the  Members'  Meetings  held  during  the  past  half-year  the 
following  Lectures  have  been  given: — "The  Teacher's  Imperfections, 
and  how  to  deal  with  them,"  by  Prof.  J.  Adams  ;  "The  Experimental 
Study  of  Instruction,"  by  Prof.  J.  "W".  Adamson.  Reports  of  these 
Lectures  have  been  pubUshed,  as  usual,  in  The  Educational  Times. 

6.  During  the  past  twelve  months  about  1,500  volumes  have  been 
issued  to  members.  Considerable  additions  have  been  made  to  the 
Library  by  purchase  and  gift. 

7.  During  the  past  half-year  thirteen  new  members  have  been  elected, 
including  five  honorary  members ;  one  name  has  been  removed  from  the 
list,  andnotice  has  been  received  of  the  withdrawal  of  two.  The  Council 
regret  to  have  to  report  the  death  of  the  following  members  : — Mr.  W. 
J.  Blanchard,  L.C.P.  ;  Mr.  E.  Oough ;  Mr.  K.  A.  Federer,  L.C.P.  : 
Rev.  L.  Graham,  L.C.P.;  Mr.  G.  Heppel;  Rev.  J.  Stewart,  F.C.P.  : 
Mr.  T.  Wild. 

8.  During  the  past  half-year  accumulated  interest  on  the  Teachers' 
Training  Fund  and  the  Benevolent  Fund  has  been  invested  in  the 
purchase  of  Stock:  viz.,   £88  Great  Eastern  Railway  Four  per  Cent, 

The  Dean's  Refort. 

In  addition  to  the  general  statement  of  the  examination  work  of  the 
College  during  the  past  half-year,  which  has  been  embodied  in  the 
Report  of  the  Council,  I  have  now  to  submit  to  you,  in  detail,  the 
statistics  and  results  of  the  various  examinations. 

The  Christmas  Examination  of  candidates  for  Certificates  took  place 
on  the  8th  to  the  12th  of  December  at  182  Local  Centres  and  Schools. 
In  the  United  Kingdom  the  Examination  was  held  at  the  following 
places:  —  Aldershot,  Aylesbury,  Balham,  Bamford,  Bangor,  Bath, 
Belper,  Bewdley,  Bideford,  Biggleswade,  Birminsrham,  Blackpool, 
Bognor,  Bournemouth,  Braunton,  Brentwood,  Bridlington,  Brighton, 
Bristol,  Cardiff,  CarUsle,  Carmarthen,  Cheadle  Huhne,  Chelten- 
ham, Chepstow,  Chertsey,  Chiswick,  Claphani,  Clevedon,  Congleton. 
Cork,  Cowes,  Crewe,  Croydon,  Devizes,  Doncaster,  Dublin,  Durham, 
EaUng,  Eastbourne,  Edinburgh,  Exeter,  Fakenham,  Fareham,  Fam- 
worth,  Folkestone,  Fraserburgh,  Frome,  Grantham,  Gravesend,  Harlow, 
Harrogate,  Hastings,  Hayle,  Hereford,  Heme  Bay,  Holsworthy, 
Huddersfield,  Hulme,  Hutton  (Preston),  Inverurie,  Jersey,  Kilfinane, 
Kington,  Leeds,  Liskeard,  Liverpool,  Llandudno,  London,  Longton, 
Lytham,  Maidstone,  Manchester,  MarL'ate,  Market  Drayton,  Middles- 
brough, Morecambe,  Newcastle  Emlyn,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  Newport 
(Mon.),  Newquay,  Newton  Abbot.  Northampton,  Norwich,  Nottingham, 
Ongar.'Penketh,  Peterborough.  Plymouth,  Portsea,  Portsmouth,  Read- 
ing" Redditch,  Richmond-on-Thames,  Ripley  (-iuiTey),  Sahain,  St. 
Leonards-on-Sea,  Sale,  Sandwich,  Scarborough,  Selby,  Sheffield,  Shirley, 
Shoreham,  Southampton,  Southend,  South  Molton,  Southport,  Spalding, 
Stamford  (Lines),  Stoke-on-Trent,  Stokesley,  Stouyhiu-st,  Stratford-on- 
Avon  Sunderland,  Swindon,  Taunton,  Thrapston,  Walton  (Liverpool), 
Waniinster,  WelUngton  (Salop),  West  Norwood,  Weston-super-Mare, 
Wejinouth,  Wliitchurch  (Salop),  AVisbech,  Woodford,  Workington, 
Worthing,  .and  York.  The  Examination  was  also  held  at  Gibraltar : 
Batticaloa  and  Colombo  Ceylon) ;  Stewart  Town  (.Jamaica) ;  George- 
town and  New  Amsterdam  (British  Guiana) ;  St.  George's  (Grenada)  ; 
St.  Lucia  and  St .  Vincent  (B.W.I.)  ;  Port  of  Spain  (Trinidad) ;  Biaaw.ayo, 
Cala,  Grahamsto-wn,  Irene,  Johannesburg,  Klerksdorp,  Ladysroith, 
Lydenburg,  Oaktord,  Port  Elizabeth,  Potchefstroom,  Pretoria,  Uiten- 
hage,  and^  ITrazinto  (South  Africa) ;  Cape  Coast ;  Lagos  :  Allahabad 
(India)  ;  and  Lomas  de  Zamora  (Argentine  Republic). 

The  total  number  of  candidates  examined  'not  including  510  exammed 
at  Colonial  and  Foreign  Centres)  was  4,328,  of  whom  3,123  were  boys 
and  1,205  girls.  .       .         ^       .,         .-. 

Taking  the  Christmas  and  Midsummer  Exammations  together,  tue 
total  number  of  candidates  examined  for  Certificates  during  the  year 
(not  including  those  who  attended  the  Supplementiiry  Examinations  in 
March  and  September)  was  9,050. 

The  following  table  shows  the  proportion  of  the  candidates  at  the 
recent    Examination   who    passed   in   the   class   for   which   they  were 

entered  : —  ^        -,      t^  ^ 

Entered.  Passed.     Percentage. 

Fh-st  Class  (or  Senior) 429       ...  203       ...       47 

Second  Class  (or  Junior) 1,743       ...  988       ...       ■)7 

Thu-d  Class   1,807       ...       1,194       ...       6« 

The  above  table  does  not  take  account  of  those  candidates  who  obtained 

Debenture  Stock  on  account  of  the  Teachers'  Training  Fund,  and  £100    Qgrtifioates  of  a  lower   class   than   that  for  which  they  were  entered. 

Consols  on  account  of  the  Benevolent  Fund. 

9.  The  Council  have  had  their  attention  drawn  to  the  use  of  the  ex- 
pression "  conducted  for  private  profit,"  in  publications  issued  by  the 
Board  of  Education,  to  describe  private  schools.  They  have  made  a 
representation  to  the  Board  on  the  subject,  and  have  pointed  out  that  it 
is  not  the  custom  in  the  case  of  the  members  of  other  leanied  professions 
to  distinguish  in  this  way  between  those  who  are  employed  in  the  pubUc 
service  and  those  who  are  not  so  employed. 

10.  The  proposals  for  the  constitution  of  a  Registration  Council, 
which  were  referred  to  in  the  last  Report,  have  been  submitted  to  the 
Board  of  Education,  who  have  suggested  modification  in  certain  respects, 
but  Dr.  Gow's  Committee  have  urged  that  such  modifications  should  bo 
initiated  by  the  Board  itself.     The  Council  greatly  regret  the  delay  that 

nor   of   those    (349   in  number)  who  entered  only  for   certain   subjects 
requu-ed  for  professional  preUminary  purposes. 

The  number  of  candidates  entered  for  the  Lower  Forms  Exammation 
(not  including  240  ex.arained  at  Colonial  and  Foreign  Centres)  was 
1,479— 810  boys  and  669  girls.     Of  these  1,287  passed,  or  87  per  cent. 

'At  the  Supplementary  Examination  for  First  and  Second  Class 
CertiBcates,  which  was  held  on  the  8th  to  10th  of  September  in  London 
and  at  the  following  Provincial  Centres— viz.,  Birmingham,  Bristol, 
Leeds,  Liverpool,  and' Manchester— 198  candidates  presented  themselves. 
The  number  of  candidiites  examined  at  these  Supplementary  Examin- 
ations during  the  vear  was  490. 

The  Summer  Examination  of  Teachers  for  the  CoUege  Diplomas  took 
place  on  the  of  August  and  five  following  days  in  London  and  at 

has  occurred  in  the  estabhshment  of  a  new  Registration  Council.  [j^g  foUowino-  Local  Centres  : — Birmingham,  Bristol,  Leeds,  Liveri^ool, 

past  half-    Manchester,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  Plymouth  ;  and  at  Bombay  and  Vepery 

1 1 .  The  Federal  Council  have  held  two  meetings  during  the 
year,  and  have  been  mainly  occupied   with  the  Registration  question. 
They  have  also  considered  questions  relating  to  the  assessment  of  income- 
tax  in  respect  of  school  premises,  and  other  matters. 

In  reference  to  paragraph  10.  the  Eev.  (^anon  Bell  stated  that 
there  was  to  be  a  meeting  of  Dr.  Gow's  Committee  in  Feb- 
ruary, which  would  include  a  large  number  of  representatives 
of  educational  bodies,  to  press  forward  the  subject  of  Registra- 
tion. Members  would  probably  be  aware  of  the  negotiations  of 
Dr.  Gow's  Committee  with  the  Board  of  Education  and  Sir 
Robert  Morant.  In  that  the  Federal  Council  had  its  part,  and 
members  of  it  were  represented  on  Dr.  Gow's  Committee. 

The  Report  of  the  Council,  with  the  accompanying  Statement 
•f  Accounts,  was  adopted. 

The  Dean  then  presented  his  Report,  which  had  been  printed 
and  circulated  among  the  members  attending  the  meeting.  It 
was  as  follows 

(India);  Trmidad ;  and  Beterverwagting  (British  Guiana).  It  was 
attended  by  323  candidates— 195  men  and  128  women.  On  the  re.sults 
of  this  Examination,  19  candidates  obtained  the  Diploma  of  Licentiate 
and  79  that  of  Associate.  „       ,     ^  „        ta-   ,  1.1 

The  Christmas  Examination  of  Teachei-s  for  the  College  Diplomas  took 
place  on  the  28th  of  December  and  five  following  days  in  London  and 
at  the  following  Local  Centres  :  —  Banchory,  Belfast,  Birmingham, 
Bolton,  Bristol,  Dublm,  Kyle,  Leeds,  Liverpool,  Manchester,  Newcastle- 
on-Tyne  Plvmouth  ;  and  at  Mannheim  (Germanyi  ;  Calgary  (Canada)  ; 
Jubb'ulpore,"  Ootacamund,  and  Pondicherry  (India)  ;  Prome  (Burma)  : 
Capetown  ■  Umzinto  (Natal  1  ;  Georgetown  and  New  Amsterdam  (British 
Gmana):  and  Anking  (China).  It  was  attended  by  529  candidates - 
357  men  and  172  women.  ,    ,,.    -n,. 

Practical  Examinations  to  test  Ability  to  Teach  were  held  in  February, 
May,  and  October.  At  these  Exammations  10  candidates  presented 
themselves,  and  9  obtained  Certificates. 

The  number  of  schools  examined  and  inspected  dunng  the  year  under 

Feb.  1,  1909.] 



the  Visiting-  Eximiination  and  Inspection  Schemes  (A),  (B),  and  {Cj 
was  7. 

The  Council  have  conducted,  on  behalf  of  the  Newfoundland  Council 
of  Higher  Education,  the  Associateship,  Intermediate,  Preliminary,  and 
Primary  Examinations  of  the  Newfoundland  Council.  The  examinations 
were  held  at  100  Centres  in  Newfoundland  on  the  2'liid.  to  29th  of  June, 
and  the  niinibers  of  candidates  who  were  examined  in  the  several  grades 
were  as  follows: — Associateship,  62;  Intennediate,  375;  Preliminary, 
S71 ;    Primary,  989. 

The  Council  have  conducted,  on  behalf  of  the  Grenada  Board  of  Edu- 
cation, an  examination  of  teachers  for  Second  Class  and  Third  Class 
Certificates  in  School  Management. 

Mr.  Waldegkave  commented  on  the  unusual  difficulty  of  the 
Second  Class  Arithmetic  paper,  to  which  he  had  already  drawn 
attention  in  a  letter  to  the  Secretary.  He  was  strongly  of 
opinion  that  the  standard  of  the  paper  should  not  have  been 
raised  without  notice  to  the  schools. 

The  Dean  said  he  was  not  aware  that  there  had  been  any 
alteration  in  the  standard  of  the  paper,  and  the  percentage  of 
failures  on  that  paper  was  not  higher  than  usual. 

The  report  was  adopted. 

The  meeting  then  proceeded  to  the  election  of  twelve  members 
of  the  Council  to  fill  the  places  of  the  twelve  retiring  by  rota- 
tion, and  tliree  auditors. 

Dr.  Maples  desired  to  record  his  protest  against  the  form  in 
which  the  voting  paper  had  been  prepared,  as  he  contended  that  no 
mark  should  appear  on  the  paper  to  distinguish  between  those 
raiididates  who  were  retiring  from  the  Council  by  rotation  and 
other  candidates. 

Mr.  Walters  asked  whether  any,  and  if  so  which,  of  the  can- 
didates nominated  for  the  Council  were  non-subscribing  members 
of  the  College,  and  the  Chairman,  after  having  ascertained  the 
wish  of  the  meeting  on  the  subject,  gave  the  required  informa- 

Mr.  King  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  names  of  two 
of  the  members  nominated  as  auditors  also  appeared  on  the  list 
of  nominations  for  the  Council.  He  thought  the  names  should 
not  appear  on  both  lists  at  the  same  time. 

Mr.  Wilson  said  that  it  was  quite  irregular  that  the  same  can- 
didates should  be  proposed  both  for  election  on  the  Council  and 
»s  auditors.  The  duties  of  an  auditor  were  such  that  they  could 
not  be  properly  discharged  by  a  member  of  the  Council.  The 
auditors  were,  in  fact,  the  servants  of  the  general  body  of  the 
members,  and  not  of  the  Council  qua  Council,  and  were  appointed 
for  the  precise  purpose  of  protecting  the  membei'S  of  the  Corpo- 
ration from  errors,  innocent  or  otherwise,  in  the  statement  of 
accounts  annually  presented  by  the  Council  to  a  General  Meeting 
of  the  members.  It  seemed  to  him,  therefore,  that  the  right 
•ourse  to  pursue,  in  respect  of  voting  papers  that  contained  the 
names  of  candidates  for  both  offices,  would  be  to  reject  them  as 
bad  on  the  ground  of  uncertainty. 

The  Cuaikman  directed  that  the  election  for  members  of  the 
Council  should  be  taken  first,  and  that,  after  the  result  had  been 
declared,  the  election  of  the  auditors  should  be  proceeded  with. 

The  Secretauy  read  a  letter  from  Mr.  Mookb,  withdrawing 
his  nomination,  which  had  been  made  without  his  consent. 

The  Chairman  having  appointed  Mr.  Chandler  and  Mr. 
Wallis  to  act  as  scrutators,  the  voting  papers  were  distributed 
and  the  election  was  proceeded  with.  On  the  scrutators  pre- 
senting their  report,  the  following  were  declared  to  be  elected : — 

Membees  op  CoxjNon,. 
A.  W.  Bain,  B.A.,  B.Sc,  F.I.C.,  Pairhght,  MusweU  Rise,  Muswell 

Hill,  N. 
J.  L.  Butler,  B.A.,  The  D-  uglas  School.  Cheltenham. 
E.  M.  Eagles,  M  A.,  EnBeld  Grammar  School,  Enfield. 
J.  Easterbrook,  M.A.,  Owen's  School,  E.G. 
H.  W.  Eve,  M.A,.  E.C.P.,  37  Gordon  Square,  W.C. 
Eev.     E.    Lee.     M.A.,     Southcote,     Elm     Grove    Road,     EaUng 

Common,  W. 
Sir   Philip   Magnus,    B.A.,    F.C.P.,    B.Sc,   M.P.,    16   Gloucester 

Terrace,  W. 
E.  F.  Marx,  M..A.,  11  WoodgrangeA venue,  Ealing  Common,  W. 
C.  Pendlebury,  M.A  ,  40  Glazbury  Road,  West  Kensington,  W. 
W.  G.  Rushbrooke,   M.A.,  LL.M  ,   St.   Olave's   Grammar  School, 

Southwark,  S.E. 
A.  P.  Starbuck,  B.A.,  St.  John's  College,  Green  Lanes,  N. 
W.  Vincent,  Loughton  School,  Loughton,  Essex. 


John  Bell,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  34  Re.lboume  Avenue,  Finchley,  N. 

H.  Chettle,  M  A.,  Stationers'  School,  Horn-.ey,  N. 

A.  E.  C.  Dickinson,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  L.C.P.,  Grove  House,  Highgate. 

The  Dean  moved  the  following  resolution  : 

"  That  the  Council  be  requested  to  urge  the  Board  of  Edu- 
cation to  proceed  as  soon  as  possible  to  the  formation  of  a 
Registration  Council  representative  of  the  teaching  pro- 

From  time  immemorial  the  College  had  been  connected  with  the 
proposal  for  the  formation  of  a  Registration  Council,  and  had 
promoted  more  than  one  Bill  in  Parliament  for  this  purpose. 
The  question  was  at  present  at  a  deadlock,  and,  unless  at  the 
meeting  which  was  to  be  held  in  February,  some  further 
steps  could  be  made,  it  was  likely  to  remain  at  a  deadlock.  He 
thought  the  Council  should  do  all  they  could  to  press  the 
matter  on  the  attention  of  the  Board  of  Education. 

Mr.  Barrow  Rule,  in  seconding  the  resolution,  said  the  regis- 
tration question  had  been  before  the  College  for  fifty  years,  before 
any  of  the  present  Associations  of  teachers  had  come  into  exis- 
tence. The  College,  having  initiated  the  proposal,  had  worked 
continually  at  it,  had  introduced  Bills  into  Parliament,  and  done 
all  that  they  could  for  the  furtherance  of  this  object,  and  they 
should  not  allow  other  efforts  to  supersedeor  annul  their  own.  They 
welcomed  the  co-operation  of  all  Associations  and  bodies  who 
might  be  willing  to  help  them  in  this  matter ;  but  the  question  was 
peculiarly  their  own,  and,  concerning  as  it  did  the  interests  of 
private-school  masters,  it  behoved  them  to  do  all  they  could  to 
promote  it. 

Mr.  Addis  proposed  that  the  resolution  should  read  as  fol- 
lows ; — "  That  the  Council  be  requested  to  urge  the  Board  of 
Education  to  advance  the  formation  of  a  Registration  Council 
representative  of  the  teaching  profession." 

A  member  pointed  out  that  the  Board  of  Education  had  not 
had  the  necessary  power  given  to  it  by  Parliament  to  deal  with 
the  question.  This  had  been  very  clearly  stated  by  the  Secre- 
tary of  the  Board  of  Education,  and,  therefore,  while  it  was  quite 
competent  for  the  College  to  pass  any  resolution  in  favour  of 
registration,  it  was  desirable  to  put  it  in  such  a  form  that  it 
should  not  be  open  to  the  legal  olijection  he  had  mentioned.  The 
Board  of  Education  Act  did  assign  to  the  Board  of  Education, 
acting  under  the  Orders  of  the  King  in  Council,  the  duty  of 
forming  a  Registration  Council ;  but  the  Education  Act  of  1907 
did  away  with  that  obligation,  and  in  the  clause  relating  to 
Registration  no  mention  was  made  of  the  Board  of  Education. 

Mr.  RusHBROOKE  suggested  as  an  amendment:  "That  the 
Council  be  requested  to  urge  the  Board  of  Education  to 
use  what  powers  are  at  their  disposal  for  the  formation  of  a 
Registration  Council  representative  of  the  teaching  profes- 

The  Dean  having  expressed  his  willingness  to  accept  an  amend- 
ment in  the  sense  suggested,  the  resolution  was  adopted  in  the 
following  amended  form: — 

"That  the  Council  be  requested  to  urge  the  Board  of  Edu- 
cation to  use  all  the  influence  at  its  disposal  to  promote  the- 
formation  of  a  Registration  Council  representative  of  the 
teaching  profession." 

Dr.  Maples  then  moved  the  following  resolution : 

"  That  the  Council  be  requested  to  consider,  and  report  to 
the  next  Half-yearly  Meeting,  whether,  by  means  of  an 
alteration  in  the  Charter  of  the  College  or  otherwise,  the 
work  and  usefulness  of  the  College  may  be  increased." 

During  the  sixty  years  of  its  existence  the  College  had,  under 
able  leadership,  been  enabled  to  do  a  great  work  for  the  advance- 
ment of  secondary  education.  The  conditions  had,  however, 
been  entirely  altered  by  the  Act  of  190-2,  and  the  work  of  the 
College  ill  all  its  branches  now  appeared  to  be  steadily  diminishing, 
while  its  sphere  of  action  was  being  more  and  moie  contracted. 
After  havuig  given,  in  support  of  this  view,  a  number  of  par- 
ticulars which  had  been  collected  from  the  official  reports  of  the 
College,  Dr.  Maples  went  on  to  suggest  that  the  College  should 
adopt  one  of  two  courses.  The  first  was  to  devote  itself  to  the 
interests  of  private  enterprise  in  education,  and  to  appeal  for 
support  only  to  masters  and  mistresses  of  private  schools.  The 
other  course  was  to  endeavour  to  make  the  College  really  repre- 
sentative of  all  sections  of  secondary  teachers  ;  and  be  believed 
that  such  a  course  would  result  in  a  great  extension  of  the  work 
and  influence  of  the  College.  For  this  purpose  it  would  probably 
be  necessary  that  the  Charter  should  be  altered  so  as  to  provide 
for  the  representation  on  the  College  Council  of  the  various 
Associations  ainmig  which  secondary  teachers  were  now  distri- 
buted.    An  orszaiuzHtion   reconstituted  in  this  way  should  be  a 



[Feb.  1.  1909. 

powerful  influence  for  the  preservation  of  individualism  in  edu 
cation.  He  would  point  to  the  National  Union  of  Teachers  as  a 
striking  example  of  the  power  which  might  be  attained  by  a 
concentration  of  forces. 

Mr.  Orch.^rd,  without  associating  himself  with  all  that  Dr. 
Maples  had  said,  tliought  a  case  for  inquiry  had  been  made  out, 
and  he  therefore  seconded  the  resolution. 

The  Dean  said  he  fully  recognized  the  force  of  the  arguments 
that  Dr.  Maples  liad  advanced.  The  most  important  thing  for 
the  College  was  to  secure  a  large  increase  in  the  number  of  its 
members  ;  but  he  confessed  that  he  doubted  the  practicability  of 
making  tlie  College  the  centre  of  all  the  Associations  connected  with 
secondary  education.  A  short  time  back,  proposals  for  amend- 
ment of  the  Charter  had  been  brought  before  the  members  of  the 
College.  The  Council  took  the  best  legal  opinion  they  could  get, 
and  thej"  were  advised  that  the  scheme  was  impracticable.  He 
was  constrained,  therefore,  to  demur  to  the  reference  in  the 
resolution  to  alteration  of  the  Charter,  and  he  hoped  that  Dr. 
Maples  would  not  press  his  motion  to  a  division. 

Mr.  Wilson,  while  expressing  his  reluctance  to  place  himself 
in  opposition  to  any  well  considered  scheme  for  advancing  the 
interests  of  the  College,  was  by  no  means  sure  that  an  attempt 
to  reconstitute  the  College  on  the  lines  suggested  by  Dr.  Maples, 
involving  as  it  would  the  surrender  of  the  Charter,  would  be 
likely  to  improve  the  position  of  the  College.  As  Dr.  Maples 
had  pointed  out,  the  College  had  achieved  conspicuous  success 
in  the  past,  in  spite  of  i-estraints  which  were  imposed  by  pro 
visions  of  the  Charter.  If  it  were  desired  to  effect  a  great  union 
of  secondary  teachers,  the  simplest  solution  of  the  problem  would 
be  for  them  all  to  join  the  College,  and  he  knew  of  no  reason 
why  they  should  not  do  so.  It  appeared  to  him  that  Dr.  Maples 
had  inverted  the  right  order  of  procedure,  and  that  he  ought 
to  have  brought  his  proposal  before  the  Council  in  the  first 
iustance  and  had  it  there  threshed  out.  He  did  not  think  that 
«ven  the  members  of  the  Council  had  any  adequate  apprecia- 
tion of  the  difficulties  involved  in  surrendering  or  amending  the 

Mr.  B.iRROW  KuLE  said  he  regretted  that  the  mover  of  the 
resolution  should  have  tied  the  Council  down  to  a  period  of  six 
months,  which  he  deemed  to  be  inadequate  for  such  a  review, 
and,  secondly,  that  he  should  not  have  laid  his  proposals  before 
the  Council  and  waited  to  have  them  discussed  by  his  colleagues 
before  bringing  the  matter  before  the  General  Meeting. 

Mr.  WALDEGR.4.VE  expressed  his  surprise  that  there  should 
be  any  opposition  to  this  resolution.  As  the  mover  had 
pointed  out,  the  position  of  the  College  was  gradually  de- 
teriorating, and  it  would  not  be  wise  to  wait  till  things  got 
worse  before  devising  means  of  revival.  It  had  been  suggested 
that  they  were  discussing  a  scheme ;  but  they  were  merely  re- 
questing the  Council  to  consider  the  situation. 

Mr.  MiLLAE  Inglis  said  that  what  Dr.  Maples  had  tried  to  do 
was  to  the  members  in  the  affairs  of  the  College.  It 
was  still  possible  for  the  Council  to  do  a  good  deal  to  develop 
the  resources  of  the  College,  though  the  time  for  some  reforms 
had  gone  by. 

Mr.  Addis  proposed,  as  an  amendment,  that  the  reference  to 
the  Charter  be  omitted  from  the  resolution,  and  that  the  Council 
be  requested  simply  to  consider  and  report  to  the  next  General 
Meeting  whether,  by  any  methods,  the  work  and  usefulness  of  the 
College  might  be  increased.  For  instance,  it  might  be  useful  to 
organize  a  series  of  meetings  for  the  discussion  of  questions  of 
practical  interest  to  teachers,  including  legislative  measures 
•dealing  with  secondary  education.  He  would  throw  such 
meetings  open  to  non-members  as  well  as  members. 

Dr.  Maples  said  that  the  reason  why  he  had  bi'ought  this  reso- 
lution before  the  General  Meeting,  and  not  before  the  Council  in 
the  first  instance,  was  that,  in  his  opinion,  it  would  not  have  been 
right  for  the  Council  to  consider  a  question  of  this  nature 
without  having  previously  consulted  the  members  of  the  College. 

The  amendment,  on  being  put  to  the  vote,  was  carried  by  a 
considerable  majority,  and  the  resolution,  as  amended,  was 
adopted  as  follows  : — 

"  That  the  Council  be  requested  to  consider,  and  report  to 
the  next  Half-yearly  Meeting,  whether,  by  any  methods,  the 
work  and  usefulness  of  the  College  may  be  increased." 

A  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Chairman  concluded  the  proceedings. 

In  the  evening  fifty-four  members  and  friends  of  the  College 
diued  together  at  the  Hotel  Cecil,  under  the  presidency  of  the 

Kev.  Canon  Bell.  The  company  included  Prof.  Adams,  Prof. 
Adamson,  Mr.  Addis,  Mr.  Andrade,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Armitage- 
Smith,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bain,  Mr.  Barlet,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bateman, 
Rev.  J.  B.  Blomfield,  Colonel  H.  P.  Bowles,  Mr.  Campbell  Brown, 
Rev.  J.  S.  Bruce,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  A.  Butler,  Mr.  Charles,  Rev. 
A.  J.  Church,  Mr.  Chalmers,  Miss  Clarke,  Mr.  Curran,  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  Dickinson,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Eagles,  Mr.  and  Miss  Eve,  Mile. 
Fleurmann,  Mr.  Felkin,  Mr.  Hawe,  Mr.  and  Miss  Hodgson,  Mr. 
Hopkins,  Mr.  Johnson,  Mr.  Kelland,  Mile,  de  Mayol  de  Lugrc, 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Maples,  Mr.  Mardling,  Mr.  Marx,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Mathieson,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Moody,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Nicol,  Mr.  Rush- 
brooke,  Mr.  Ruf,  Miss  Smith,  Mr.  Southee,  Mr.  Starbuck,  and 
Miss  Steele.  Colonel  Bowles  proposed  the  toast  of  "  The  College 
of  Preceptors,"  which  was  responded  to  by  the  Chairman,  and 
Mr.  Eve  proposed  "  The  Visitors,"  which  was  i-esponded  to  by 
Mr.  Felkin.  An  attractive  programme  of  vocal  and  instrumental 
music  and  recitations  was  much  appreciated  by  the  guests. 


An  adjourned  meeting  of  the  Council  was  held  on  January  23. 
Present :  Prof.  Adams,  Vice-President,  in  the  chair ;  Prof. 
Adamson,  Dr.  Armitage  Smith,  Mr.  Bain,  Mr.  Barlet,  Mr. 
Bau^mann,  Rev.  Canon  Bell,  Rev.  J.  B.  Blomfield,  Mr.  Brown, 
Mr.  E.  A.  Butler,  Mr.  J.  L.  Butler,  Mr.  Charles,  Miss  Crook- 
sliank,  Mr.  Eve,  Mr.  Hawe,  Miss  Jebb,  Mr.  Kelland,  Miss  Law- 
ford,  Prof.  Lyde,  Dr.  Maples,  Mr.  Marx,  Dr.  Moody,  Mr.  Peudle- 
bury,  Mr.  Pinches,  Mr.  Rule,  Mr.  Rushbrooke,  Rev.  Dr.  Scott, 
Mr.  Starbuck,  and  Rev.  J.  Twentyraan. 

The  Secretary  reported  the  death  of  Mr.  W.  H.  Harris,  the 
Rev.  J.  H.  Newnum,  and  Prof.  H.  G.  Seeley,  three  members  of 
the  examining  staff'  of  the  College,  and  it  was  resolved  that 
letters  expressing  the  deep  regret  of  the  Council  at  their  decease 
should  be  sent  to  their  relatives. 

He  reported  that  the  Institute  of  Actuaries  had  decided  to 
recognize  the  First  Class  Certificate  of  the  College  as  evidence  of 
general  education. 

It  was  resolved  that,  on  the  voting  papers  to  be  used  at  the 
General  Meeting  for  the  election  of  members  of  the  Council  and 
of  auditors,  the  names  of  the  retiring  members  of  the  Council  and 
auditors  should  be  indicated  by  asterisks. 

Applications  for  grants  from  the  Benevolent  Fund  were  re- 
ferred to  the  Finance  Committee  for  consideration  and  report. 

The  report  of  the  Examination  Committee  was  submitted,  and 
was  referred  back  to  the  Committee  for  the  consideration  of 
suggestions  offered  by  members  of  the  Council. 


Cambbiboe  UsTVEEaiTY. — Seatonian  Prize  :  C.  H.  A.  Field,  II. A., 
formerly  of  Corpus  Christi  College.  Member's  Prize  for  an  English 
Essay  :  C.  W.  P.  Orton,  B.  A. ,  Scholar  of  St.  John's  Subject :  ■'  Pohtical 
Satire  in  English  Poetry,"  Norri.sian  Piize  (for  prose  essay  on  a  sacred 
subject) :  E.  A  EdghiU,  M.A.,  formerly  of  King's,  and  J.  K.  Mozley, 
B.A. ,  Fellow  of  Pembroke,  equal. 

Corpus. — Fellowship  :  E.  G.  Selwyn,  B.A.,  formerly  Scholar  of  King's 
and  Classical  Lecturer  of  Corpus  ;  BeU  Scholar,  190.5  ;  Porson  Prize- 
man, 1905  ;  Porson  Scholar  aud  Bro^vne  Medallist,  1906  ;  Waddiugton 
Scholar,  1907;  Chancellor's  Medallist  and  Winchester  Reading  Prize- 
man, 1908.  Entrance  Scholarshiyis  for  Mathematics  :  W.  Butterworth, 
King  WilUam's  College,  Isle  of  Man,  £50  ;  F.  Sandon,  Owen's  School, 
Islington,  £40  ;  for  Classics:  W.  M.  Askwith,  Bedford  Grammar  School, 
£40  ;  R.  M.  Kirkpatrick,  Marlborough  College,  £40  ;  for  Natural 
Science  :  P.  C.  L.  Thorne,  Berkhamsted  School,  £40.  Exhibitions : — 
for  Mithematics  :  W.  H.  Murray-Wat-on,  Monkton  Comb«  School, 
.£25  ;    for  Classics :  F.  N.  Harston,  Eastbourne  College,  £30. 

Qiieen'ii. — Entrance  Scholarships  : — Mathematics  :  E.  M.  Dultroif, 
Owen's  School,  IsUngton  ;  F.  W.  Gardner,  King's  School,  Chester. 
E.xhibitions  :  L.  W.  Wood,  Merchant  Taylors'  ;  G  Rigby,  Blackburn 
Grammar  School  ;  A.  E.  Bell,  Wilham  EUis  School,  St.  Pancras. 
Classics  : — Scholarships  :  J.  R.  Wade,  Westminster  ;  G.  M.  Wylie, 
High  School,  Nottingham  ;  A.  E.  P.  Sloman,  Bradfield  College.  Ex- 
hibitions :  P.  A.  Tharp,  St.  Paul's ;  A.  E.  Wild,  Bury  Grammar  School, 
Natural  Science  ;  .  Scholarships :  G.  Storey,  King  WilUam's  College. 
IsIk  of  Man  ;  R.  H.  Atkinson,  North-Ea.stem  County  School,  Barnard 
Castle.  Exhibitions:  J.  T.  Scott,  St.  Olave's  School.  Southwark ; 
C  A.  Herapath,  Royal  Masonic  School,  Bushey;  R.  Taylor,  Wolver- 
hampton Grammar  School.  Hebrew: — Exhibition:  A.  Jephcott,  Mer- 
chant Taylors'. 

Feb.  1,  1909.] 



St.  Catharine's. — Scholarship  for  History  :  C.  C.  Taylor,  Latimer 
Upper  School.  For  Mathematics  :  E.  M.  Dultroff,  Owen's  School, 
Islington.  Exhibitions  : — Mathematics  :  E.  M.  jVtldns,  Welling- 
borough Grammar  School.  Classics  :  C.  L.  Tasker,  St.  John's  School, 
Leatherhead  ;  J.  S.  Purvis,  Bridlington  Grammar  School ;  E.  B.  Hall, 
St.  Paul's.  History  :  H.  Horrox,  Bradford  Grammar  School  ;  R.  D. 
Milner,  Wevmouth  College. 

■Si.  /uA/i's.— MacMahon  Law  Studentship  :  W.  F.  Sword,  B.A., 
LL.B.  Scholarships  on  the  Casberd  Foundation  :  A.  J.  Woolgar  and 
Vyryan  Hope.  Casberd  Exhibitions  :  T.  Owen  Thompson,  S.  P. 
Lissant,  H.  S.  Breakspear,  and  R.  D.  Middleton. 

LoMJOjr  Univeesity. — Passed  in  Pedagogy  (external  students)  :  A.  F. 
AUen.  B.Sc,  Loudon  Day  Training  College;  R.  Ashworth,  B.A.  : 
E.  C.  Childs,  B.A.  :  H.  A.  Clayborn,  B.Sc.  ;  Ethel  EmUy  Cox,  B  A., 
London  Day  Training  College  ;  E.  C.  Cull,  B.Sc,  Hartley  University 
College  ;  C.  B.  Evans,  B.A.  ;  *  J.  M.  Forster,  B.A.  ;  R.  A.  Jones, 
M.A.,  Royal  Albert  Memorial  University  College,  Exeter  ;  Jessie  Par- 
sons, B.A.,  Madras,  London  Day  Traininsi-  College;  *Mary  Pa,ssmore, 
B.A.,  St.  Austell  County  School;  L.  H.  W.  Samp.sou,  B.A.,  Oxford; 
Mary  Kathleen  Sladden,  Mathematical  Honours  School,  Oxford,  St. 
Mary's  College,  Paddington  ;  F.  W.  Tickner,  M.A.,  B.Sc.  (Econ.)  ; 
t Charlotte  Maiy  Waters,  B.A.  :  tMary  Eleanor  AVhitaker,  B.A.  ; 
Hilda  Wilson,  M.A.,  St.  Mary's  College,  Paddington  ;  and  Alice  Maud 
Wright,  B.A.  (*  Excelled  in  the  written  examination,  t  Excelled  in 
the  practical  examination.) 

Oxford  U>tversity.  --  Senior  Mathematical  Scholarship  :  Jonathan 
Hodgkin.son,  B.A  ,  Scholar  of  Jesus  ;  hon.  mention,  J.  R.  Pound,  B.A., 
Scholar  of  St  John's.  Junior  Mathematical  Scholarship  :  A.  L.  Atkin, 
Honorary  Scholar  of  St.  John's.  Exhibition  :  H.  Coates,  Scholar  of 
Corpus.  Distinguished  in  the  Examination :  .J.  Snow,  Scholar  of  New 
College  ;  F.  J.  Webb,  Scholar  of  Brasenose. 

Jesus. — Classics  : — Open  Scholarship  ;  J.  G.  W.  Fergusson,  St. 
Andrews  University  :  Open  Exhibitions :  W.  J.  Foote,  University  of 
Melbourne  and  non-collegiate  student ;  A.  B.  Jordan,  Nottingham  High 
School.  Meyrick  Exhibitions  :  F.  S.  Purchas,  Monmouth  Grammar 
School ;  A  J.  S.  Hart,  Monmouth  Grammar  School.  Mathematics  : — 
Open  Exhibition  :  R.  F.  Wilkinson,  St.  John's  School,  Leatherhead. 
Meyrick  Exhibition  :  C.  R.  Stephens,  Manchester  Grammar  School. 
History  :— Open  Exhibition  :  H.  R.  Hardie,  Mill  HiU  School  ;  Welsh 
Scholarship  :  J.  G  Edwards,  HolyweU  County  School.  Theology  : — 
Open  Exhibition  :  S.  H.  Hooke,  Commoner  of  Jesus  College  ;  Meyrick 
Exhibition :  W.  F.  Phillips,  University  College,  Cardiff,  and  Aberyst- 
^vyth  Theological  College.  Meyi-ick  Graduate  Scholarship  for  Research 
in  Celtic  Language  and  Literature  :  T.  H.  Parry- Williams,  University 
College,  Aberystwyth. 

N'eii'. — Winchester  Scholarships  :  R.  H.  Hutchison,  T.  K.  Bewley, 
R.  P.  Hankinson,  and  W.  Sheepshanks.     Exhibition  :   A.  W.  Fagan. 

Diplomas  iii  Kdiiration  iSecondary)  :  John  H.  Baines,  B.A.,  University 
College;  George  T.  Kelland.  B.A.,  Balliol:  Lionel  H.  W.  S.ampson, 
B.A.,  Hertford  ;  Francis  J.  Terry,  non-collegiate  ;  Richard  M.  Morgan, 
B.A.,  Aberystwyth  .  Ethel  M.  Bkrke,  M.A.,  Girton ;  Ellen  I.  Benham, 
B.Sc,  Adelaide;  Henrietta  E.  T.  Christie,  Somerville  ;  Jeannie  Dow, 
Royal  Holloway ;  Margaret  F.  Moor  and  Grace  G.  T.  Muir,  Somerville; 
Margaret  E.  Sale,  B  A  ,  Dublin;  Ethel  StaflEord,  B.A.,  Manchester; 
and  Mary  C.  Thompson,  B.A.,  M.nchester. 

Shaw  PmiosorHiCAL  Fkllowship  (about  £148  a  year  for  five  years,  open 
■to  graduates  in  Arts  of  any  of  the  four  Scottish  Universities  of  not  more 
than  5  years'  standing  at  the  time  of  the  competition)  :  John  Laird, 
M.A.  Edin.  Pnxime  accesserunt,  A.  A.  Bowman,  M.A.  Glas.  ;  H.  A. 
Reybum,  M.A.  Glas.  ;  Leonard  J.  Russell,  M.A.  Glas. 


Thay  half  said  ... 

Quliat  say  thay  1 — Lat  tJiame  say ! 



By  Dr.  F.  H.  Haywakd. 

(Continued  from  page  26.) 

3.  When,  if  ever,  Direct  and  Systematic  P 
We  are  inconsistent  people,  we  English,  .susceptible  to  the 
call  of  "  justice  "  or  "  mercy  "  from  one  quarter,  deal:  to  a  similar 
call  from  another  quarter;  "temperate"  in  one  respect;  "in- 
temperate "  in  another.  The  foreigner,  in  consequence,  calls  us 
"  hypocrites  "  and  traces  our  moral  blemishes  to  the  perversity 
of  our  wills. 

Bernard  Shaw  knows  us  better.  The  trouble  with  us  is  that 
our  minds  are  foggy.  John  Bull's  "  blessed  old  head  "  has  "  all 
its  ideas  in  watertight  compartments,  and  all  the  compartments 
(are)  warranted  impervious."* 

"  John  Bull's  Other  Island,"  Act  I. 

The  middle-class  code  of  ethics,  which  condemns  "  priggisli- 
ness  "  as  cousin  to  conscious  hypocrisy  is  at  least  a  century  out 
of  date.  Ibsea  has  been  among  us,  and,  though  he  knew  every 
cranny  of  the  modern  middle-class  soul,  he  never  once  drew  a 
conscious  hypocrite.  He  knew  Helmer  and  Ekdal  and  Peer 
Gynt ;  he  knew  men  "  with  all  their  ideas  in  watertight  com- 
partrnents  "  ;  he  knew  men  with  Sunday  consciences  and  class 
consciences  and  business  consciences ;  he  knew  men  with  apper- 
ception masses  in  isolation  from  each  other,  and  therefore  "  func- 
tioning independently,"  as  Mr.  Keatinge  says.  But  he  knew 
nothing  of  Pecksniff  or  Tartuffe,  and  little  even  of  lago  and 
Parolles.  And,  consequently,  Ibsen's  plays  do  not  at  first  attract 
us.  We  miss  our  conventional  heroine,  our  conventional  hero,  and 
our  conventional  villain ;  and,  worst  of  all,  we  miss  the  "  hypo- 
crite "  and  "  prig."  We  have  been  taught  to  hate  him  ;  we  have 
raised  up  barriers  against  his  intrusion  into  our  secondary 
schools.  "  The  commandment,  '  Don't  be  a  prig,'  has  almost 
taken  its  place  in  the  Decalogue,"  as  Mr.  Benson  says ;  and  now 
behold  the  greatest  of  all  dramatists  of  modern  human  nature 
gives  VIS  never  the  prig,  but  constantly  the  man  who  has  "  all 
his  ideas  in  water-tight  compartments." 

Now  it  is  precisely  against  the  defects  of  this  latter  man  that 
some,  at  least,  of  the  advocates  of  moral  instruction  would  fain 
wage  war.  It  is  against  lack  of  moral  lucidity  and  imagination, 
against  inaccessibility  to  ideas,  against  persistent  and  yet  un- 
conscious inconsistency  of  conduct,  against  the  perfectly  well 
intentioned  "  scoundrelism  "  which,  in  Bernard  Shaw's  opinion, 
is  normal  with  "  every  man  over  forty " ;  against  the  moral 
"  colour-blindness  "  which  is  the  first  stage  towards  the  said 
"  scoundrelism,"  and  is  alleged  by  public-school  teachers  to  be 
characteristic  of  middle-class  boys. 

And  yet,  when  advocates  of  moral  instruction  state  their  case 
for  lucidity  and  system,  they  are  met  by  a  parrot  cry  against 
encouraging  the  consrinas  hypocrisy  known  as  "  priggislniess  "  I 
Outside  the  ranks  of  the  professional  cadger  I  doubt  whether  a 
hundred  conscious  hypocrites  exist  in  England.  Of  unconscious 
hypocrites  there  are  some  fifteen  millions — almost  the  entire 
adult  population ;  and  twenty  of  the  remaining  millions — now 
children — are  in  process  of  arrival  at  the  same  goal. 

Direct,  systematic  moral  instruction."  An  attempt  to  intro- 
duce lucidity,  continuity,  and  consistency  into  our  moral  ideas  r 
An  attempt  to  make  our  moral  terminology  effective,  so  that  we 
m.ay  no  longer  deceive  ourselves  at  every  hour  of  the  day  or 
remain  blind  to  countless  duties  ?  Anything  but  that !  Morality 
must  not  be  systematic !  For  ever  and  for  ever  it  must  be  a 
series  of  scraps ! 

Accordingly  Mr.  Keatinge  writes  a  book  called  "  Suggestion 
in  Education."  and  proves  to  his  own  satisfaction  that  haphazard 
"  suggestion  "  is  the  best  mode  of  moral  instruction.  '  In  the 
course  of  reading  the  "  Gallic  War  "  or  the  "  Ode  on  the  Death  of 
the  Duke  of  Wellington,"  a  few  moral  ideas  of  an  isolated  char- 
acter may  chance  to  enter  insidiously  into  the  boy's  mind  ;  and 
in  this  way  he  will  best  acquire  a  knowledge  of  moral  truth. 
Such  is  "  suggestion  in  education  "  !  The  teacher  must  be  for 
ever  "  reticent,"  "  discreet,"  and  especially  fragmentary  and  in- 

Did  ever  the  world  see  the  like  stated  before  in  cold  print  ? 
Do  any  of  us  need  to  be  told  of  the  value  of  such  chance  moral 
suggestions  as  spring  out  of  fine  books?  Have  we  not  urged 
that  humanistic  study  should  take  a  high  place  in  every  school? 
Is  this  not  the  best  way  to  familiarize  the  boy  with  noble  ideas 
and  noble  terminology  ?  Who  doubts  it  ?  Who  has  ever  doubted 
it  ?  But  is  there  nevr  to  be  system  in  our  moral  ideas  ?  Are 
we  to  go  on  with  "  suggestions  "  and  "  scraps  "  for  ever  and  ever  ? 
The  weakness  of  Mr.  Keatinge's  book  is  that  it  recognizes  no 
necessity  for  system  at  any  epoch  of  life.  Not  even  when  we 
marry,  not  even  when  we  see  our  sous  or  daughters  marry,  not 
even  when  we  totter  on  the  verge  of  eternity,  will  our  moral 
ideas  be  systematic.     Let  me  interrogate. 

Shall  we  introduce  system  into  the  moral  ideas  current  in  our 
elementary  schools  ?  The  children  are  young  ;  their  experience 
is  slight ;  their  reading  is  limited  ;  their  reason  is  undeveloped  ; 
they  have  not  reached  the  stage  of  adolescence,  when  sundry 
altruistic  instincts  begiu  to  reach  maturity.  Surely  childhood  is 
not  the  best  time  for  very  systematic  methods.  The  secondary 
schools  ?  No  ;  contrariant  ideas  are  the  obstacle  there.  Colleges 
and  universities  ?  Contrariant  ideas  are  still  the  difficulty  ; 
besides,  only  a  fraction  of  our  people  attend  colleges  and  uni- 
versities. Twenty  years  of  life  have  now  slipped  away — the 
plastic  years,  apparently  the  predestined  years  for  educational 
influence.     Perchance  the  period  from  twenty  to  thirty  is  the 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

one  for  6ysteniatization  ?  Or  that  from  thirty  to  forty  ?  Mr. 
Keatinge  does  not  say ;  and  our  only  conclusion  must  be  that 
.John  Bull's  moral  ideas  must  never  be  made  systematic  at  all ; 
his  head  must  have  its  "impervious  "  and  "watertight"  com- 
partments, with  consequent  "  scoundrelism,"  for  ever. 

Prof.  Pindlay  is  a  good  deal  wiser.  His  attack  upon  the  employ- 
meat  of  direct  moral  instruction  applies  only  to  the  years  before 
sixteen ;  and  the  attack.  I  admit,  would  be  cogent  if  modern  society 
were  different  from  what  it  is,  and  if  direct  i///moral  instruction 
(or  its  equivalent)  did  not  assail  the  primary-school  child  so  early. 
I  suspect  that  when  Utopia  has  been  attained  Prof.  Findlay's 
view  will  be  recognized  as  true.  In  any  case,  he  knows  that 
in  the  later  teens  reason  and  conscience  and  personality  are 
finally  awake,  and  that  now,  if  ever,  is  the  time  for  direct 
methods.  So  I  leave  Mr.  Keatinge  to  Prof.  Pindlay,  assuring 
him  that  when  he  concedes*  a  place  for  direct  moral  instruction 
in  primary  schools,  while  discounting  its  efficacy  in  secondary 
schools,  modern  pedagogics,  whether  starting  from  the  psycho- 
logical notion  of  apperception  or  from  the  ascertained  facts  of 
adolescence,  would  exactly  reverse  his  verdict. 

1  conclude  this  section  with  two  questions :  "  Are  moral  ideas 
ever  to  be  made  approximately  coherent  or  systematic?  If  they 
are,  at  what  period  of  life  P  " 

4. — "  Doing,  not  Talking." 

Mr.  Paton  has  more  than  once  expressed  the  opinion  that 
■'  talks  "  about  moral  matters  are  of  infinitely  less  importance 
than  moral  action.  "  What  we  want  for  English  boys  is  not  that 
they  shall  talk  about  these  things  (diligence,  &c.),  nor  write 
essays  about  them,  but  that  they  shall  love  these  things  and  live 
them  .  .  .  that  they  shall  be  big,  generous,  open-hearted,  fi'ank  " 
— [What  does  "  frank  "  mean  P  Does  it  imply  "  talking  "  P]  .  .  . 
"  with  strong  self  mastery."t  In  the  algebra  lesson — a  fine  field 
for  exercising  will  power,  in  Mr.  Paton's  belief — '■"  the  better  the 
class  and  the  better  the  master,  the  less  will  be  said  "  [about 
honesty  or  temptation].  "  It  is  by  practice,  not  by  precept,'  that 
we  become  perfect." 

These  words  are  normal,  orthodox,  and  inevitable  when- 
ever the  public-school  master  is  called  on  to  discuss  moral 
education.  He  has  them  on  the  tip  of  his  tongue  ;  they  echo 
in  the  chambers  of  his  memory  ;  and  they  are  themselves  (like 
the  horror  of  "  priggishness  ")  a  concrete  illustration  of  the 
fact  that  in  one  case,  at  any  rate,  words  possess  an  almighty 
power.  Add  to  them  the  other  copy-book  maxim  that  "  example 
is  better  than  precept";  and  the  platform  platitude — true, 
like  most  platitudes,  and  also  fundamentally  useless — that  "  the 
most  important  moral  influence  is  the  personality  of  the  teacher  " 
— and  the  armoury  of  the  public-school  man  is  almost  complete. 

It  almost  makes  one  despair  to  find  that  the  fallacy  underly- 
ing this  phraseology  is  not  seen  at  once  by  an  educated  man. 
"  Bvery  boy  knows  what  it  is  to  be  diligent  and  thorough  in  his 
work,  what  it  means  to  be  truthful,  honest,  and  pure."  The  reader 
will  note  the  narrowness  and  conventionality  of  the  catalogue — 
so  reminiscent  {pace  Mr.  Paton)  of  the  headings  of  the  old- 
fashioned  moral  lesson  book  ("  Overcome  obstacles  by  perse- 
verance," "  Honesty  is  the  best  policy,"  &c.) ;  the  apparent 
absence  of  any  imaginative  grasp  of  the  fact  that  new  moral 
duties,  eugenic,  resthetic.  civic,  &c.,  may  be  dawning  on  the  race 
and  beckoning  us  forward.  But,  accepting  the  catalogue  as  it 
stands,  can  we  truly  say  that  every  boy  hnow^  these  virtues?  It 
is  not  even  true  that  Mr.  Paton  li-niwx  them  ;  he  constantly  im- 
plies that  diligence  in  performing  mere  drudgery  is  a  virtue ;  and 
he  never  refers  to  the  fact,  pointed  out  years  ago  in  the  fifth 
chapter  of  Prof.  Adams's  "  Herbartiau  Psychology,"  that  the 
bad  man  may  be  as  diligent  as  the  good.  As  for  the  "  boy," 
certainly  he  "  knows,"  in  a  verbal  sort  of  way,  the  meaning  of 
"  diligence  "  ;  and  if  Mr.  Paton  is  attacking  the  giving  of  purely 
verbal  knowledge  (such  as  the  slum-child's  knowledge  of  "  mea- 
dow "  and  "  forest  ")  he  does  well ;  moral  kuowle<lge,  to  be  effec- 
tive, must  be  apperceptivf,  as  every  Herbarcian  has  urged  ;  it 
must  be  verbal,  certainly  (for  a  reason  presently  to  be  assigned), 
but  it  must  be  linked  up  to  a  mass  of  ideas,  traceable  to  ex- 
perience and  instruction.  That  "  every  boy  "/™o«;s  (really  knows) 
what  "  diligence  "  means  in  this  sense,  is  as  far  from  the  truth  as 
was  Macaulay's  famous  statement  about  "  every  boy's  "  historical 
omniscience  ;  if  Mr.  Paton  consent,  I  shall  be  glad  to  set  a  few 
questions  on  "diligence"  for  his  Manchester  boys,  in  order  to  put 
the  matter  to  the  test. 

My  own  conviction  is  that  deep  igiiorance  is  at  the  root  of 
almost  or  quite  all  the  moral  evils  of  the  day.  I  will  go  so  far 
as  to  say  that  few  adults  "  knov^  "  what  it  is  to  be  diligent, 
thorough,  truthful,  honest,  and  pure ;  in  the  realm  of  honesty, 
for  example  (commercial,  international,  &c.),  there  is  notorious 
fog  and  confusion  ;  while,  as  to  Mr.  Paton's  favourite  virtues 
of  diligence,  thoroughness,  &c.,  he  will  find,  in  "  A  Modern 
Utopia  "  of  Mr.  Wells,  some  indications  that  the  significance 
of  these  virtues  is  perhaps  rather  different  from  what  he 
imagines.  If  we  were  dumped  down  among  the  lotus-eaters, 
or  in  certain  other  situations  not  unknown  to  readers  of 
Greek  and  oriental  history,  these  strenuous  virtues  would  be 
regarded  as  forms  of  vice  or  lunacy.  And  I  am  not  at  all  sure 
that  my  "  diligence  "  and  "  perseverance  "  in  the  present  con- 
troversy are  striking  the  readers  of  this  journal  with  admiration. 

Let  us,  however,  make  the  amazing  admission  that  every  bur 
knows,  in  a  measure,  and  even  appreciates,  the  cardinal  virtues ; 
the  question  arises.  How  did  he  get  to  know  and  appreciate 
them  ?  Mr.  Paton  must  at  once  fall  back  either  upon  a  "  faculty 
doctrine  "  (there  is  a  "  faculty "  of  conscience)  or  upon  an  ad- 
mission that  moral  knowledge  comes  from  the  environment. 

Now  modern  sociology  rejects  the  former  view;  "the  old  con- 
ception of  a  special  faculty  of  moral  intuition  .  .  .  was  the  third 
of  a  trio  of  false  psychological  assumptions,"  says  the  most 
recent  writer  on  the  subject* ;  and  Dr.  Stanley  Hall  regards  as 
an  "  old  superstition  "  the  notion  that  "  children  have  innate 
faculties  of  such  a  finished  sort  that  they  flash  up  and  grasp  the 
principle  of  things  by  a  rapid  sort  of  first  intellection. "f  But 
this  "  old  superstition,"  he  adds,  "  persists  in  full  force  in  moral 
and  religious  training,"  and  Mr.  Paton  appears  to  be  an  example 
of  its  persistence  ("  every  boy  knows  "  .  .  .),  unless,  of  course,  he 
choose  to  admit  that  the  boy's  moral  knowledge  and  apprecia- 
tions come  from  the  environment. 

But  if  they  come  from  the  environment  they  will  be  limited  by 
the  environment ;  what  the  boy  "  knows  "  will  be  much  or  little, 
true  or  false ;  virtues  outside  the  environment,  or  uncongenial  to 
it,  will  be  unknown  or  unappreciated  ;  and  perhaps  certain  virtues 
will  be  called  vices,  nr  the  reverse.  Mr.  Paton's  everlasting 
stress  upon  the  "  school  virtues  " — as  if  these  constituted,  or  at 
least  summarized,  the  whole  duty  of  man — is  itself  significant  ; 
and  I  may  say,  once  again,  that  no  advocate  of  moral  instruction 
asks  for  the  old-fashioned  and  pedantic  reiteration  of  what  is 
already  obvious  or  inevitable  (what  "every  boy  knows  ")  ;  nor  for 
dull  hectoring  of  a  class  for  sundry  faults  (possibly  caused  by 
pedagogical  arbitrariness  or  ignorance)  ;  but  for  something  far 
finer,  something  rational  and  alluring,  something  that  "every 
boy  "  does  not  know. 

Once  admit  that  the  conscience  is  no  ready-made  faculty,  but 
a  dynamic  process  involving  memories,  ideas,  and  suggestions, 
all  derived  from  the  environment  and  possessing  all  the  limita- 
tions and  perversities  of  that  environment,  the  teacher  will  be 
compelled  (unless  he  is  morally  bankrupt  and  hopelessly  un- 
imaginative) to  give  moral  instruction  or  to  organize  some 
equivalent  of  moral  instruction.  He  will  commence  a  process 
of  elucidating,  refining,  completing,  or  correcting,  and  then,  to 
the  extent  that  he  finds  moral  terminology  thin,  artificial,  or 
perverse,  he  will  be  compelled  to  reorganize  his  curriculum  and 
to  enrich  it  more  particularly  on  the  side  of  history,  biography, 
and  literature,  so  that  indirect  moral  instruction  may  adequately 
supply  the  apperceptive  needs  of  direct  moral  instruction. 

And  1  do  not  see  how  all  this  is  to  be  done  without  "  talking." 
Educationists  will  never  realize  how  immensely  significant  in 
all  matters  of  morality  is  the  spoken  word,  which  Mr.  Paton 
regards  as  relatively  unimportant,  until  their  imaginations  have 
been  touched  by  the  great  and  broadly  true  doctrine  associated 
with  the  name  of  Weissmann. 

They  must  picture  the  i-hain  of  germ-cells  stretching  back- 
wards into  the  vanished  past  and  forwards  into  the  shadowy 
future;  and,  attached  to  that  immortal  chain,  the  clusters  of 
somatic  cells  which  constitute  the  bodies  of  individual  men. 
We  appear  as  the  offspring — or,  rather,  the  by-products — of  the 
germ-plasm — not  the  makers  of  its  living  links ;  we  take  what 
it  gives  us,  and  we  can  give  nothing  to  it. 

The  vision,  when  it  first  rises  before  us,  is  little  short  of 
appalling.  We  feel  like  Macbeth  as  the  ghostly  series  stretch 
on  to  the  crack  of  doom.  The  continuity  of  the  germ-plasm 
spells  the  worst  confirmation  of  our  fears.  Science  has  closed 
the  doors  of  hope,  and  heredity  is,  indeed,  omnipotent.     We  are 

*  "  Moral  Education  Conprress  Papers,"  page  133. 
fDnit!/  News,  October  1,  1908. 

*McDougaU's  "  Social  Psychology." 
+  "Youth." 


Feb.  1,  1909.] 



offshoots  from  the  trunk  of  the  mighty  being,  congenital  para- 
sites which  it  periodically  disgorges,  appendages  with  rootlets 
fixed  desperately  and  precariously  in  its  substance,  and  with  no 
single  tentacle  feeling  upwards. 

This,  apparently,  would  be  a  true,  if  gloomy,  picture  of  human 
life  except  for  the  factors  which  Mr.  Paton  would  have  us  despise. 
Man's  is  the  gift  of  speech,  and  man's,  pre-eminently,  is  the  gift 
of  writing.  "  Talking  about  "  morals  and  "  writing  essays  " 
about  morals  happen  to  be  the  two  and  the  oulj-  means  by  which 
man  has  been  lifted  out  of  bondage  to  the  germ-plasm.  An 
ethical  tradition,  handed  down  by  word  of  mouth  and  through 
books,  is  another  "  plasm  "  in  which  our  life  is  rooted,  and  there 
is  no  third.  These  quaint  champions  of  orthodoxy  and  laiasez- 
faire,  these  confident  opponents  of  moral  instruction  are — 
though  they  do  not  know  it — the  only  fatalists,  the  only  mate- 
rialists, the  only  cynics  in  the  educational  world.  Possibly  the 
diagram  that  follows  may  serve  to  change  their  verdict  upon 
the  folly  of  "  talking  about  "  and  "  writing  about  "  morals. 

The  Idea-plaem    Q. 

The  Germ -plasm  ■ 


a,  ^,  f ,  (/,?,_/,...  the  germ  cells. 
A,  B,  C,  D,  £,  .  .  .  the  somatic  cells. 

[Germ  cells  and  somatic  cells  together,  a  +  A,  b  +  B,  constitute 
an  individual  being  ;  all  links  with  past  or  future  are 
through  the  germ  cells,  which  are  "continuous"  from 
generation  to  generation.] 

Such,  diagrammatically  (minus  the  dotted  line),  would  be  the 
history  of  the  human  race  apart  from  the  factors  whicli  Mr.  Paton 
depreciates.  Everything  human  would  be  locked  up  in  the  chain 
of  germ  cells  ;  no  bridge  would  join  the  individual  A  with  the 
individual  B  except  the  round-about  bridge  of  physical  heredity  ; 
and  upon  the  quality  and  durability  of  that  bridge  the  fate  of 
humanity  would  depend. 

But,  luckily,  there  is  another  bridge  between  A  and  B ;  a 
fragile  one  of  words  and  phrases  and  maxims ;  of  records  of 
humble  efforts  and  heroic  deeds  ;  of  legends,  of  poems,  of  novels  ; 
of  works  on  citizenship  and  philosophy.  Neglect  this  bridge,  or 
despise  it,  or  destroy  it,  and  the  human  race  will  sink  back  to 
what  it  once  was — a  chain  of  appendages  strung  on  to  the  germ- 
plasm  and  dependent  wholly  upon  it.  This  other  bridge  is  shown 
in  the  diagram  by  the  dotted  line. 

Dropping  all  metaphors,  I  would  urge  that  our  schools  are 
called  upon  to  hand  down  a  moral  tradition  embracing  those 
best  elements  of  the  past  which  are  likely  to  be  the  most  helpful 
elements  for  the  future.  The  genius  of  the  great  has  to  be  made 
the  heritage  of  the  humble.  Otherwise,  one  only  result  is  pos- 
sible. What  was  missing  in  the  primitive  savage  who  had  ac- 
cumulated no  imposing  moral  tradition — who  had  no  time  to  "talk 
about  "  morals  or  "  write  essays  "  about  morals — will  be  missing 
in  the  modern  boy  from  whom  that  tradition  is  ostentatiously 
withheld.  The  missing  factor  will  be  moral  vision,  moral  percep- 
tion, moral  apperception.  And,  curiously  enough,  this  factor  is 
actually  alleged  to  be  missing  by  men  who  have  good  reason  to 
know.  The  public-school  boy  is  said  to  be  "  morally  colour- 
blind." And,  still  more  curiously  and  significantly,  he  is  said  to 
be  a  "  savage  "  or  "  barbarian,"  the  witnesses  here  showing  a 
knowledge  of  sociology  deeper  than  they  themselves  would  claim. 
Lastly,  he  is  alleged  to  have  ''  low  moral  admirations,"  an  alle- 
gation which  at  once  provokes  from  the  Herbartian  the  inquiry, 
"  How  can  you  expect  to  awaken  '  high  moral  admirations ' — 
identical  with  '  apperceptive  interest '  in  moral  truth — unless 
you  provide  the  boy  with  apperceptive  resources  ?  " 

The  only  answer  open  to  tlie  public-school  master  is  a 
demonstration  that  his  favourite  dogma  of  "  formal  training  " 
or  "  faculty  training "  is  true ;  and  that,  by  a  series  of  school 
activities  (games,  classical  drill,  &c.),  the  boy  acquires  all  neces- 
sary apperceptive  resources. 

One  word  more,  however,  upon  the  notion  that  "  talking  about  " 
morals  and  "writing  essays  "  on  morals  are  things  tabu. 

If  the  schoolmaster  refuse  to  set  in  use  a  dignified  moral  ter- 
minology, he  will  still  have  to  employ,  in  his  serious  moments,  a 
terminology  of  some  kind,  and  to  aid  its  currency  among  boys. 
What  will  it  be?  He  dare  not  speak  of  "justice  ";  such  language 
savours  of  the  "  prig,"  and  perhaps  of  the  "  puritan  "  ;  but  he  can 
safely  speak  of  "  playing  the  game."  He  must,  in  fact,  borrow 
his  terminology  from  the  world  of  sport. 

God  give  us  hases  to  guard  or  beleaguer. 
Games  to  play  out,  whether  earnest  or  fun  ; 
Fights  for  the  fearless  and  goals  for  the  eager, 
Twenty  and  thirty  and  forty  years  on. 
The  situation  is  saved  !     So  long  as  the  master's  phraseology 
is  that  of  the  playing  field,  he  can  exhort  and  reprove  to  his 
heart's  content.     He  can  bid  his  boj-s  be  "sportsmanlike"  ;  and 
even  "  essays "    on  pseudo-moral    topics  Tnay  be  possible,    pro- 
vided the  terminology  is  sufficiently  and  triumphantly  trivial. 

Moral  metaphors  borrowed  from  the  playing  fields  may  be  as 
legitimate  as  i-eligious  metaphors  borrowed  from  the  Greek  race- 
course; but  they  ai-e  neither  dignified  nor  numerous  enough  to 
support  a  complete  and  progressive  system  of  moral  ideas.  And 
yet  the  public  school  will  have  to  make  this  desperate  and 
despicable  attempt  if  in  "  talking  about "  serious  topics  it  re- 
fuses to  employ  a  terminology  worthy  of  the  theme. 

5. — Conclusion. 
The  main  controversy  must,  however,  range  over  the  dogma  of 
"  formal  training."  It  it  can  be  shown  that  the  volitional  quali- 
ties demanded  by  school  games  and  school  pursuits  do  not  (as 
Sir  Arthur  Hort  recently  admitted)  flow  over  appreciably  into 
life  as  a  whole  ;  and  that  "  accuracy,"  "  thoroughness,"  "  observa- 
tion," and  the  other  faculties  or  processes  are  similarly  recal- 
citrant, apart  from  some  2}rocess  of  instruction  or  elucidation, 
our  case  is  proved  and  our  opponents'  case  is  lost.  And  "  formal 
training  "  is,  indeed,  apparently  a  lost  cause. 


Declakation  or  Peixcitles  at  Cleveland,  Ohio,  1908. 
The  National  Education  Association,  now  holding  the  forty- 
sixth  annual  convention  in  Cleveland,  and  representing  teachers 
and  friends  of  education  in  every  state  in  this  Union,  makes  the 
following  declaration  of  principles  and  aims  : — 

1.  Fully  realizing  that  trained  and  skilled  labour  is  a  primary 
essential  to  the  indnstrial  and  commercial  welfare  of  the  country, 
we  cordially  endorse  the  establishment  by  municipal  Boards  of 
Education  of  trade  schools,  industrial  schools,  and  evening  con- 
tinuation schools ;  and  further  recommend  that  the  instruction 
in  these  schools  be  practical  and  efficient,  and  have  the  advice, 
and  the  approval,  of  the  trade  interested  to  the  end  that  gradu- 
ates of  these  schools  may  at  once  become  advanced  apprentices 
or  journeymen. 

2.  We  recommend  the  subordination  of  highly  diversified  and 
overburdened  courses  of  study  in  the  gi-ades  to  a  thorough  drill 
in  essential  subjects  ;  and  the  sacrifice  of  quantity  to  an  improve- 
ment in  the  quality  of  instruction.  The  complaints  of  business 
men  that  pupils  from  the  schools  are  inaccurate  in  results  and 
careless  of  details  is  a  criticism  that  should  be  removed.  The 
principles  of  sound  and  accurate  training  are  as  fixed  as  natural 
laws  and  should  be  insistently  followed.  Ill  considered  experi- 
ments and  indiscriminate  methodizing  should  be  abandoned  and 
attention  devoted  to  the  persevering  and  continuous  drill  neces- 
sary for  accurate  and  eflScient  training:  and  we  hold  tliat  no  course 
of  study  in  any  public  school  should  be  so  advanced  or  so  rigid 
as  to  prevent  instruction  to  any  student  who  may  need  it  in  the 
essential  and  practical  parts  of  the  common  English  branches. 

3.  We  assert  that  the  individuality  of  the  pupil  should  be 
carefully  considered,  to  the  end  that  he  may  be  instructed  in  the 
light  of  his  limitations  and  capacity  ;  and  commend  to  all  Local 
Authorities  the  necessity  of  greater  care  in  the  arrangement  of 
courses  of  studj-,  that  they  may  be  adapted  to  the  pupils  to  be 
instructed,  rather  than  that  pupils  should  be  adapted  to  fixed 
courses  of  stud}'  and  inflexible  systems  of  grading. 

4.  There  is  concededly  a  grave  moral  depression  in  our  busi- 
ness and  social  atmosphere.  The  revelations  of  the  financial 
and  legislative  world  for  the  past  two  years  denote  a  too  general 
acquiescence  in  questionable  practices  and  standards.  We 
earne.stly  recommend  to  Boards  of  Education,  principals  and 
teachers,  the  continuous  training  of  pupils  in  morals,  and  in 
business  and  professional  ethics,  to  the  end  that  the  coming 
generation  of  men  of  affairs  may  have  a  well  developed  abhor- 
rence of  unfair  dealing  and  discrimination.  The  establishment 
of  the  honour  system  in  schools,  the  ostracism  of  the  dishonest 
or  unfair  pupil,  the  daily  exemplification  in  the  routine  life  of 
the  school  of  the  advantage  of  honest  and  truthful  methods,  are 
commended  to  the  especial  attention  of  teachers  as  a  partial 
means  to  this  end. 

5.  The  Bureau  of  Education  at  Washington  should  be  pre- 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

served  in  its  integrity  and  the  dignity  of  its  position  maintained 
and  increased.  It  should  receive  at  the  hands  of  Congress  such 
recognition  and  such  appropriation  as  will  enable  it  not  only  to 
employ  all  expert  assistants  necessarj',  but  also  to  publish  in 
convenient  and  usable  form  the  results  of  investigations,  thus 
making  that  department  of  our  government  such  a  source  of  in- 
formation and  advice  as  will  be  most  helpful  to  the  people  in 
conducting  their  campaigns  of  education.  We  are  of  the  opinion 
that  the  importance  of  the  subject  under  its  control,  and  the 
dignitj'  of  this  country  require  that  this  bureau  be  maintained 
as  an  independent  department  of  the  Government. 

6.  The  Xational  Education  Association  notes  with  approval 
that  the  qualifications  demanded  of  teachers  in  the  public 
schools  are  increasing  annually,  and  particularly  that  in  many 
localities  sjiecial  preparation  is  demanded  of  teachers.  The  idea 
that  any  one  with  a  fair  education  can  teach  school  is  gradually 
giving  way  to  the  correct  notion  that  teachers  must  make  special 
preparation  for  the  vocation  of  teaching.  The  higher  standard 
demanded  of  teachers  must  lead  logically  to  higher  salaries  for 
teachers,  and  constant  efforts  should  be  made  by  all  persons 
interested  in  education  to  secui'e  for  teachers  adequate  compen- 
sation for  their  work. 

7.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  State  to  provide  for  the  education  of 
every  child  within  its  borders  and  to  see  that  all  children  obtain 
the  rudiments  of  an  education.  The  constitutional  provision 
that  all  tax-payers  must  contribute  to  the  support  of  the  public 
schools  logically  carries  with  it  the  implied  provision  that  no 
persons  should  be  permitted  to  defeat  the  purposes  of  the  public- 
school  law  by  forcing  their  children  at  an  early  age  to  become 
bread-winners.  To  this  end  the  child  labour  and  truancy  laws 
should  be  so  harmonized  that  the  education  of  the  child,  not  its 
labour,  is  made  the  chief  concern. 

8.  The  National  Education  Association  endorses  the  increas- 
ing use  of  school  buildings  for  free  vacation  schools  and  for 
free  evening  schools  and  lecture  courses  for  adults  and  for 
children  who  have  been  obliged  to  leave  the  day  school  prema- 
turely. We  also  approve  of  the  use  of  school  grounds  for  play- 
grounds and  the  use  of  school  gymnasiums  and  bath-rooms  for 
the  benefit  of  children  in  the  crowded  districts  during  summer. 

9.  Local  taxation,  supplemented  by  State  taxation,  presents 
the  best  means  for  the  support  of  the  public  schools  and  for 
securing  that  deep  interest  in  them  which  is  necessary  to  their 
greater  efficiency.  State  aid  should  be  granted  only  as  supple- 
mentary to  local  taxation,  and  not  as  a  substitute  for  it. 

10.  The  National  Education  Association  observes  with  great 
satisfaction  the  tendency  of  cities  and  towns  to  replace  large 
School  Committees  or  Boards  which  have  exercised  through 
Sub-Committees  executive  functions,  to  salaried  experts. 

11.  We  cannot  too  often  repeat  that  close,  intelligent,  judicious 
supervision  is  necessary  for  all  grades  of  schools. 

12.  The  rapid  establishment  of  rural  high  schools  and  the  con- 
solidation of  rui-al  district  schools  are  most  gratifying  evidences 
of  the  progress  of  education.  We  believe  that  this  movement 
should  be  encouraged  until  the  children  of  rural  communities 
enjoy  the  benefits  of  public  education  to  an  extent  approximat- 
ing as  nearly  as  practicable  the  education  furnished  in  urban 

13.  The  National  Education  Association  wishes  to  record  its 
approval  of  the  increasing  appreciation  among  educators  of  the 
fact  that  the  building  of  character  is  the  real  aim  of  the 
schools  and  the  ultimate  reason  for  the  expenditure  of  millions 
for  their  maintenance.  There  are  in  the  minds  of  the  children 
and  youth  of  to-day  a  tendency  toward  a  disregard  to  constituted 
authority,  a  lack  of  respect  for  age  and  superior  wisdom,  a  weak 
appreciation  of  the  demands  of  duty,  a  disposition  to  follow 
pleasure  and  interest  rather  than  obligation  and  order.  This 
condition  demands  the  earliest  thought  and  action  of  our  leaders 
of  opinion  and  places  impoi-tant  obligations  upon  School  Boards, 
superintendeuts,  and  teachers. 

14.  The  National  Education  Association  wishes  to  congratu- 
late the  secondary  schools  and  colleges  of  the  counti-y  that  are 
making  an  effort  to  remove  the  taint  of  professionalism  and 
other  abases  that  have  crept  into  students'  sports.  This  taint 
can  be  removed  only  by  leading  students,  alumni,  and  school 
faculties  to  recognize  that  inter-school  games  should  be  played 
for  sportsmanship  and  not  merely  for  victory. 

15.  It  is  apparent  that  familiarity  with  the  English  Bible  as  a 
masterpiece  of  literature  is  rapidly  decreasing  among  the  pupils 
in  our  schools.  This  is  the  direct  result  of  a  conception  which 
regards  the  Bible  as  a  theological  book  merely,  and  thereby  leads 
to  its  exclusion  from  the  schools  of  some  states  as  a  subject  of 

reading  and  study.  We  hope  for  such  a  change  of  public  senti- 
ment in  this  regard  as  will  permit  and  encourage  the  reading 
and  study  of  the  English  Bible  as  a  literary  work  of  the  highest 
and  purest  type,  side  by  side  with  the  poetry  and  prose  which  it 
has  inspired  and  in  large  part  formed. 

16.  It  is  important  that  school  buildings  and  school  grounds 
should  be  planned  and  decorated  so  as  to  serve  as  effective 
agencies  for  educating  not  only  the  children,  but  the  people  as 
a  whole  in  matters  of  taste.  The  school  is  becoming  more  and 
more  a  community  centre,  and  its  larger  opportunities  impose 
new  obligations.  School  buildings  should  Ije  attractive  as  well 
as  healthful,  and  the  adjourning  grounds  should  be  laid  out  and 
planned  with  appropriateness  and  beauty. 

17.  The  highest  ethical  standard  of  conduct  and  of  speech 
should  be  insisted  on  among  teachers.  It  is  not  becoming  that 
commercialism  or  self-seeking  should  shape  their  actions,  or  that 
intemperance  should  mark  their  utterances.  A  code  of  profes- 
sional conduct  clearly  understood  and  rigorously  enforced  by 
public  opinion  is  being  slowly  developed,  and  must  one  day 
control  all  teachers  worthy  of  the  name. 

18.  In  teaching,  as  in  other  kind  of  work,  the  best  service  is 
secured  by  finding  the  individual  best  fitted  to  the  particular 
place  as  indicated  by  training,  experience,  and  meritorious 
service  ;  the  National  Educatiou  Association  therefore  heartily 
approves  a  merit  system  of  promoting  teachers  and  filling 
vacancies.  We  assert,  furthermore,  that  the  grounds  upon 
which  a  teacher  may  apply  for  a  position  are  preparatory  train- 
ing, experience,  and  meritorious  service — in  a  word,  professional 
fitness  alone  ;  and  that  the  use  of  other  personal  and  political 
arguments  is  deplorable  in  the  teacher  and  a  serious  menace  to 
a  high  professional  standard. 

Resolved  also,  That  public  high  schools  should  not  be  chiefly 
fitting  schools  for  higher  institutions,  but  should  be  adapted  to 
the  general  needs,  both  intellectual  and  industrial,  of  their 
students  and  communities,  and  we  suggest  that  the  higher  insti- 
tutions might  wisely  adapt  their  courses  to  this  condition. 

And  we  also  suggest  to  School  Boards  and  superintendents 
the  importance  of  securing  for  their  high-school  teachers  who 
have  not  only  abundant  scholarship  but  also  successful  ex- 
perience in  teaching  or  efficient  and  practical  training  in 

The  foregoing  principles  and  aims  and  the  subsequent  resolu- 
tions have  been  fully  considered  by  the  committee  and  unani- 
mously adopted. 


By  Prof.  J.  J.  FiNULAY.  Jl.A.,  Ph.D.,  and  P.  Sanditokd,  M.Sc. 

(Summary  of  a  paper  read  before  the  British  Association  at  Dublin,  a 
sequel  to  a  paper  read  at  the  York  Meeting  of  the  British  Associa- 
tion.    Vide  "Transactions,"  1906,  page  793.) 

Ix  the  paper  presented  at  York,  Mr.  Fiudlay  confined  his 
attention  to  experimental  studies  in  school  teaching,  and  indicated 
the  lines  on  which  he  and  others  were  at  work  in  demonstration 
schools,*  associated  with  Departments  of  Education  or  training 
colleges.  The  time  now  seems  ripe  for  a  wider  review  of  methods 
for  the  improvement  of  education  which,  in  a  broad  sense,  may 
be  described  as  "  experimental  "  or  "  scientific  "  :  experiments  in 
teaching  form  only  one  section  of  a  large  field  which  is  being 
tentatively  worked  in  many  parts  of  the  world. 

1.  A  first  group  consists  of  investigations  which  do  not 
directly  raise  questions  of  education  at  all,  but  are  concerned 
solely  with  the  physical  powers  of  childhood  and  their  develop- 
ment ;  they  are  really  questions  of  physiology  and  hygiene — a 
branch  of  anthropometry.  To  these  may  be  added  inquiries 
into  feeding,  clothing,  sleep,  &c.  It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that 
while  such  inquiries  are  invaluable  as  material  for  educational 
proposals,  they  are  not  of  themselves  directly  of  service,  and  the 
interpretations  put  upon  them  are  often  wide  cf  the  mark ;  for 
the  school  is  a  social  organization  which  has  to  do  its  work 
under  complex  social  conditions. 

2.  Allied  to  the  above  may  be  placed  investigations  into  school 
appliances  and  the  physical  conditions  under  which  children 
live  while  at  school.  This  is  a  branch  of  public  sanitation  rather 
than  distinetivel}'  a  matter  for  pedagogics. 

3.  The   third   group   is  concerned  with  the  organs  of  sense, 

*  Some  of  the  results  of  the  work  in  Manchester,  as  well  as  an  account 
of  the  methods  employed,  are  to  be  found  in  the  Jlemunstration  School 
Itecord,  No.  1.     (University  Press,  Manchester,  1908.) 

Feb.  1,  1909.] 



eyesight,  hearing,  &c.  ;  and  we  are  still  in  regions  where  the 
physiologist  and  the  physician  are  at  home  rather  than  the 
teacher.  Their  resnlts  need  to  be  lianded  over  for  the  use  of 
schools,  but  the  methods  and  processes  of  research  are  not  a 
distinctive  concern  for  the  teacher. 

4.  A  fourth  group  carries  us  forward  to  experimental  psycho- 
logy, to  research  in  which  the  methods  of  the  psychological 
laboratory  are  applied  to  the  features  of  the  growing  organism 
as  distinguished  from  the  adult. 

A  large  mass  of  verj-  suggestive  research  has  been  undertaken, 
of  which  the  work  on  "  Fatigue"  may  be  taken  as  typical.  The 
most  recent  results  show  the  grave  difficulties  encountered  in 
endeavouring  to  interpret  physical  conditions  in  terms  of  mind 
(see  Ellis  and  Snipe,  American  Journal  of  Psycholoay,  1903, 
page  232). 

Experimental  ps3-chology,  when  the  subjects  of  an  experiment 
are  children,  undoubtedly  would  appear  to  have  a  close  bearing 
upon  the  problem  of  the  teacher,  and  a  good  deal  of  the  work 
undertaken  in  Germany  under  the  title  of  "  Experimentelle  P.ida- 
gogik "  (see  Schwarz  in  Scliool  Reviev:,  Chicago,  January  to 
September,  1907)  show.s  that  many  investigators  would  desire  to 
see  stations  for  research  in  genetic  psychology  established  as  part 
of  the  equipment  of  Departments  of  Education. 

It  would  appear,  however,  as  if  the  methods  of  the  psychological 
laboratory  are  too  specialized,  and  too  remote  from  the  positive 
functions  of  the  school,  to  be  introduced  as  part  of  the  pedagogical 
equipment  of  a  University.  Rather  one  would  say  that  such  a 
laboratory  ought  to  he  at  hand  wherever  advanced  work  in  the 
study  of  education  is  set  on  foot ;  and  the  psychologist  ought  to 
be  asked  to  pay  special  attention  to  genetic  studies  in  view  of  the 
practical  importance  of  anj'  results  which  he  may  reach.  It  is 
certain  that  if  the  laboratory  can  arrive  at  new  conceptions  of  the 
mental  life  of  the  young,  these  results  will  find  an  immense  field 
for  application  in  the  teaching  profession. 

_  6.  Of  an  entirely  different  order  are  the  numberless  investiga- 
tions conducted  under  the  name  of  child  study,  especially  in 
America  by  Stanley  Hall  and  Earl  Barnes,  and  more  recently  in 
German}'  by  Kerchensteiner  and  others.  Here  the  investigator 
deals  with  experience,  with  mental  "  content "  in  ideas  and  feelings, 
or  output  in  expression,  rather  than  with  mental  qualities  or 
faculties.  These  investigations,  when  conducted  with  real 
scientific  ability,  have  greatly  influenced  the  schools,  for  the 
teacher's  business  is  directly  concerned  with  the  child's  output — 
the  fundamental  difficulty  felt  by  the  psychologist  as  to  the 
nature  of  mind  process  is  largely  avoided  when  attention  is 
confined  to  achievement. 

6.  All  the  above  groups  are  conducted  on  well  recognized  lines 
of  control  experiments,  with  quantitative  measurements.  But 
they  only  bring  us  to  the  threshold  of  the  school  ;  experiments 
which  touch  directly  the  business  of  the  teacher  encounter  several 
difficulties — (1)  they  need  a  long  period  of  time  for  their  com- 
pletion ;  (2)  disturbing  and  qualifying  factors  are  always  presented 
and  cannot  easily  be  reckoned  with ;  (3)  methods  for  estimating 
results  have  scarcely  as  yet  been  seriously  considered.  Such 
methods  must  obviously  vary  for  each  branch  of  instruction  or 
school  management.  Both  in  the  selection  of  the  material  of  a 
curriculum,  in  methods  of  teaching,  and  in  the  corporate  life  of 
school  a  great  amount  of  experimental  work  is  Ijeing  undertaken, 
but  it  can  seldom  hope  to  be  placed  on  the  same  footing  as  regards 
exactness  stich  as  is  attained  in  the  earlier  groups.  Further, 
such  work  can  seldom  be  undertaken  without  some  a  priori  bias 
of  general  principles  as  to  the  underlying  aim  and  function  of  the 

It  is,  however,  in  this  group  that  the  proper  business  of  a 
Department  of  Education  centres  ;  and  it  is  here  that  the  scientific 
attitude  is  most  urgently  needed  by  demonstrators  and  instructors. 
Material,  ilethod.  Corporate  Life — each  of  these  three  sections — 
can  be  treated  from  the  standpoint  of  scientific  method.  One  of 
thepressingproblems  for  investigation  is  to  consider  the  principles 
on  which  results  can  be  tested  :  here  we  should  refer  to  a  remark- 
able inquiry  conducted  in  American  cities  by  Dr.  Rice  (pub- 
lished in  the  Forum,  from  January,  1901,  to  1902).  Our 
English  examining  bodies  collect  every  year  a  large  mass  of 
material  which  could  be  utilized  to  capital  advantage  for  research, 
if  means  were  at  hand. 

8.  This  leads  us  to  a  final  group  which  takes  the  student  outside 
the  school  walls — the  administration  and  control  of  educational 
institutions.  Here  we  have  a  field  in  which  the  methods  of 
political  science  offer  the  model. 

This  cursory  sketch  serves  to  indicate  the  vast  field  that  lies 
before  the  teaching  profession  when  the  time  comes  for  the  teacher 

to  be  trained  on  lines  which  demand  an  approach  to  scientific 
method.  There  are  some  signs  that  the  Government,  which  controls 
so  intimately  the  training  of  teachers,  is  beginning  to  realize  its 
responsibilitj-  to  take  the  lead  in  this  work,  by  affording  means  to 
Universities  and  training  colleges  to  make  a  beginning ;  the 
Education  Bill  of  1906  contained  a  clause  on  behalf  of  Demon- 
stration Schools.  But  a  fulh'  equipped  Department  of  Education 
in  a  University  would  be  at  least  as  costly  to  maintain  as  a 
medical  school.  It  may  be  worth  while  for  this  Association  to  set 
on  foot  some  means  for  collecting  information  as  to  the  extent  to 
which  work  is  being  attempted  (either  in  Departments  of  Educa- 
tion or  in  schools)  of  a  quality  that  can  make  pretensions  to  be 
regarded  as  scientific. 


Secoxd.vry  Instructiox  :  Studies  .ind  Processes. 
Principles  of  Secondary  Education.  A  Text-book.  By  Charles 
De  Garmo,  Professor  of  the  Science  and  Art  of  Education, 
Cornell  University.  Xo\.  1.:  The  Studies.  (  Vol.11.: 
Frocpssex  of  Instruction.  (  (Macmillan.) 
Prof.  De  Garmo  here  presents  "  an  initial  statement  "  of  "  the 
fundamental  principles  of  American  secondary  education,"  dis- 
cussing the  curriculum  in  the  first,  and  the  problems  of  method 
in  the  second,  volume.  "  The  Processes  of  Training  "  are  i-e- 
served  for  a  third  volume.  The  appendixes  to  the  first  volume, 
covering  79  pages  are  exceedingly  instructive  to  the  student  of 
curricula,  who  will  find  in  them  mater-ial  for  the  prosecution  of 
inquiries  outside  the  author's  limits.  They  include  many  tj-pical 
courses  of  study,  both  European  and  American ;  and  it  is 
interesting  to  note  the  large  proportion  of  time  devoted  to 
literary  subjects  by  the  American  secondary  schools,  here 
termed  "  Manual  Training  High  Schools."  In  both  volumes 
there  is  a  liberal  provision  of  "  Topics  for  Discussion,"  which  are 
intended  to  be  treated  as  exercises  performed  in  class.  This 
excellent  feature  of  a  college  text-book  is  occasionally  marred  in 
the  present  case  by  a  certain  pretentiousness  in  some  of  the 
topics  proposed  :  a  thorough,  or  even  a  fruitful,  discussion  of 
these  would  be  beyond  the  knowledge  and  ability  of  the  persons 
for  whom  most  of  the  book  appears  to  be  written. 

Judging  it  from  a  purely  British  point  of  view,  the  book  must 
be  pronounced  disappointing ;  there  is  a  lack  of  proportion  in 
treatment,  in  consequence  of  which  some  parts  are  needlessly  in- 
flated and  others  unduly  contracted.  The  "  Introduction — Pre- 
suppositions undei'lying  American  Secondary  Education,"  raises 
the  thorny  questions  which  centre  round  the  mutual  relations  of 
the  individual  and  the  community;  these  problems  are  funda- 
mental, yet  they  are  dismissed  in  fourteen  pages.  Such  com- 
pression not  only  courts  defeat,  but  plays  into  the  hands  of  that 
numerous  and  most  mischievous  class  of  "educationists  "  who 
are  ever  on  the  look-out  for  generalizations  that  cost  them 
nothing  for  the  making.  One  would  have  preferred  in  this 
"  Introduction  "  a  reasoned  statement  at  some  length  of  the 
principles  which  the  author  conceives  to  lie  at  the  base  of  all 
courses  of  study  pursued  for  strictly  educational  purposes.  Such 
a  statement  is  not  supplied,  either  as  a  set  of  deductions  a  priori 
or  as  the  outcome  of  a  minute  stud}'  of  some  suflSciently  well 
established  curricula.  Accordingly,  when  we  come  to  chapter  v., 
"  The  Organization  of  Studies  and  Curricula,"  the  treatment  is 
elusive  and  unconvincing,  because  it  wants  the  guidance  of  a 
few  master  principles  clearly  formulated.  We  are  told  that  the 
pupil  "  must  recapitulate  in  a  brief  time  at  least  an  epitome  of 
the  acquisitions  of  the  race  "  (II.  69),  but  we  are  left  to  wonder 
why  he  must,  and  no  notice  is  accorded  to  the  objection  that  he 

The  greater  pai-t  of  the  first  volume  is  occupied  in  considering 
the  educational  value  of  the  branches  of  study  followed  in  the 
secondary  schools  of  America.  While  the  author  is  willing  to 
concede  a  restricted  and  not  very  considerable  value  to  "  mental 
discipline  "  or  "  formal  training  "  as  a  factor  in  the  worth  of 
any  given  study,  he  takes  what  seems  to  be  the  thoroughly  sound 
position  that  it  is  specific  content  which  makes  any  branch  of 
human  attainment  valuable  or  not  as  a  school  "  subject."  Studies 
are  classified  under  the  three  great  heads  :  Katural  Sciences, 
Humanities,  and  Economic  Science — the  last  being  an  omniwrn 
gatherum  betokening  a  breakdown  in  the  classification.  AVith 
reference  to  the  first  two  groups.  Prof.  De  Garmo's  position  will 
perhaps  be   fairly  described  as  being  in   the  "  left  centre  "  of 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

orthodoxy  :  he  assigns  a  much  greater  value  to  the  study  of 
foreign  languages,  ancient  as  well  as  modern,  than  is  commonly 
conceded  by  American  writers  on  education.  With  admirable 
courage,  he  quotes  the  opinion  of  the  Prussian  Commissioner 
who  saw  the  outcome  of  transatlantic  Latin  teaching  in  "  the 
proud  inscription,  '  Per  Pacem  ad  Libertas '  (sic)  in  one  of  the 
principal  rooms  of  the  Philippine  exhibit  at  St.  Louis." 

Prof.  De  Garmo's  third  or  "  Economic  "  group  of  studies  in- 
cludes commercial  geography  and  history,  "  economic  physics, 
chemistry,  and  biology,"  mechanical  drawing,  manual  training, 
housewifery,  book-keeping,  typewriting,  shorthand.  Whereas 
the  studies  of  the  former  groups  are  canvassed  at  great  length, 
the  specific  values  of  this  economic  group  are  considered  in 
less  than  ten  pages.  It  is  commonly  understood  that  America 
is  rapidly  and  successfully  developing  the  more  educational  side 
of  "  bread  studies,"  thus  establishing  wliat  is  styled  "  vocational 
education."  Brevity  on  such  a  matter  is  particularly  disap- 
pointing to  the  foreign  student  of  the  process.  The  inclusion  in 
secondary-school  courses  of  some  of  the  so-called  "  bread  studies  " 
is  a  necessity  of  modern  life,  justified  not  only  by  material  ad- 
vantage, but  also  by  the  principle  that  a  school  course  ceases  to 
educate  when  it  gets  out  of  touch  with  life  beyond  the  school 
walls.  But  their  inclusion  is  surrounded  by  very  real  difficulties. 
While  the  studies  themselves  are  in  most  cases  not  yet  suf- 
ficiently defined  and  systematized  to  serve  as  instruments  of  edu- 
cation, the  men  and  women  who  can  employ  them  in  that  capacity 
are  few  in  number.  There  is  therefore  a  demand  for  a  broad 
and  deep  discussion  of  the  principles  which  must  govern  the 
educational  use  of  this  economic  group  of  studies ;  but  the 
author  does  not  give  it  attention.  It  will  not  do  to  accept  these 
studies  as  "  of  course"  :  the  consequence  of  that  attitude  is  the 
plethoric  curriculum  so  familiar  in  Europe. 

Save  for  a  much  needed  and  most  useful  statement  discrimi- 
nating between  the  positions  of  the  researcher  and  the  schoolboy 
(pages  67-78),  the  second  volume  is  little  more  than  a  reiteration 
of  what  is  found  in  any  modern  text-book  of  inductive  logic.  One 
sympathizes  with  the  desire  to  reinstate  logic  in  that  high  place 
in  method  from  which  so  man}-  books  on  teaching  have  tried  to 
depose  it.  But,  if  educational  method  is  no  more  than  can  be 
found  in  the  logical  text-book,  why  the  volume  under  review  ?  It 
is  extraordinary  to  find  no  specific  presentment  of  mental  pro- 
cesses as  such  in  a  book  bearing  the  title  "  Processes  of  Instruc- 
tion." Tlie  author's  own  statements  passim  lead  us  to  expect 
some  notice  from  him  of  the  psychological  side  of  the  instructor' 
problem.  Thus  he  speaks  of  "  the  mastery  of  a  system  of 
thought "  (II.  158),  but  devotes  no  space  to  the  consideration  of 
the  nature  and  growth  of  such  a  system.  He  insists  that  every 
study  has  a  twofold  aspect  — first,  as  "  knowledge,"  which  gives 
insight,  and  second  as  "  technique,"  or  practical  application 
which  gives  efficiency.  He  deprecates  the  consideration  of  any 
studies  as  being  specifically  forms  of  skill,  on  the  ground  that 
such  a  conception  of  them  would  "  obscure  the  organic  nature  of 
the  curriculum  "  (I.  139),  and  "  would  wholly  fail  to  account  for 
its  modern  developments  "  (ItJ^).  But  this  is  little  to  the  point 
so  long  as  these  very  developments  lack  that  full  consideration 
of  whose  absence  we  have  complained  above.  We  look  in  such  a 
book  as  the  present  for  some  treatment  of  the  psychological 
questions  which  the  instructor  must  answer,  whether  he  is  help- 
ing his  pupil  to  acquire  insight  or  efficiency.  It  does  not  avail 
to  say  (II.  152  fi.)  that  the  psychologist  is  interested  in  the  in 
dividual,  whilst  education  is  primarily  social  or  sociological. 
Prof.  De  Garmo  himself  declares,  on  his  very  first  page,  that  "  in 
education  what  is  best  for  the  individual  is  also  best  for  society." 
The  instructor,  therefore,  must  have  an  eye  to  the  individual 
pupil,  and  to  do  this  he  must  take  into  account  factors  other  than 
the  logical.  While  this  is  true  both  in  teaching  which  aims  at 
knowledge  and  in  teaching  whose  purpose  is  skill,  it  is  especially 
necessary  in  the  latter  case.  Possibly  the  psychological  treat- 
ment of  the  processes  of  instruction  is  reserved  for  the  third 
volume.  If  so,  the  order  of  presentation  appears  to  us  to  be 

The  press-work  and  general  "  get-up  "  of  these  volumes  are 
very  good.  We  have  noted  a  few  misprints,  in  proper  names 
chiefly — some  of  them  not  readily  excusable. 

Mr.  Hall  Caine's  Reminiscences. 

My  Story.     By  Hall  Caine.     (6s.     Heinemann ;  for  Collier  &  Co.. 

2  Tudor  Street,  B.C.) 

In  this  volume  Mr.  Hall  Caine  does  not  present  a  regular  and 

complete  account  of  his  career.     He  speaks  of  the  work  as  an 

"  autobiographical  fragment."  It  is  mainly  concerned  with  his 
literary  relationships  during  the  earlier  half  of  his  life,  and 
especially  with  D.  G.  Rossetti.  The  first  part  contains  a  sketch 
of  his  childhood  and  }'0uih  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  "  partly  for  the 
sake  of  the  picture  it  must  needs  present  of  a  curiously  self- 
centred  little  communitj-  that  was  strangely  out  of  touch  and 
harmony  with  the  rest  of  our  kingdom  as  recentlj-  as  half  a  cen- 
tury ago,  and  partly,  perhaps,  for  such  interest  as  it  niigVit  possibly 
possess  for  some  of  the  readers  of  the  novels  with  which  mj' name 
is  associated."  It  contains  also  a  slight  account  of  his  early  days 
in  Liverpool  (where  the  home  of  his  parents  was)  and  of  his  first 
"iterary  friends  (among  them  Ashcroft  Noble  and  William  Wat- 
son), and  of  the  steps  leading  up  to  his  acquaintance  with  Rossetti. 
The  main  interest  of  the  book  is  centred  in  the  second  part,  which 
recounts  prettj'  fully  his  association  with  Rossetti — "  the  story  of 
that  friendship,  the  greatest,  the  most  intimate,  the  most  beautiful 
that  has  ever  come  to  me,"  and  probably  the  most  painfully  try- 
ing. It  is  a  pitiful  story  indeed,  and  one  that  need  not  have  been 
told  at  all  but  for  the  prevalence  of  other  versions  less  creditable 
to  the  author's  friend.  It  appears,  then,  that  Rossetti's  gloomy 
solitude  was  not  "  the  result  of  morbid  brooding  over  the  insults 
of  adverse  critics,"  but  of  "  a  deep-seated  and  wholly  unnecessary 
sense  as  of  a  curse  resting  on  him  and  on  his  work,  whereof  the 
malignancy  of  criticism  was  only  one  of  many  manifestations." 
It  was,  in  fact,  the  result  of  "  remorse,  not  perhaps  for  any  un- 
kindness,  any  want  of  attention,  still  less  any  act  of  infidelity  on 
his  part,  but  for  the  far  deeper  wrong  of  failure  of  affection  for 
the  one  being  to  whom  affection  was  due."  To  Mr.  Hall  Caine's 
mind,  this  revelation 

lifted  him  [RosBetti]  entirely  out  of  the  character  of  the  wayward,  weak, 
uncertain,  neurotic  person,  who  could  put  up  a  blank  wall  about  his 
existence  because  his  wife  had  died  by  the  accident  of  miscalculating 
a  dose  of  laudanum  ;  who  could  do  a  grave  act  and  afterwards  repent  of 
it  and  undo  it  [that  is,  the  burial  of  the  manuscript  poems  in  his  wife's 
coffin]  ;  who  could  finally  shut  himself  up  as  a  hermit  and  encourage  a 
hundred  delusions  about  the  world  because  a  rival  poet  resented  his 
success.  Out  of  this  it  raised  him  into  the  place  of  one  of  the  great 
tragic  figures  of  literature— one  of  the  great  lovers  whose  lives  as  well 
as  their  works  speak  to  the  depth  of  their  love  or  the  immensity  of  their 

It  will  not  be  easy  for  every  reader  to  enter  into  this  view  of  the 
matter.  The  drugs  have  much  to  account  for,  and  the  absence 
of  fresh  air  and  of  a  circle  of  non-worshipping  friends.  In  any 
case,  the  description  presented  by  Mr.  Hall  Caine  is  sufficiently 
painful  and  repulsive.  The  Third  Part  consists  of  fragmentary 
notes  about  Ruskin,  Buchanan,  Blackmore,  and  Wilkie  ('ollins, 
and  about  the  author's  first  essays  in  journalism,  in  fiction  and 
drama,  his  visits  to  America,  and  his  general  reflections  on  the 
literary  life.  The  substantial  part  of  the  book  is  the  detailed 
account  of  the  author's  association  with  Rossetti  ;  the  rest  does 
little  more  than  fill  out  the  proportions  of  the  volume.  The  style 
is  generally  simple  and  agreeable,  and,  though  the  author  writes 
in  the  first  person  and  of  himself,  he  is  not  by  any  means 
unduly  self-regarding. 

A  Mathematical  Miscellany. 

A  Scrap  Book  o/  Elementary  Mathematics.  By  William  F.  White, 
Ph.D.  (5s.  net.  Chicago  :  Open  Court  Publishing  Com- 
pany. London:  Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Triibner,  &  Co.) 
Beneath  a  modest  title,  which,  however,  in  a  great  measure, 
accurately  defines  the  nature  of  the  materials  of  Dr.  White's 
work,  the  volume  liefore  us  contains  a  wealth  of  interesting  facts, 
some  serious  and  of  great  educational  value,  others  useful  and 
suggestive  and  culled  from  the  stores  of  the  history  of  mathe- 
matics ;  others,  again,  are  scraps  dealing  with  the  science  in  its 
lighter  vein,  as  it  appears  in  the  form  of  puzzles.  Those  readers 
are  many  and  of  varied  tastes  who  may  take  up  the  volume  and 
expect  to  meet  with  what  each,  in  turn,  will  find  personally 
attractive.  The  opening  sections  deal  with  topics  calculated  to 
interest  students  of  the  higher  arithmetic  and  the  theory  of 
numbers.  We  give  one  example  only  in  mentioning  that  the 
author,  in  one  of  his  chapters,  draws  attention  to  numbers  that, 
when  multiplied,  by  successive  integers  reproduce,  in  general, 
the  same  series  of  digits  arranged  in  cyclic  order  :  in  general,  for 
the  multipliers  giving  exceptional  results,  together  with  the 
reason  of  the  peculiarities  observable,  are  duly  indicated.  In 
connexion  with  this  portion  of  his  subject,  the  author  expresses 
indebtedness  to  a  mathematician  whose  name  is  well  known  to 
some  of  our  readers,  namely.  Prof.  E.  B.  Escott. 

Excellent  sections  treat  of  the  trends  of  arithmetic   at   the 

Feb.  1,  1909. 



present  time,  amongst  others  tlie  gradual,  but  sure,  tendency  in 
our  day  towards  decimalizaiiou  in  Arithmetic.  The  anther, 
liowerer,  does  not  fail  to  comment  on  the  intrinsic  superiority  ol: 
12  over  10  as  the  radix  of  notation,  if  only  some  mighty  intellect, 
far  in  advance  of  his  time,  had  been  present  to  influence  our 
forefathers  when  making  and  developing  their  choice.  The 
chapter  avowedly  on  multiplic  ition  of  decimals,  but  dealing 
also  with  division.,  is  interesting  both  in  its  educational  and 
in  its  historical  aspect,  whilst,  from  the  historian's  point  of 
view,  the  pages  which  touch  on  the  arithmetic  of  the  Renais- 
sance are  valuable,  though  confined  to  a  few  notes.  Teachers 
will  probably  be  helped  by  Dr.  White's  investig;ation  of  the  true 
relation  which  exists  between  axioms  regarding  equality  and 
algebraic  equations,  and  some,  perhaps,  will  be  grateful  to 
him  for  the  illustritive  examples  by  which  he  proves  the 
ti-uth  of  his  tenets:  further,  his  notes  on  the  true  principle  of 
useful  checking  and  on  other  important  points  in  elementary 
woik  are  worthy  of  careful  attention.  The  sections  on  pure 
m-oinetry  toucli  on  the  postulates  connected  with  the  theory  of 
I Kiiallels,  on  various  puzzles  of  a  geometrical  character,  and  on 
the  celebrated  problems  of  antiquity,  namely,  the  trisection  of  an 
angle  or  arc,  the  duplication  of  the  cube,  and  the  squaring  of 
the  circle.  Also,  there  is  a  brief  reference  to  the  geometry  of 
the  triangle  and  its  allied  points  and  circles.  It  is  impossible  to 
accompany  Dr.  White  through  all  his  sections  in  the  course  of 
a  Ijrief  review,  but  no  study  of  his  book  would  be  complete  that 
dill  not  point  out  the  following  pages  and  chapters.  Historically 
interesting  is  the  page  of  reproductions  of  specimens  of  the 
autographs  of  famous  mathematicians.  Educationally  valuable 
is  t;he  consideration  of  "  Mathematical  Recitation  as  an  Exercise 
ill  Public  Speaking."  Deeply  inspiring  notes  are  struck  in 
tlie  chapter  on  the  nature  of  mathematical  reasoning,  whilst  the 
sequel  to  Alice's  Adventures  in  Wonderland  as  told  by  Dr. 
White  in  "  Alice  in  the  Wonderland  of  Matliematics  "  is  grace- 
ful, imaginative,  and  delightful.  In  conclusion,  the  book  is  well 
worth  reading,  and  many  who  read  it  will,  we  think,  wish  to 
possess  it  for  the  sake  of  some  at  least  of  its  pages. 


Tlie  Comedies  of  Terence.  Edited  by  Sidney  G.  Ashmore,  L.H.D.,  Pro- 
fessor of  Latin  In  Union  College,  Schenectady,  N.Y.  (6s.  Oxford 
University  Press,  Aiuerican  Branch.) 
Prof.  A^hinore  adopts  substantially  Prof.  Tyrrell's  Clarendon  Press 
text  ("Scriptornm  Classicorum  Bibliotheca  Oxoniensis "),  not  merely 
because  the  publishers  naturally  desired  to  have  their  own  text  annotated, 
but  "  owing  chiefly  to  the  conviction  that  Dziatzko's  text  is,  on  the 
whole,  infeiior."  Dziatzko  did  great  things  for  the  text,  and  it  is  no 
discredit  to  him  if  a  successor  make  further  improvements  ;  what  is 
more  surprising  is  that  an  American  si  holar  should  stand  clear  of  his 
colleagues  ' '  who  imagine  that  no  good  critical  te.xt  of  an  ancient  classic 
can  come  out  of  England" — which  is  nowadays  to  imagine  a  vain 
thing.  Prof.  TyrreU's  brief  critical  apparatus  is  given  at  the  foot  of 
the  page,  and  is  very  usefully  supplemented  by  Prof.  Ashmore's  critical 
appendixes.  An  extensive  introduction  explains  and  discusses  in  every 
important  aspect  the  history  of  ancient  comedy,  with  special  attention 
to  Terence — a  very  instructive  and  convenient  essay.  In  the  notes. 
Prof.  Ashmore  makes  Terence  his  own  commentator,  as  far  as  possible ; 
but  he  has,  of  course,  avaied  himself  of  the  current  literature  on 
Terence,  as  well  as  of  much  of  the  literature  on  Plautus.  In  the 
explanation  of  the  Latin,  the  notes  are  usually  concise  and  pointed  ; 
the  legal  expressions  miss  treatment  from  a  scholar  that  knows  the 
familiar  original  sources — a  strangely  common  failing  in  editions  of 
literaiw  classics.  Thus,  "  hancmi  in  manum  dat  "  (Audr.,  ii.  3  [i.  4])  is 
slurred  over,  and  the  technical  expression  (whii^h  is  not  in  question  here 
at  all)  is  treated  inadequately,  and  even  niisleadingly.  The  references 
to  American  grammars  and  journals  constitute  a  certain  drawback  to  the 
utility  of  the  edition  on  this  side  of  the  water,  but  that  may  be  got 
over  easily.  The  treatment  is  sincere  and  capable  (with  the  limited 
exception  indicated),  and  the  work  will  be  very  welcome  in  schools 
where  Terence  is  read.  The  typography  of  the  Riverside  Press  needs 
no  commendation. 

Select    Epif/rams   of  Martial:    Spectaculorum  Liber    and    Books    I. -VI. 

Edited  from  the  text  of  Prof.    Lindsay  by   R.  T.   Bridge,   M.A., 

and    E.   D.   C.   Clarke,  MA.,  Assistant  Masters  at  Charterhouse. 

(Clarendon  Press.) 

The  editors  have  done  well  in  accepting  the  te.xt  prepared  by  Prof. 

Lindsay,    apart    altogether    from  its    place  in  the   publishers'  series  of 

Oxford  Classical  Texts.     The  introduction  furnishes  a  connected  account 

of  features  of  Roman  life  that  are  constantly  emerging  in  the  epigrams 

(Cmitinued  on  page  74.) 


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[Feb.  1.  1909. 

— patron  aud  client,  legacy-hunting*,  recitations,  books,  &c. — as  well  as 
a  sketch  of  Martial's  life  and  of  Ms  handling  of  the  epigram,  and  an 
account  of  the  public  spectacles.  The  notes  are  concise :  they  are 
mainly  directed  to  elucidation  of  the  thought  and  point  of  the  epigrams, 
but  real  difiSculties  in  the  Latin  are  not  left  unexplained.  Proper  names 
iue  fully  dealt  with  in  a  special  index.  The  volume  is  very  carefully 
aiid  ably  edited,  and  will  be  welcomed  in  the  upper  forms  of  schools. 
AVe  noticed  the  second  volume — Books  VII. -XII. — in  April,  1907. 

T/ie  Tern's  Work  in  Ctassicnl  Studies,  1908,  edited  by  W.  H.  T>.  Eouse, 
M.A.,  Litt.D.,  Head  Master  of  the  Perse  Grammar  School,  Cambridge 
('2s.  6d.  net,  John  Murray),  furnishes  a  very  convenient  and  most  useful 
record.  There  are  eighteen  chapters  dealing  with  the  progress  of 
classical  study  in  as  many  different  spheres  :  classical  work  in  the 
schools,  excavations  in  Greece  aud  Italy,  archaeology,  history,  grammar, 
palaeography,  sculpture,  numismatics,  religion,  literature.  New  Testa- 
ment, &c.  The  only  subject  conspicuous  by  its  absence  is  Law — not  the 
least  important  of  classical  subjects,  though  too  often  unsatisfactorily 
treated  in  editions  of  classical  texts.  Much  of  the  matter  is  very  con- 
densed, indicative  rather  than  explanatory  ;  but  the  foot-note  references 
come  to  the  rescue,  and  we  hope  that  the  editor  will  be  encouraged, 
before  many  more  annual  issues  (this  is  the  third  only),  to  allow  his 
contributoi's  to  be  more  expansive. 


A  New  Geometry  for  Middle  Forms.     By  S.  Barnard,  M.A.,  and  J.  M. 
Child,  B.A.,  B.Sc.     (3s.  6d.     Macmillan.) 

We  have  in  the  past  had  occasion  to  notice  very  favourably  the 
treatise  written  by  the  above-named  writera  and  entitled  "A  New 
Geometry  for  Schools"— a  work  subsequently  divided  and  issued, 
together  with  a  treatment  of  the  subject  of  solid  geometry,  in  two 
volumes,  namely  "  A  New  Geometry  for  Junior  Forms  "  and  "  A  New 
Geometry  for  Senior  Forms."  The  present  publication  contains  all  that 
is  to  be  found  in  the  text-book  for  junior  pupils  and  also  a  portion  of 
what  is  included  in  the  volume  for  the  senior  forms.  Hence  the  treatise 
now  before  us  is  medium  in  its  character.  Including  as  it  does  the 
subjects  treated  by  Euclid  in  his  first  four  Books,  it  may  be  used  as  an 
excellent  text-book  for  examination  purposes  by  candidates  reading  for 
I'niversity  of  London  Matriculation  or  preparing  for  the  Oxford  and 
Cambridge  Junior  Locals  and  examinations  of  like  standard.  The  work 
is  published  in  very  serviceable  form. 

Geometrii,  Theoretical  and  Practien I.      Part  II.    By  W.  P.  Workman,  M. A., 
B.Sc,  aud  A.  G.  Crackuell,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  F.C.P.     (28.     Clive.) 

Part  I.  of  this  publication  came  before  our  notice  a  considerable  time 
ago,  and,  as  a  text-book  which  combined  some  of  the  best  features  of 
the  old  and  the  new  systems  of  teaching  geometry,  the  work  attracted 
very  favourable  notice.  Part  II.  of  the  treatise  is  a  fitting  sequel  to 
the  more  elenientary  volume  and  deals  (1)  with  the  theory  of  areas 
which  forms  the  subject  of  Euclid's  Second  Book  and  the  end  of  his 
Third  Book,  (2)  with  the  principal  propositions  on  regular  polygons, 

(3)  with   the   theory   of    ratio,    proportion,    and   similar   figures,    and 

(4)  with  more  modern  topics;  c./?.,  inversion,  harmonic  section,  and 
centres  of  similitude.  The  subject  of  rectangular  areas  is  treated  both 
by  pure  geometry  and  by  algebraic  methods,  and,  although  the  discussion 
by  either  is  in  itself  sufficient,  the  writers  .strongly  recommend  that  those 
who  use  the  text-book  should  study  both.  Euclid's  treatment  of  ratio 
and  proportion  gives  place  to  a  consideration  based  solely  on  the  arith- 
metical definition  of  a  ratio  and  its  application  to  conunensurable  quan- 
tities ;  but,  for  the  sake  of  completeness,  a  chapter  on  irrational  numbers 
is  introduced  at  the  close  of  the  volume.  The  demonstrations  are  clear 
and  satisfactory  and  are  fully  illustrated  by  neat  diagrams. 

Prepiirntory  Mathematics.     By  A.  Clement  Joues,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  and 

C.  H.  Blomfield,  M.A.,  B.Sc.  (Is.  6d.  Nelson.) 
The  ideas  that  form  the  basis  of  this  little  volume  of  exercises  are 
useful  and  practical.  The  main  subject  treated  is  arithmetic,  but  a  first 
introduction  to  algebra  and  elementary  geometry  finds  place  here  also, 
and  supplies  the  teacher  with  the  means  of  co-ordinating  in  his  lessons 
the  various  branches  of  preliminary  mathematics.  Whilst  providing  a 
general  syllabus  in  accordauce  with  which  the  course  of  instruction  may 
be  arranged,  the  authors  have  grouped  the  exercises  as  far  as  possible 
with  respect  to  difficulty,  and  with  little  regard  for  definite  order  of 
study.  The  plan  has  been  adopted  with  a  view  to  framing  the  pupil 
to  be  thoughtful  and  self-reliant,  and  not  to  judge  what  rule  is  required 
for  the  working  out  of  a  particular  exercise  from  the  position  of  the 
latter  in  his  book.  A  valuable  principle  also  underlies  the  endeavour  to 
lead  up  informally  to  a  fresh  subject,  so  that  the  pupil  may  not  approach 
his  serious  work  on  new  material  without  having  first  become  more  or 
less  familiar  with  its  ideas  and  its  terminology.  The  lines  on  which 
the  volume  is  written  agree  with  rather  than  follow  the  suggestions 
of  the  British  Association  Special  Committee,  since  the  reader  learns 
from  the  preface  that  the  work  was  well  in  hand  before  the  Report  of 
the  Committee  was  i.s,sued. 

Ejaiiiples  in   Elfmtiitari,   Mechanics  :    I'raclical,    Geographical,   and   Theor- 
etical.    By  W.   J.   Dobbs,  M.A.,  sometime  Foundation  Scholar  of 
St.  John's  College,  Cambridge.     (ft».     Methuen.) 
The  volume  is  ' '  designed  to  cover  the  ground  of  an  elementary  course 
without  the  nse  of   an   accompanying   text-book."     The  text-book  is 

dis].ensedwith  by  the  insertion  of  brief  and  pointed  explanations  and  of 
fully  worked  examples.  The  examples  are  abundant  and  varied  and 
they  are  very  carefully  graduated.  The  practical  exercises  requiring 
the  of  apparatus  (of  the  simplest  description)  are  designed  "either 
for  the  pm-pose  of  driving  home  some  definite  principle  or  as  requiring 
the  use  of  such  a  principle  for  their  interpretation."  The  work  has 
been  compiled  with  great  labour  and  care,  and  cannot  fail  to  be  most 
valuable  in  practice,  whether  with  or  without  a  text-book.  Answers 
are  appended,  and  there  are  fifty-two  diagrams. 

The  Principles  of  Mechanics.  For  Students  of  Physics  and  Engineering. 
By  Henry  Crew,  Ph.D.,  Fayerweather  Professor  of  Physics  in 
North-Westem  University.      (6s.  net.     Longmans.) 

Prof.  Crew  assumes  a  previous  course  of  general  physics  and  a  course 
(either  concurrent  or  antecedent)  in  the  Calculus.  Confining  the  treat- 
ment to  such  part  of  the  subject  as  is  common  ground  for  the  physicist 
and  the  engineer,  he  "builds  the  discussion  upon  a  few  simple  experi- 
ments and  upon  definitions  which  convey  at  once  ihe  physical  meaning  of 
the  quantities  defined  "  ;  and,  to  reduce  the  inherent  difficulties  to  a 
minimum,  he  "  treats  dynamics  in  two  analogous  parts,  rotational  and 
translational,  such  that  if  either  one  is  given  the  other  may  be  immedi- 
ately deduced."  A  very  Interesting  chapter  is  devoted  to  some  applica- 
tions of  general  principles  to  special  problems.  The  last  chapter  treats 
of  "  Fluid  Motion."  The  handling  is  simple  and  perspicuous  ;  prob- 
lems and  exercises  are  furnished  ;  and  there  are  110  figures. 
First  Course  in  Biology.  Part  I.,  Plant  Biology.  By  L.  H  Bailey. 
Part  II.,  Animal  Biology,  and  Part  III.,  Human  Biology.  By 
Walter  M.  Coleman.     (Macmillan.) 

This  volume  does  not  seem  to  fit  into  English  school  biological  teach- 
ing so  well  as  into  the  newer  American  arrangements  for  which  it  is 
primarily  designed.  "In  the  natural  science  field,"  we  learn,  "the 
tendency  is  to  attach  less  importance  to  botany  and  zoology  and  j)hy8io- 
logy  as  such,  and  to  lay  greater  stress  on  the  processes  and  adaptations 
of  life  as  expressed  in  plants  and  animals  aud  men  This  tendency  is 
a  revolt  against  the  laboratory  method  and  research  method  of  the 
college  as  it  has  been  impressed  into  the  common  schools."  The  treat- 
ment accordingly  reverts,  in  the  main,  to  descriptive  and  observational 
methods,  with  a  constant  purpose  of  applying  the  lessons  to  daily  life. 
"  The  very  reason  for  knowing  plants  and  animals  is  that  one  may  live 
with  them,  and  the  reason  for  knowing  oneself  is  that  he  may  live  his 
daily  life  with  some  intelligence."  Hence  in  the  third  part  there  is  a 
good  deal  of  matter  that  one  usually  finds  in  books  on  hygiene.  "  The 
book  stands  between  the  unorganized  Nature  study  of  the  intermediate 
grades  and  the  fomial  science  of  the  more  advanced  courses,"  and 
certainly  it  contains  a  large  amount  of  very  useful  information  aud  sug- 
gestion.    There  are  302  +  408  +  132  figures. 

The  Young  Engineer  ;  or.  Modern  Engines  and  their  Models.     By  Hammond 
Hall.     (     Methuen.) 

Mr.  Hall  mostly  leaves  to  Dr.  Smiles  and  other  popular  writers  the 
stoiy  of  the  early  years  of  the  steam  engine,  and  restricts  himself  as 
closely  as  possible  to  giving  a  clear  outline  of  the  principles  of  modem 
engine  practice.  Having  set  in  order  the  workshop  and  its  furniture, 
he  describes  the  steam  engine  in  its  various  forms  and  the  locomotive 
engine  ;  shows  how  to  make  and  run  model  locomotives  ("  the  most 
fascinating"  of  all  branches  of  model  engineering,  "  and  the  one  re- 
quiring the  greatest  amount  of  skill  and  technical  knowledge  ")  ;  and 
then  deals  with  marine  engines  (the  designs  for  which  "illustrate  the 
most  remarkable  apijUcations  of  the  inventive  genius  of  the  mechanic, 
the  greatest  talent  of  the  designing  engineer,  and  the  best  work  of  the 
engine  builder"),  the  steam  turbine,  steam  generators,  models,  and  so 
forth.  A  boy  with  a  mechanical  turn  wiU  catch  Mr.  Hall's  enthusiasm 
and  get  absorbed  in  his  patient  and  lucid  description  of  machinery  and 
its  working.     There  are  eighty-five  illustrations. 


The  Development  of  Modern  Europe  :  an  Introduction  to  the  Study  of  Currn// 
Historg.  By  James  Harvey  Robinson,  Professor  of  History,  and 
Charles  A.  Beard,  Adjunct  Professor  of  Politics,  in  Columbia  Uni- 
versity. Two  volumes.  (6s.  6d,  ea<h.  Ginn.) 
The  authors  believe  that,  "  in  general,  Europe  of  to-day  can  be  quite 
well  understood  if  the  wonderful  achievements  since  the  opening  of  the 
eighteenth  century  are  properly  grasped."  Accordingly,  they  start  from 
Louis  XIV.  and  the  reconstruction  of  Europe  at  LTtrecht ;  and  the  first 
volume  goes  down  to  the  reconstruction  at  the  Congress  of  Vienna,  the 
second  continuing  the  history  to  the  present  day.  The  standpoint  is  the 
present,  and  the  past  is  treated  so  as  to  furnish  the  explanation  of  how 
the  present  has  been  evolved  out  of  it.  Occurrences  that  appear  to  have 
been  of  merely  temporary  prominence  have  been  omitted  as  not  relevant 
to  the  specific  purpose  of  the  work.  The  dependence  of  the  nineteenth 
century  upon  the  eighteenth  is  emphasized:  "it  was  the  eighteenth 
century  which  set  the  problems  of  progress  and  suggested  their  solutions, 
leaving  to  its  successor  the  comparatively  simple  task  of  working  them 
out  in  detail  and  making  fuller  application  of  them."  There  is  somewhat 
of  strain  in  this  way  of  characterizing  the  two  periods,  but  in  any  case 
it  is  well  to  lessen  the  break  between  the  centuries  that  has  usually  been 
made  by  the  date  1789.  The  political  and  military  events  are  aUotted  a 
markedly  reduced  space,  in  order  to  make  room  for  a  more  generous 
treatment  of  the  more  fundamental  economic  matters:   "the  industrial 

Peb.  1,  1909.] 


reTolution,  commerce  and  the  colonies,  the  internal  reforms  of  the 
European  States,  even  the  general  advanced  science,  have  all,  so  far  as 
possible,  been  given  their  just  due."  In  such  a  large  field  the  selection 
and  the  handling  of  topics  mast  be  severely  limited,  but  the  authors  rely 
for  amplification  and  enlivenment  upon  the  cun'cnt  use  of  "  Readings  in 
Modem  Eui-opean  History,"  a  collection  that  "follows  the  narrative 
chapter  by  chapter  and  furnishes  examples  of  the  stuff  of  which  hietorj- 
is  made."  We  have  not  seen  these  "Readings,"  but  no  doubt  they  are 
analogous  to  certain  volumes  of  representative  extracts  that  are  fainiliar 
to  us— extremely  useful  adjuncts  to  historical  study  in  schools.  Here 
and  there  the  nan-ative  suffers  from  compression,  and  sometimes  one  feels 
that  the  outlook  is  not  exactly  from  the  English  standpoint ;  but  these  are 
trifles  in  view  of  the  clear  and  fluent  presentation  generally  characterizing 
the  work,  which  is  v'ery  ably  and  judiciously  executed.  The  maps  con- 
stitute a  valuable  feature  :  the  fii-st  volume  has  22  and  the  second  15. 
There  are  21  illustrations  (6  in  the  first  volume  and  15  in  the  second),  a 
dozen  of  them  being  full-page  portraits  of  men  of  eminence  in  various 
departments  of  public  usefulness.  The  volumes  are  well  printed  and 
strongly  bound. 

Messrs.  Hodder  &  Stoughtou  issue  a  very  handy  and  agreeable  popular 
edition  of  A  IS/iort  History  of  Social  Life  in  England,  by  M.  B.  Synge, 
F.R.Hist.S.  (3s.  6d.).  It  is  a  most  interesting  "  .sketch  of  the  material 
conditions  in  which  our  ancestors  lived.  It  is  pre-eminently  a  book  of 
detail :  it  presents  a  brief  glimpse  of  "  their  houses,  their  food,  clothes, 
manners,  punishments,  of  their  wives  and  children,  of  their  gardens, 
their  education,  with  some  account  of  the  social  changes  that  have  taken 
plo.ce  throughout  the  ages."  The  volume,  though  of  independent  interest, 
should  be  read  in  conjvmction  with  the  ordinary  history,  the  outlines  of 
which  it,  of  course,  presupposes. 

The  Century    Bible. — (1)  Deuteronomy;  Joshua.     By  the  Rev.  Prof   H. 
Wheeler   Robinson,    M.A.       (2)  Proverbs,   Ecclesiastcs,   and   Song  of 
Solomon.     By  the  Rev.  Prof.  G.  Currie  Martin,  M.  A.,  B.D.     (2s.  6d. 
net  each.     Jack.) 

(1)  The  Book  of  Deuteronomy  "can  claim  a  iraique  place  in  the 
literature  of  the  Old  Testament,  both  on  intrinsic  and  extrinsic  grounds," 
which  Mr.  Robinson  clearly  explains.  As  to  its  date,  "  the  most  con- 
vincing proof  that  the  book  belongs  to  an  age  much  later  than  the 
Mosaic  Ues  in  the  cumulative  force  of  the  reconstruction  of  the  history  of 
Israel's  religion,  afforded  by  many  independent  data  "  :  Mr.  Robinson 
concludes  that  the  central  part  of  it  must  have  been  wi'itten  either  in  the 
long  reign  of  Manasseh  or  in  the  earlier  part  of  the  reign  of  Josiah 
(637-6U8),  the  latter  date  being  perhaps  the  more  probable.  The  sections 
of  the  Introduction  dealing  with  the  Deuteronomic  legislation  and  the 
Deuteronondc  religion  are  very  able  and  instructive.  On  the  former 
subject  constant  reference  is  made  in  the  notes  to  the  laws  of  Hammur- 
abi, "which  are  of  the  greatest  importance  for  the  interpretation  of 
Hebrew  law,  with  which  they  are  closely  related,  if  not  as  direct  source, 
yet  certainly  as  deveL  )ped  from  a  common  origin  and  amongst  a  related 
people."  The  ti'eatment  of  "Joshua"  is  also  remarkably  capable  and 
illuminating.  The  volume  will  rank  among  the  vei-y  bestof  the  excellent 

(2)  The  three  books  of  Mr.  Martin's  volume  exemplify  "  the  lighter 
side  of  Jewish  literature":  "two  of  them  are  strictly  poetic  in  form, 
while  the  third  contains  many  passages  of  exquisite  poetic  prose."  The 
introductions  handle  discreetly  and  shrewdly  the  very  difficult  questions 
of  the  origin,  character,  and  purpose  of  the  books  ;  and  the  notes  con- 
tribute immensely  to  the  proper  understanding  of  the  text,  a  special 
feature  being  liberal  illustration  from  widely  different  literary  sources. 
Mr.  Martin  has  done  his  work  with  great  abiUtj'  and  resourcefulness  in 
the  face  of  multiplied  difficulties.  His  volume  will  be  most  welcome  to 
all  serious  students  of  the  books. 

Select  Readings  from  tl'C  Psalms  for  family  and  private  use,  by  Joseph 
B.  Mayor  (Ss.  6d.  net,  Murray),  have  been  compiled  on  the  priuciple  of 
"  the  exclusion  of  whatever  is  not  in  haraionj^  with  the  higher  revelation 
of  the  New  Testament."  The  principle  is  fully  explained  and  Ulustrated 
in  an  able  and  channing  preface.  The  Readings  are  given  in  two  forms, 
the  Prayer  Book  Ver.sion  and  the  Revised  Version  being  placed  on  pages.     The  type  is  large  and  agreeable. 


The  '■  Knoioledge"  of  the  Circular  Slide-Rale  Calculator,  designed  by 
Major  B.  Baden-Powell  and  published  from  the  office  of  Knowledge 
(27  Chanc.;ry  Lane,  W.C.),  is  a  simple  appliance  enabling  one  "  very 
rapidly  to  obtain  approximate  results,  even  with  large  figures,  in  multi- 
phcation  and  division,"  and  to  find  promptly  the  equivalents  of  English 
and  foreign  measures.  One  can  readily  appreciate  the  difficulty  of  pro- 
ducing the  apparatus  in  such  a  simple  and  practical  form.  (3s.  6d.  ; 
postage,  2d.) 

Messrs.  George  Philip  &  Son  issue  a  Graphic  Globe  (Is.  6d.  net),  care- 
fully designed,  fully  and  clearly  lettered  and  turning  on  a  tilted  axis 
fixed  on  a  brass  tripod.  Also  a  Slaie  Graphic  Globe  (Is.  6d.  net),  without 
lettering,  but  with  black-.slated  surface  like  a  blackboard  (the  land  in 
white),  on  which  chalks  or  pencils  may  be  used.  Mounted  on  a  black 
polished  .stand.  Both  forms  may  be  very  usefully  applied  in  the  teach- 
ing of  elementary  geography. 



By  F.  G.  JEVTETT. 

Revised  for  use  in  English  Schools  by  ALICE  RAVENHILL, 
F.R.San.I.,  Lecturer  London  University  Extension  Board. 
Designed  for  pupils  from  ten  to  twelve  years  of  age,  treating  of 
hygiene  rather  than  anatomy  or  physiology,  special  emphasis  being 
laid  upon  pei'sonal  hygiene . 

Fully  Illustrated.      171  pages.      Price  Is.  6d. 


By    G.    li.    KITTREDGE    and    S.    L,.    ARNOLD. 

BOOK  I,  —  Speciallv  revised  for  use  in  English  Schools  by 
JOHN  W.  ADAMSON,  B.A.,  Professor  of  Education, 
Kmg's  CcUege,  Loudon.  LESSONS  IN  SPEAKING, 
READING,  AND  WRITING  ENGLISH,   xiv  +  294  pages. 

Illustrated.     Price  Is.  6d. 

Opitiluns  uj'  His  JJaJesti/'s  Itispectors: 

••  I  should  bs  very  glad  to  see  it  in  use  in  aU  our  schools." 

"  I  do  not  know  of  any  better  method  of  teaching  English  than 

that  so  carefuUy  developed  in  '  The  Mother  Tongue.'  " 

"The  most  practical  text-book  I  know  for  teaching  the  Mother 


WITH  LESSONS  IN  COMPOSITION.  sxii  + 417 pages. 

Price  3s. 

TION.    xx+i:il  piiges.     Price  4s.  6d. 


AUTHORS.  Kditcil  hv  O.  Tl.  (JiEKLAC.  Sclfctions  frniii  the  works  ol" 
such  writers  as  Molicre,  Pascal,  La  Fontaine.  Victor  Hugo,  Bossuet,  Voltaire, 
Rousseau,  and  Renan.  With  Notes,  Vocabulary,  and  Biographical  Sketches. 
220  pages.    Price  2s.  6d. 

DIX  CONTES  MODERNES.     Edited  by  H.  A. 

Potter.  Specimens  of  em-rent  French  with  EiikIisIi  Paraphrases  at  end  of 
book  for  retranslation.    95  pages.     Price  Is.  6d. 

CLUCK  AUF.    A  First  German   Reader. 

By  11.  JIiiLLEE  and  C.  Wenckebach.  Jntended  primarily  for  beginners. 
The  central  idea  ot  the  liook  is  to  introduce  the  student  at  once  to  facts, 
ideas,  and  sentiments,  which  are  in  close  relation  to  German  life.  235  pages. 
Price  3s. 

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Latin  Prose,  An  Introduction  to.  By  George  W.  Mitchell,  M.A., 
Assistant  Professor  of  Latin  and  Greek,  Queen's  University, 
Eangston,  Ontario.     3s.  6d.     Macmillan. 

[Presents  a  method  "  by  which  the  student  may  be  trained  from 
the  very  beginning  to  look  beyond  words  to  ideas."  "Construc- 
tions and  idioms  are  introduced  as  rapidly  as  the  average  student 
is  capable  of  mastering  them,  and  grammatical  forms  are  reduced  to 
a  minimum."'     Abundance  of  exercises.     Practical.] 

Latin  Reader,  A.  By  W.  King  Gillies,  M.A.  Glas.,  B.A.  Oxon.,  Senior 
Classical  Master  in  the  High  School  of  Glasgow,  and  Hector  J. 
Anderson,  M.A.  Edin.,  B.A.  Oxon.,  Inspector  of  Training 
Colleges,  Cape  Colony.     2s.     BeU. 

[Verse  and  prose  ;  good  matter  chosen  from  wide  ai"ea.  Provides 
"easy  and  interesting  reading  for  the  second  and  third  years. ' ' 
Some  pertinent  notes  added  ;  vocabulary.     Very  useful.] 

Latin  Reading  Book,  A,  "in  usum  Tironum."  By  the  Rev.  E.  D. 
Stone,  formerly  Fellow  of  King's  College,  Cambridge,  and  Assistant 
Master  at  Eton.     l.s.  6d.     Macmillan. 

[Prose  (52  pieces)  and  poetry  (34).  Interesting  matter  in 
sufficiently  idiomatic  Latin  ;  some  verse  passages  are  translations  of 
English  poems,  placed  opposite  ;  selections  from  Virgil  partly  given 
by  reference.     Very  attractive  and  practically  serviceable  collection.] 


By  M.  Eastwood,  B.Sc, 

.Arithmetic,  A  Complete.     By  M.  Eastwood,  B.Sc,  formerly  Lecturer 
in  Education  in  the  University  of  Liverpool,  and  J.  Lightfoot,  D.Sc., 
M.A.     4s.  net.     Ralph,  Holland,  &  Co. 
[Abimdant  exercises ;  answers.] 
Arithmetic,  Con-elated,   Pitman's.      By  T.  "VV.  Trought,  B.A., 
Master,    Camden    Street    Council    School,    Binningham,    formerly 
Lectiu'er    in    Mathematics,    &c.,    at    Chester     Training     College. 
Book   IV.,    3id.      Book   III.,    Answers,    Notes,    Oral   work,    &c., 
is.  3d.  net. 
Arithmetic,  Girls',  McDougaU's.     Book  I.  (Teachers') — for  Class  IV., 
Is.  3d.  net. 

[Exercises  oral  and  mental ;  practical  problems.     Answers.] 
Arithmetic,    Practical,    Examples    in :     based    upon    Consterdine    and 
Andi-ew's   "Practical   Arithmetic."'      Compiled  by  J.   L.   Martin. 
Part  II.,  6d.     MuiTay  (School  Librai-y). 
[Varied,  practical ;  serviceable.] 
Arithmetic,  Short  Methods  in.     By  M   Eastwood,  B.Sc,  and  J.  Light- 
foot,  D.Sc,  M.A.     Is.  3d.  net.     Ralph,  Holland,  &  Co. 

[Compiled  by  Mr.  J.  E.  Dean,  on  the  basis  of  the  authors'  "A 
Complete  Arithmetic  ' '  (see  above) .  ] 
Arithmetic,  Special  Method  in.     By  Charles  A.   McMmTy,   Ph.D.     Ss. 
net.     Macmillan. 

[Explains  purpose  of  teaching  arithmetic,  outlines  fully  a  course 
of  study,  and  discusses  and  illustrates  the  method  of  handling  some 
of  the  chief  topics.] 
Calciilus,  Differential  and  Integral.  By  Daniel  A.  Murray,  Ph.D.,  Pro- 
fessor of  Applied  Mathematics  in  McGill  University.  7s.  6d. 

[Matter  mainly  from  Prof.   Murray's  "Infinitesimal  Calculus," 
with  additions,  and  considerably  altered  treatment.] 
Geometry,  InteiTnediate  :  Experimental,  Theoretical,  and  Practical.     By 
Alexander  Leightou,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  E.E.I.S.,   Senior   Mathematical 
Master,  Morgan  Academy,  Dundee.     Is.  6d.     Blackie. 

[For  bctrinners  ;  "  such  a  course  as  would  form  a  suitable  curri- 
culum in  elementary'  geometry  in  higher- grade  or  secondary  schools." 
Examples  numerous  and  good  ;  answers.] 
Geometry,  Priijective,  An  Introduction  to.  By  L.  N.  G.  Filon,  M.A., 
D.Sc,  Fellow  and  Lecturer  of  University  College,  London,  Ex- 
aminer in  Mathematics  to  the  University  of  Lond<in.  7s.  6d. 
Edward  Ai'uold. 

[Theory  of  conic  sections  on  modem  lines.] 
Logarithms,  ABC  Five-Figure,  for  General  Use.     By  C.  .1.  AVood- 
ward,  B.Sc     3e.  net.     Spon. 

[Second   edition.      Explanatory  introduction ;    elaborately    con- 
trived for  convenience  ;  substantially  got  up.] 
Mathematics,  Pure,  A  Course  of.     By  G.  H.  Hardy,  M.A.,  Fellow  and 
Lecturer  of    Trinity   College,  Cambridge.       12s.    net.     Cambridge 
University  Press. 

[Primarily  for  first-year  University  students  of  "  scholarship 
standard."  Considerable  space  given  to  discussion  and  application 
of  fundamental  ideas  of  the  calculus.     "  EeaUy  elementary."] 

Feench  axd  Gekmak. 
German    Reader,    Historical.      By  J.  E.   Mallin,  Assistant   at  Strand 
School,  King's  College,  London.     2s.     George  BeU. 

[Interesting  passages  representing  the  various  periods  of  German 
history.     Brief  notes';  vocabulary  ;  illustrations.     Very  useful.] 

Le  Franc;ai8  Parle  et  Ecrit :  Livre  des  Commeuf;ants.  By  A.  Stallworthy, 
M.A. ,  Royal  Grammar  School,  Newcastle-on-Tyne.  3s.  6d.  Murray 
(French  Coursei. 

["  For  the  lower  forms  of  the  ordinary  secondary  school."  Com- 
bines a  progressive  conversation  course  with  a  graduated  grammar 
course.  "  Aims  at  laying  a  solid  foundation  of  cultured  colloquial 
French."  Phonetics  made  auxiliary  to  the  lessons.  Immense  scope 
for  practice.     Excellent.] 

Plays,  French,  for  Children.  (1)  Dans  le  Royaume  des  Fees:  a  second 
series  (4  plays)  by  Violet  Partington,  Brevetee,  French  Mistress  at 
the  Queen's  College  School,  &c.  Horace  Marshall.  (2)  La  Belle 
au  Bois  Dormant.  By  Ellen  C.  Hainsselin,  Blackheath  High 
School.  Music  by  R.  Waddy,  A.E.C.O.  (31  Le  Chalet  Poucinet. 
By  Mrs.  J.  G.  Frazer.  (4)  Le  Chevalier  du  Guet.  By  E.  Magee, 
Edgbastou  High  School  for  Girls,  Binningham.  With  Music. 
(6)  Le  Petit  Grand-Pere  et  la  Petite  Grand'-Mere.  Par  Kate 
Weber.  Diplumee  de  la  Sorbonne  et  de  la  Guilde  Internationale, 
Paris  (traduction  franijaise  par  A.  Bourdass,  Diplomee  de  la  Sor- 
bonne et  de  la  Guilde  Internationale.  Paris).  (6)  Cendrillon.  By 
E.  Magee.  (7)  Fleiu-  de  Neige.  By  Ellen  C.  Hainsselin.  (8)  Le 
Petit  Chaperon  Rouge.  By  Ellen  C.  Hainsselin.  Music  by 
E.  Waddy.  ('J)  Le  Petit  Poncet.  By  EUen  C.  Hainsselin.  Music 
by  R.  Waddy.  4d.  each.  Blackie  (Little  Plays  for  Acting  or 
Class  Reading! . 

[Very  engaging  and  effective.] 
Sprache  und  Literatur,  Das  Wissenschaftlische  Studium  der  deutsohen  : 
ein  Wegeiser  fiir  Studircnde.      Von  Dr.   Phil.  Heinz  Hungerland, 
z.z.  Lektor  der   deutschen  Sprache  an   der  Universitiit   zu  Lund. 
1  kr.  (or  1.12  M.).     MijUer  (Lund). 

[Brief  guide  to  students  in  all  departments— much  too  brief. 
Reprinted  from  the  "  Skaudinavisk  Manadsrevy  for  Undervisning 
i  de  tre  hufudspraken."] 

Religious  and  Mokal. 

Bible  Lessons  for  Schools:  (1)  Genesis;  (2)  Exodus.  By  E.  M.  Knox- 
Principal  of  Havergal  College,  Toronto.  Is.  6d.  each  Macmillan, 
[' '  Each  lesson  contains  the  story  of  one  or  more  chapters,  together 
with  the  moral  and  spiritual  truths  most  clearly  to  be  deduced  from 
them."  Though tfid,  careful,  simple.  Broad  treatment  of  Exodus 
specially  noteworthy  ;  seven  illustrations.] 
Bible  Narrative,  The  Child's.     Cassell. 

[Broad  outline  ;  in  the  words  of  the  Authorized  Version.      Elus- 
trated.     Very  suitable  for  children.] 
Children,  The  Religious  Education  of.     By  the  late  Rev.  James  Ci'an- 

brook,  Edinburgh.     2d.     Watts. 
Christ,  A  Child's  Life  of.     By  Mabel  Dearmer.     6s.     Methucn. 

[Simple  and  attractive.     S  coloured  illustrations.] 
Domesticated  Workers,   Facts  concerning.     By  E.  M.  W.     Printed  by 
G.  Russell,  77  Fleet  Street,  E.C. 

["Majority  are  not  treated  in  a  Christian-like  way."] 
Euoharistic  Congress,  The.  What  does  it  Mean  ?  By  the  Rev.  E.  W. 
Moore,  M.A.  Id.  South  Africa  General  Mission  (17  Homefield 
Road,  Wimbledon).  Booklet  Series,  No.  35. 
Ezra,  Nehemiah,  and  Esther.  Edited  by  George  Carter,  M.A.,  F.R.G.S. , 
Held  Master  of  New  College  School,  Oxford.  Is.  6d.  Relfe 

[Introductions  and  notes  careful  and  useful.] 
Father's  Hints  to  his  Son.      By  Arthui-  Ryder.      Jersey:    Bigwood. 
Wholesale  :  Bartlett  (Warwick  Lane,  E.C). 
[Brief,  pointed,  and  sensible.] 
Israel  in  the  Bible  and  in  History.     Bv  WiUiani  Pumfrey.     Preface  by 
the   Rev.   A.    Herbert,    M.A.     S'd.   net.     Banks   (Racquet   Court, 
Fleet  Street,  E.C). 

["  5.39  verses  from  the  Bible,  with  introductory  remarks.    J 

Josephus.     Edited  by  S.  E.  AVinbolt,  M.A.     Is.  6d.     Blackie.  _ 

[The  "  .\utobiography  "  and  selections  from  the  "  Jewish  War.    J 
Man  :  the  Prodigy  and  Freak  of  Nature  ;  or.  An  Animal  run  to  Brain. 

ByKeridan.     Samm-ai  Press  (Cranleigh,  Surrey). 

[New  edition,  revised  and  enlarged.     The  author  (if  we  mistake 

not)  is  Head  of  a  large  school  and  M.C.P.     Shi-ewd  points  ;  latter 

part  on  education.] 
Methuen's  Junior  School  Books.     (1)  The  Gospel  according  to  Luke, 

edited  by  W.   WilUamson,   B.A.      (2)   The  First  Book  "f  Kings, 

edited  by  A.   E.   Ruble,  D.D.,   Head  Master  of  Eltham  College. 

'  [Judicious  and  instnictive  introductions,  notes,  and  appendixes 
3,  and  4,  maps.     Very  useful.] 
Old  Testament  Histoiy,  narrated  for  the  most  part  in  the  words  of  the 
Bible.     Selected  and  ananged  by  George  Carter,  M.A.,  Head  Master 
of  New  CoUege  School,  Oxford.     2s.     Clarendon  Press. 

rVerv  well  done  ;  tendency  conservative.     Useful  notes  ;   half-a- 
dozen  liiaps.     Good  summary  of  the  Hebrew  legislation  appended.] 

Feb.  1,  19D9.] 



16471.  (V.  Daniel,  B.Sc.)— A  line  CPQR  ... 
is  drawn  from  one  angle  of  a  triangle,  as  in  the 
Kgiire,  each  (it  +  2)-th  portion  terminated  by  the 
n-th  portion,  and  is  such  that  the  ratio  in  which 
each  portion  of  the  line  divides  the  angle  from 
which  it  starts  is  alternately  tan-  a  or  cot"  o,  a 
lieiug  a  constant.  If  e„  denote  the  7i-th  angle 
so  divided,  and  <p„  its  complement,  show  that 

(1)  <C,  =  0, 

(2)  p„sine„  =  j)„_i  sin  (fl„co.^-a)— j)„_3--;in  (fl„sin"a), 

where  7J„  is  the  perpendicular  from  C  on  the  li-th  portion  of  the  Une. 
Will  any  solver  contribute  a  method  of  determining  the  co-ordinates  of 
the  limiting  point '? 

Solution  by  M.  T.  Naeanii'.ngab,  M.A. 
Let  P„P„ ,  1  be  the  n-th  por- 
tion of  the  line.  Draw  OL, 
OM  parallel  to  the  lines  con- 
taining ft,,,  and  ON  perpen- 
dicular to  P,.P„»i.  Then, 

p„  =  ON  =  sum  of  the  projec- 
tions of  OM,  MP,, 
=  K  sin  (9„  cos^  a) 

-^  h  sin  (e„  sin-  a) . 
^„  _  1  =  h  sin  0„ 
p„-3  =  K  sin  9„ . 


p„  sin  e„  =  75,,. 5 sin  (e„  cos' a)  +2>n-i  sin  (9„  sin^o). 
With  a  convention  of   signs  as  regards   the  perpendiculars    (as   in 
Statics),  we  see  that  j)„_i  =  +  ,  l^n  =—,  and  jj„_3  =  —  ;  therefore  the 
above  relation  may  be  written 

2)„  sinfl,,  =  p„-3Sin(S„  cos"a)— ^„_i  sin(S„  sin' a). 
Note. — The  Question  requires  modification  accordingly. 
Tlw  following  Solution  is  due  to  the  Pkoposer. 
(1)  Abbreviating  cos- a  and  sin-o  to  c^  and  s",  wc  have  by  external 
angle  property  it— e„  =  fl„.ic-+ 9„_-2S- 

alternating  c-  and  s-  for  odd  and  even  values  of  n. 
Therefore  <pu  +  tfn-ic"  +  tpn-is-  =  0, 

<t>»-\-^  (pn--2S'  +  €J)„.s,C-  =  0, 

</)„-2  +  <f>u-3c"-i-i^„.,s-  =  0; 
<pit  +  (1  — cV)  0,1  -■.-^  c-s-(f>„_4  =  0  ; 

<pu  —  ^<pu-i  =  f^{(pn-l—>^<pn-i), 

where  fi  and  X  are  the  roots  of  x-  +  {l—c-s')x  +  c-s-  =  0; 
therefore  ■}>„  — ft</),._.;  =  A^"  (cfi,— ,n(f>-o),  taking  n  even, 

<p„-\<p„.-2  =  l^^"(<l>o  —  '^<P-2),         ,,  ,, 

therefore  (ix  —  \)>p„-i  =  /i-"  (cp,,— A<()_2)  — a4"(^o— M"/"-';)- 

Since  jn  — a:/:0  and  ij.  and  \  are  proper  fractions,  we  deduce 
Lt  [i^„-d„=«  =  0. 
(■2)  Let  the  "perpendicular"  equations  of  three  co-intersecting  lines 
at  P„  be     a;cosa.„  +  ysinw„— ^j„  =  0,     a:cosw„-i -(■  y  siniu„-i— 2J„-i=0, 

X  eosa)„_3-l-?/sino)„-3— i^).-3  =  0. 
The  eliminant  is 

p„  sin  (io„  - 1  -  tti„  -  i)  -jJ,,  -1  sin  (w„  -  w„  .;)  -p„  _  3  sin  (a.,.  _ ,  -  a>„)  =  0. 


pendiculars  drawn  from  any  origin  C,  we  get 

J)„  sine,,— j;„_i  sin(e„  cos-a)— jj"-3sin  (9„  sin-a)  =  0. 
This  agrees  with  Mr.  Naraniengar's  first  equation,  and  (2)  must  be 
restated  thus  in  the  Question  : 

p.  sin  e,.  =  2.,. . ,  sin  ■' e„  <="": »  !-  +p„_>  sin  (  9„  ""K  " '  , 
^  "      J-"    •  (   "  sni-  a )      '^  [       cos-  a ) 

sin-  o  and  cos-  a.  being  interchanged  for  odd  and  even  values  of  n. 

16524.  (Professor  Mokley.) — A  triangle  sets  up  in  its  plane  a 
Cremona  transformation  by  taking  the  polar  line  of  any  point.  Given 
in  a  plane  a  Desargues  configuration  (the  complete  figure  of  two  per- 
spective triangles),  xjrove  that  there  are  co"  such  transformations  which 
will  send  the  ten  points  of  the  configuration  into  the  ten  lines  on  five 

Solution  hy  Professor  Nanson. 

A  Desargues  configuration  is  determined  by  the  meets  with  a  fixed 
plane  -or  of  the  lines  and  planes  joining  five  fixed  points  1,  2,  3,  4,  5  in 
space.  Denote  the  point  in  which  the  join  of  p,  q  cuts  w  by  pj. 
Then  the  four  points  fp,  tq,  tr,  ts  and  an  arbitrary  point  L  in  isr  deter- 
mine a  conic  St.  If  x,  y,  z ;  u,  v,  w  are  the  sides  of  the  triangle  41, 
42,  43  ;  51,  52,  53,  the  conies  S,,  So,  S3  are  clearly  given  by 
II  ux'  vy'  wz'  II  _  f) 
II  11! X  v'y  w'z  1 1 
where  dashes  denote  values  at  L.  The  form  of  these  equations  shows 
that  S,,  S..,  S3  have  three  points  in  common.  Similarly,  S,,  So,  84 
have  three  points  in  common.  These  two  sets  of  common  points  must 
be  identical  because  both  are  on  S,,  S.>,  whilst  12,  one  of  the  four  points 
common  to  S,,  S.,,  is  not  on  either  83  or  84.  Thus  Sj,  S.,  S3,  84  have 
three  points  in  common,  and  similarly  81,  8^,,  S3,  S5  have  three  points 
in  common,  and  as  before,  the  two  sets  of  common  points  must  be 
identical,  so  that  Si,  So,  S3,  Sj,  85  have  three  points  in  common. 

Taking  these  three  points  as  reference  points  the  quadric  trans- 
formation or  triangular  inversion 

x'  '.  y'  :  z'  =  yz  :  zx  :  xy 
sends  the  conies  Si,  So,  S3,  84,  S5  into  five  straight  lines.  An  inter- 
change of  point  and  line  co-ordinates  now  sends  these  five  lines  into 
five  points,  and  therefore  sends  the  ten  points  pq  into  the  ten  lines 
joining  five  points.  The  two  transformations  make  up  the  Cremona 
transformation  specified,  and  since  the  point  L  can  be  taken  anywhere 
in  the  plane  tir  there  are  00  -  such  transformations. 

Interpreting  this  result  with  the  help  of  a  figure  showing  the  pcr- 

16527.  (Professor  Sakjana,  M.A.) — The  small  circle  described  about 
a  spherical  triangle  ABC  meets  the  great  circles  bisecting  internally 
and  externally  the  angle  A  in  the  points  P,  P'.     Prove  that 

cot  iPP'  =  ^/[cot'  R  +  J  tan'-  R  sin=  (B  -C)] , 
and  give  the  analogous  result  in  piano. 

Solution  by  W.  Rigby,  M.A. 

Let  0  be  the  centre  of  the  ciroum- 
circle  of  triangle  ABC. 

Then      ZOAP  =  iA-(S-C) 

=  iA-iA-iB  +  |C 
=  i(C-B), 
and         I  0.\P'  =  I  (C-B)  +90°. 
Let       AF  -=  X  and  AP'  =  x'. 
Then,  from  triangle  OAF, 

cot  R  sin  a;  =  cos^  (C  — B)(l  -l-cos  j') ; 

tan  |x  =  cos  |  (B  —  G)  tan  R. 
Similarly  from  triangle  OAF',     tan  Jx'  =  sin  i  (B- 
From  triangle  FAF',     cos  PP'  =  cos  x  cos  x'  ; 

/  / Ijf  00 sFF"  \  _      /  /  l  +  cosacos.r'  \ 
Vvi-cosFP'/  ~  V  U-cosxcosi-W 
/ 1  -H  tan-  |:c  tan-  ^x'  \ 
\  tan-  ^x  +  tan-  ^x'  I 
1  -H  siu=  i  (B-^C)  c^s- 1  (B-C)tan<R \ 
tan-  R  / 

=  A/[cot=R  +  isin=(B-C)tan--R,j. 

The  analogous  theorem  in  piano  is  |PP'  =  R,  where  F,  F'  are  the 
points  of  intersection  of  the  bisectors  of  the  angle  BAC  with  the 
circum-circle  of  the  triangle  ABC. 

10525.     (Professor  Wolstenholme,  M.A.,  8c. D.)— The  pedal  of  the 
parabola   1/'-'  =  iax   is  taken  with  regard  to  the  point  (X,  Y) ;    prove 
(i.)  that  the  three  inflexions  of  the  pedal  lie  on  the  straight  line 
a;(3a.-t-X)-;/Y  +  X(a-X)  =  0; 

therefore     cot  iPF' 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

al30  (ii.)  that,  if  from  each  inflexion  P  be  drawn  a  straight  line  Fp 
touching  the  pedal  in  jj,  a,  conic  can  be  drawn  touching  the  pedal  in 
the  three  points  71,  and  this  conic  will  touch  the  nodal  tangents. 

Solution  by  G.  N.  Watson,  B.A. 
(i.)  The  equation  of  any  tangent  to  the  parabola  is 

y  =  mx  +  a/m (1). 

The  perpendicular  from  (X,  Y)  on  this  line  is 

(Y-j/)to  +  (X-x)  =  0     (2). 

Solving  (1)  and  (2),  we  get 

X  =  [m{mY  +  X)-am]l[m(l  +  m-)].  y  =  [m-  (wY  +  X)  +  a]/[m  {1  +  7n-)], 
as  the  co-ordinates  of  any  point  on  the  pedal  ;  the  pedal  is,  accordingly, 
a  unicursal  cubic  ;  it  has  a  node  (not  a  cusp,  unless  Y-  =  4aX). 

Now,  if  a:  =  V,U,  1/  =  W  U,  U,  V,  W  being  any  functions  of  )ii,  the 
condition  (Py/dx-  =  0  can  be  written  in  the  form 
U,  V,  W      =  0, 
U,  V,  w 
U,  V,  w 
dots  denoting  differentiations  with  respect  to  m.     Hence  the  parameters 
of  the  points  of  inflexion  on  the  pedal  are  the  roots  of 

\m(mY  +  X)-am,     m"-{mY  +  X)  +  a,     m{l  +  m^)\=0. 

imY  +  X-a,  ra(3mY  +  2X),         1  +  3m' 

I  2Y,  6mY-l-2X,  6m        1 

This  reduces  to 

m^  (X-  +  Y--aX)  -3am-Y  +  3a  (a-X)  m  +  aY  =  0  (3). 

The  parameters  of  the  points  where  La:  +  Mj/  +  N  =  0  cuts  the  cubic 
are  the  roots  of  the  equation 

»«3(MY  +  N)-'-iH--(LY"  +  MX)  +  ra(N  +  LX-nL)-i-aM  =  0 (4) 

3)  and  (4)  are  identical  if 

M  =  Y,    L  =  -3a-X,     N  =  X  (X-n). 
Hence  the  inflexions  lie  on  the  line 

3;(3a  +  X)-2/Y  +  X{a-X)  =0. 

(ii.)  This  is  a  descriptive  property  and  is  unaltered   by  any  number 
of  projections.     It  is  true  for  all  nodal  cubics. 

Any   nodal   cubic   can    be  conically   projected    into     y-  =  x-{x  +  c). 
And  this  can,  by  two  orthogonal  projections,  be  projected  into 

y-  =  x'{x  +  l)   ...-  (5). 

The  inflexions  of  this  curve  are  at  [-|,  T(4i/3  ^/3)],  infinity.  The  tan- 
gent to  (.5)  at  [(m--l),  m{m--l)]  is  2my-x  (Sm"--1)  *  {m'-l)'  =  0. 
This  passes  through  one  of  the  finite  inflexions  if  m  =  =F  J  ^S. 

Hence  the  projections  of  the  points  pi,  p.2  corresponding  to  the  finite 
inflexions  are  (-4,  ±4ii/3),  and  the  tangents  to  the  cubic  thereat  are 

6x=Fi^/3y  +  8  =  0   (6). 

The  projection  of  the  third  point  P3  is  (-1,  0)  and  the  tangent  to  the 
cubic  thereat  is  x  +  1  =0. 

Now  consider  the  conic  y-  =  2{x  +  l)  {ax  +  b).     It  passes  through  p, 
and  the  tangent  there  is  x  +  1  =0.     It  touches  the  nodal  tangents, 

y  =  ±  X,  provided  that         {a  +  b)-  +  -2b  =  0 (7). 

It  passes  through  jj,,  p.;,  provided  that 

b-ia  =  8 (8). 

And  the  tangents  atp,,^)^  are  those  given  by  (6),  provided  that 

A(7a-6)=-5,     A(4n-H26)=-8    (9). 

The  four  conditions  (7),  (8),  and  (9)  are  all  satisfied  by  taking  a  =  —4, 
6  =  —8,  which  proves  the  theorem  ;  the  conic  required  for  the  cubic 
y-  =  a;'  (x  + 1)  being  y-  +  8  {x  +  1)  (a:  -H  2)  =  0. 

16510.     (Professor  E.   Heknasdez.)  —  Z  nombres  a,,l   etant 
donnas,  si  on  forme  le  tableau 

a,  '2a,  3a  ...  la\ 

b,  26,   -ib[ 

tableau  (1),  car  il  est  facile  de  voir,  qu'en  remplai;ant  I  par  dtji  on  a 
qia,  2gia  ...  {d—l)gia,  la, 
(Jib,   2(iib  ...  {d-l)g,b,  lb, 

<j,k.  2g,k  ...  (d-l)gik,lk. 


7;,  2/v,  3k. ..Ik) 

il  y  aura  autant  de  colonnes  dont  tons  les  nombres  sont  des  multiples 
do  I  qu'indique  le  plus  grand  commun  diviseur  des  nombres  a,  b,  c.l. 

Solution  by  tlie  Pboposeb. 
d  etant  le  plus  grand  commun  diviseur  de  a,  6  ...  Z,  on  a 
a  =  dg„  b  =  dg«  ...  k  =  dgt-i,  I  =  dgt. 
Or,  on  a  que  Ig^,      2lgj      ...  {d  —  1)  Igi,      dlg^, 

Ig.,      2lg,      ...  (d-l)lg„      dlg^, 
Igi-t,  2lgi-i  ...  (d  —  l)lgi-\,  dlgi., 
sont  des  nombres  qui  se  correspondent,  en  formant  d  colonnes  dans  le 

JVotes  on  the  Din'.ii.m  of  Decimals. 
I.  By  3.  Hartley  Pudge,  M.A.  (Lond.). 

Mr.  Bell's  method  of  division  of  decimals  in  your  December  number 
admits,  I  think,  of  being  made  more  easily  intelligible  to  the  youngest 
pupil  than  he  has  left  it.  What  objection  can  there  be  to  the  pre- 
liminary step  of  multiplying  divisor  and  dividend  by  a  sufficient  number 
of  tens  to  make  the  divisor  a  whole  niunber  ?  The  use  01  the  phrase 
"  shifting  the  point  so  many  places"  I  would  not  allow;  but  when  the 
pupil  is  allowed,  in  dividing  by  5|,  to  reduce  both  numbers  to  halves 
first,  why  deny  him  this  particular  short  cut? 

Jlr.  Bell  says  that  the  division  is  proceeded  with  as  in  simple 
division,  but  with  a  very  important  saving  clause,  the  awkward  ex- 
planation of  which  may  well  be  spared  the  pupil.  Were  he  dividing 
by  short  division  he  would  expect  to  put  his  quotient  figirre  down  first, 
thus:  385)28-9905 

But,  as  he  needs  the  space  beneath  to  show  the  working,  the  master  has 
only  to  suggest  that  the  quotient  be  written  above,  and  the  position  of 
the  first  figure  needs  no  further  explanation. 

II.  By  B.  C.  Wadlis,  F.C.P.,  B.Sc.  (Econ.). 

The  note  by  Mr.  A.  H.  Bell,  B.Sc.,  on  the  teaching  of  division  of 
decimals  seems  to  me  to  be  but  a  variant  for  the  mechanical  process 
usually  employed  ;  i.e.,  it  depends  upon  artificial  placing  of  the  figures. 
May  I  suggest  that  it  is  equally  easy  to  separate  the  two  essential  parts 
of  division  of  decimals ;  (i.)  the  significant  figures,  (ii.)  the  place  value 
of  those  figures  ? 

This  is  done  by  training  the  pupils  to  find  a  first  approximation  to 
the  answer,  an  operation  which  settles  the  question  of  place  value. 

Consequently,  the  decimal  point  disappears  from  the  division  process, 
which  can  be  carried  as  far  as  is  convenient. 

The  method  prepares  the  way  for  later  work  and  trains  the  child  to 
a  habit  of  first  approximation  which  tends  to  accuracy. 

E.g.,  to  divide  4-0875  by  0-075. 

Step  1.— (Mental).  Roughly  408  -h  7,  i.e„  over  50  ;  therefore  the 
answer  is  roughly  50. 

Step  2.—  75  )  40875 


or  3  )  40875 

25  )  13625 

545     Aus.  54-5 
or  bv  long  division. 

Note  by  Professor  San.taxa, 

In  The  Educational  Times 
for  December,  1908,  my  solu- 
tion, marked  (II.),  of  Question 
16449  requires  a  separate 
figure,  which  I  give  below. 
Also,  "  L,"  at  end  of  first 
line,  should  be  "Lj." 

The  hexagon  is  shown  in 
thick  lines. 

16514  [&  16550  which  is  identical  with  10514].     (R.  F.  Davis,  M.A.) 
— Factorize  algebraically 

(1)  4a;6  +  2a^x -t- a",  (2)  a;'-2aV-(-fiS 

and  thence  write  down  the  factors  of  4,000,021  and  9,800,001. 

Solutions  (I.)  by  T.  Stuaet,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  and  Prof.  E.  B.  Escott  ; 
(II.)  by  Lt.-Col.  Allan  Ccnkingham,  R.E.,  and  James  Blaikie, 
M.A.  ;  (III.)  by  W.  Rigby,  M.A.,  and  T.  K.  Venkataraman,  M.A. 

=  {2x'  +  a-x  +  a')-—(ax)-  {2x  +  a)' 
=  {2x'*2ax'  +  2a-x  +  a^)(2j^-2a.T'-  +  a^). 
This  gives  for  .r  =  10,  a  =  1,  4,000,021  =  1801.2221. 

(III.)  by 
(I.)    (i.)  4.r«  +  2(t''x  +  a'' 

Feb.  1,  1909  ] 



(A  —  a)  (x^  +  ax-  +  a')  {x^  —  n-.r  -  a') , 
■■  ;-)^  367. 989  =  3^23.43.367. 

(ii.)  a;' —  2a.-a^»  +  a^ 

giving  for  x  =  10,  a  =  1, 


Note. — These  are  only  two  of  an  infinite  number  of  similar  trinomial 
expressions  which  can  be  algebraically  factoi-ized.  A  list  of  binary 
trinomial  forms  (2"±2''±1)  which  can  be  algebraically  factorized 
appeared  in  the  Messenger  of  Mathematics  (New  Series,  No.  437, 
September,  1907).  More  general  forms  (from  which  these  are 
deducible)  are  : — 

(1)  3^  +  xi/  +  y^  =  {x-  +  xy  +  y-){x^-x-y  +  y'), 
1:2)  i3f  —  x'y'  +  y'=  (2x''  +  xy  +  y^)(2x^  —  x-y—xy-  +  7j^), 

( 3)  8x'  +  2xhf  +  y'  =  (2x^ — 2xy  +  y^)  (4a;-*  +  ix°y  +  2xy'  +  i^) , 

(4)  8x^+2xy^—i/  =  {2x-—2xy  +  y-)(4:X*  +  ixhj  +  2x'y-—y'), 

(5)  16x*-x:-y"  +  y*  =  (4:X--3xy  +  y^){ix^  +  3xy  +  y-), 

(6)  ix'^  +  8x^>f  +  y'-  =  (23;'=— 4x^2/  + 4k V- 2a; V  +  /') 

X  (2x^  +  ix^y  +  ix*y^  +  2x'y'  +  y'), 

(7)  x'^-Sx^y'^  +  iy^  =  {x''+2x^y  +  2x"-y"  —  2y'){x*~2xhj  +  2x-y--2y^), 

(8)  16x^ — 4  j;-')/''  + 1/"  =  (4x<  -  4x^1/  +  2x-y-  —  2xy^  +  y*) 

X  {ix*  +  ix'y  +  2x'y''  +  2xy^  +  i/^) , 
|9)  ix^ -i- r'y*  +  iy^  =  {2x*  —  2x^y  +  xhj'''—2xy-'  +  2y') 

X  (2a;'  +  2x^y  +  x-y-  +  2xy^  +  2y*),    .... 

(II.)  It  will  suffice  to  express  each  number  (N)  in  the  form 
N  =  P--Q-,  whereby  at  once  N  =  (P-Q)(P  +  Q). 

(1)  N  =  ix''  +  2a'x  +  a'^  =  (2x^  +  a^x  +  a')- -  [ax  {2x  +  a)]-. 
Ex.  4000021  =  4.10"  r2.1M0+l=  =  2011^-210- =  1801.2221. 

(2)  N  =  x'  — 2a-a;"  +  a'  =  (x— o)  {x^ +  x°a— x'a^— x'a'  — x'a'  — xa^  — a'} 

=  (x—a)  {(x'  +  Jx-a  -  — (|x-a  + J.rrt^+ <i')^} 

=  (x-a)(P-^-Q^). 
Ex.  9800001  =  107  -  2 . 1 .  10»  +  1?  =  9  (10452  -  56=) 

=  9.989.1101  =  9  (23. 43) (3. 367). 
To  Dr.  Stuart's  interesting  collection  might  be  added : 
(a)  x*  +  x-y-  +  y*  =  (x^—xy  +  y^{x^  +  xy  +  y°). 

(3)  x*—3x-y'  +  9y'  =  (x'-  —  3xy  +  3y^){x'-  +  3xy  +  3y-). 

(7)  x^  +  I'Jx'y'  +  4?/  =  (x'  —  2xy  +  2 j/-)  (x-  +  2xy  +  2y-)  (2x-  —  2xy  +  y^) 
[Best  in  Beprint.]  x  (2x^  +  2xy  +  y^) . 

16541.  (C.  E.  YouNGMAN,  M.A.) — Across  two  given  circles  B,  C, 
through  the  point  A  common  to  both,  draw  that  chord  PAQ  which 
makes  the  area  PBCQ  maximum. 

Solution  by  W.  P.  Beard,  M.A. 

Let  P'AQ'  be  a  position 
adjacent  to  the  position 
PAQ  of  maximum  area. 


area  PAP'  =  area  QAQ' 
ultimately,  and 

Z.PAP'  =  Z.QAQ'; 
therefore  AP  =  AQ 
in  the  maximum  position. 

To  draw  such  a  chord 
join  the  centres  E,  P.  Bi- 
sect BP  at  G. 

Draw  PAQ  perpendicular  to  GA,  and  the  proof  is  obvious. 
N.B. — The  Proposer  meant   to  denote  the  centres  as  well  as  the 
circles  by  B,  C ;  it  makes  a  different  question  to  the  one  solved. 

16458.     (C.  M.  Ross.) — Prove  that  the  value  of  the  determinant 
j  1  +  •<;-,        X,  0,        0, 

IX,         1  +  x',         X,         0, 
0,  X,         1  +  X-,     X, 

of  the  TOth  order  is  1  +  x=  +  x'  +  . . .  +  x'-'" . 

Additional  Solution  by  Prof.  Nanson. 
Denoting  the  determinant  by  m,„,  we  have 

u,„  =  (1  +  x=)  %i,„  _  1  —  x-u,„  _  2 ; 
therefore  m»i— m„,-i  =  x"(m„,_i —  «„,_;)  =  x-'"  ; 

therefore  u,„  =  1  +  x=  +  x<  +  . . .  +  x'"'. 


In  Question  1G581  (see  Educational  Times,  .January,  1909),  note 
that  ?i<f  1. 

18584.  (.4.  Thompson.) — A  gravitating  mass  of  density  p  is  bounded 
by  the  planes  y  =  ±Bx,  .x=±o,  3=±c.  Find  the  components  of 
attraction  at  a  point  (f,  »?,  Q,  the  squares  and  higher  powers  of  8  being 
negligible,  especially  considering  the  cases  (i.)  when  a  becomes  infinite, 
(ii.)  when  c  becomes  infinite,  (iii.)  when  both  a  and  c  become  infinite. 

16385.  (Communicated  by  "  Pbanqois.") — Prom  a  balloon  which  is 
travelling  horizontally  eastward  at  the  rate  of  12  ft.  per  second  at  a 
vertical  height  of  500  ft.,  a  ship  is  observed  due  south  of  the  balloon, 
the  angle  of  depression  being  45°.  One  minute  later  the  same  ship  is 
observed  to  be  due  south-east  of  the  balloon,  the  angle  of  depression 
being  30°.  Pind  the  velocity  and  direction  of  motion  of  the  ship. 
(Univ.  of  London,  B.Sc.  Ex.,  1908,  Pure  Maths.) 

16586.  (Professor  Neubebg.) — Integrer  I'equation 

xyy"  +  xy''—yy'  =0. 

16587.  (Professor  E.  B.  Escott.) — Pactorize 

14s  +  14*  +  l,     78-^2.7'i*l,     7"'-^2.7'-^  1,     7^ -^  7= .  2'' +  2=1=. 

16588.  (Professor  Sanjana,  M.A.) — Show  how  to  obtain  solutions 
of  equalities  of  the  form  (x  •l-a)(x-t- 6)(c±x)  =  D,  for  given  numerical 
values  of  a,  6,  c.     Exs.  (x-H  3)(.T  +  12)(13-x)  and  (3-x)(x  +  12)(x-i- 13). 

16589.  (Professor  E.  Hebnandez.) — On  donne  la  suite  des  nombres 
1,  2,  5,  12,  29,  ...,  dont  ?(„  =  '2u,t-\  -hm,i-2,  est  la  loi  deformation.  On 
aura  :  (1)  Deux  termes  consecutifs  et  au  plus  trois,  auront  toujours  le 
meme  nombre  de  chiffres.  (2)  La  somme  des  ?i  — 2  premiers  termes 
augmentee  de  la  somme  des  re  — 1  premiers  termes  plus  1,  est  egal  au 
terme  de  rang  m.  (3)  Le  carre  d'un  terme  de  la  suite  est  egal  au  pro- 
duit  augmente  ou  dimiuue  de  1,  du  terme  qui  precede  par  celui  qui 
suit.  (4)  Le  terme  u<,,+i  est  egal  a  la  somme  des  carres  des  termes 
consecutifs  Up .  1  et  Up.  (5)  Si  des  restes  obtenues  dans  la  recherche  du 
plus  grand  commun  diviseur  de  a  et  b,  par  la  methode  abregee,  c'est  a 
dire,  en  faisant  toujours  que  chaque  reste  soit  plus  petit  que  la  moitic 
du  diviseur,  on  en  trouve  deux  consecutifs,  compris  entre  «„ti  et  u,„ 
on  n'en  trouve  point  entre  u,,-^  et  u„.  (6)  Dans  la  recherche  du  plus 
grand  commun  diviseur  de  a  et  b,  par  la  methode  abregee,  on  aura  a 
effeotuer  un  nombre  do  divisions  au  plus  egal  a  trois  fois  le  nombre  de 
chifi'res  du  plus  petit  des  nombres  donnes. 

16590.  (C.  M.  Ross.)— If 

a^yz  +  bi(y  +  z)  +  Ci  =  0,  a.,J/2  -i  60  (y  +  z)  -^  C3  =  0,  a^yz  +  63  {y  +  z)  +  c-^  =  0, 

are  true  for  an  infinite  series  of  values  for  x,y,  z;  prove  that  in  general 

ajCs-t-djCo  =  2bJ>^,     Orfli  +  a^c^  =  2636,,     a-^Cn-^a^c^  =  26,62. 

16591.  (Professor  Nanson.) — A  disc  of  given  radius  moves  with  its 
centre  on  a  circle  with  given  centre  and  radius.  If  the  aspects  of  the 
disc  and  circle  are  assigned,  the  edge  of  the  disc  traces  out  a  surface. 
By  varying  the  aspects,  but  so  that  each  remains  parallel  to  a  fixed  line, 
we  get  a  system  of  surfaces.     Required  the  envelope  of  these  surfaces. 

16592.  (T.  Stuaet,  M.A.,  D.Sc.) — Prove  that  the  sides  of  the  six 
self-conjugate  triangles  of  four  conies,  taken  in  pairs,  all  touch  a  net  of 
conies  A(p  +  Mif"  =  0,  <B  =  0  and  ^  =  0  being  the  tangential  equations  of 
two  conies  of  the  net. 

16593.  (S.  Narayana  Aiyak.) — Prove  that  every  conic  inscribed  in 
a  triangle  passes  through  at  least  three  pairs  of  real  points  which  are 
isogonai  conjugates  with  respect  to  the  triangle,  but  never  more  than 
four  pairs.  Also  give  a  geometrical  construction  to  determine  these 
points.  Hence  show  that  the  inscribed  (or  an  escribed)  circle  of  a  tri- 
angle passes  through  three  and  only  three  jjairs  of  real  points  which 
are  isognal  conjugates  with  respect  to  the  triangle. 

16594.  (A.  M.  Neseitt,  M.A.) — If,  within  the  angle  A  of  a  triangle 
ABC,  two  lines  be  drawn  AL,  AL',  equally  inclined  to  AB  and  AC  re- 
spectively, and  meeting  BO  in  L,  L'  ;  and  if  the  same  be  done  for  the 
other  angles,  prove  (1)  that  a  conic  S  will  pass  through  the  six  points 
L,  L',  ...  ;  (2)  that  a  conic  S'  will  touch  the  six  lines  AL,  AL',  ...  ; 
(3)  that  a  conic  may  be  drawn  through  the  four  intersections  of  S,  S', 
which  shall  also  touch  the  sides  of  ABC  ;  (4)  that  a  conic  maybe  drawn 
touching  the  four  common  tangents  of  S  and  S'  which  shall  also  cir- 
cumscribe ABC. 

16595.  (P.  G.  W.  Bbown,  B.Sc,  L.C.P.)— ABC  is  a  triangle  having  a 
right  angle  at  C  ;  from  a  point  D  in  AB,  DP  is  drawn  parallel  to  BC, 
and  DE  to  AC.  If  AB  =  13-75  cms.,  DE  =  5  cms.,  DP  =  4-5  cms., 
find  by  the  methods  of  simple  quadratic  equations,  the  length  of  AC. 

16598.  (I.  Abvold.) — Construct  a  quadrilateral  having  its  sides 
equal  to  four  given  right  lines,  and  its  area  equal  to  a  given  rectangle, 
specifying  under  what  conditions  the  problem  becomes  impossible. 

16597.  (C.  E.  YouNGMAN,  M.A.) — Two  contocal  hyperbolas,  with 
centre  0,  one  with  an  angle  30°  between  its  asymptotes,  the  other  rect- 
angular, have  a  triangle  ABC  circuminscribed  ;  show  that  in  ABC  one  of 
the  ex-circles  is  equal  to  the  circum-circle  and  subtends  60°  at  0,  and 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

that  the  in-circle  and  the  other  ex-circles  subtend  120°  at  0  ;  prove 
also  that  the  second  point  at  which  these  last  three  subtend  equal 
angles  lies  on  the  Brocard  axis  of  ABC. 

16598.  (M.  T.  Naraniengar,  M.A.) — A  is  a  fixed  point.  P  is  any 
point  on  a  fixed  circle.  Show  that  the  inverse  of  the  fixed  circle  with 
respect  to  a  circle  of  radius  PA  and  centre  P  envelopes  another  fixed 

16599.  (W.  P.  Beard,  M.A.) — The  inverses  of  the  ciroum-circle  of 
a  triangle  ABC  with  regard  to  A,  B,  C,  and  with  radii  of  inversion  BC, 
CA,  AB  respectively,  meet  BC,  CA,  AB  respectively  at  X,  Y,  Z.    Prove 

(1)  that  AX,  BY,  CZ  meet  at  a  point  P  on  the  circum-circle  of  ABC  ; 

(2)  that  BZ.CY  =  AB.AC;  (3)  that,  if  G,  K  are  the  eentroid  and 
symmedian  point  of  ABC,  then  HK  is  the  axis  of  perspective  of  the 
triangles  XYZ,  ABC. 

16600.  (W.  Ctallatly,  M.A.)— If  A  +  B  +  C  =  180°  ;  prove  that 
(sin  B  +  sin  C) (1  +  2  cos  B)(l  +  2  cos C)  +  . . . 

=  4  (sin  B  +  sin  C)(3in  C  + sin  A)  (sin  A  +  sinB). 

16601.  (R.  P.  Davis,  M.A.)— If  A,  B,  C  are  the  angles  of  a  triangle, 
factorize  : —     cos-  B  •  cos-,C  +  2  cos  3A  cos  B  cos  C. 

11956.  (Professor  Sylvester,  P.R.S.) — If  x,  ?/,  s,  ...  .are  positive 
integers,  such  that  .r  +  2i/  +  35;+  ...  =  jt,  where  n  is  any  given  integer 
gre.aterthan  2;  prove  that  the  number  of  times  that  l  —  x  +  o:y—:ryz+  ... 
exceeds  zero  is  greater  than  the  total  number  of  times  that  it  is  equal 
to  or  less  than  zero. 


It  is  requested  that  all  Mathematical  communications  should  be  sent 
to  the  Mathematical  Editor, 

Miss  Constance  I.  Marks,  B..\.,  10  Matheson  Road,  West 
Kensington,  W. 


11834.  (Capt.  de  Rocquigny.) — Aucun  nombre  triangulaire  ne  pent 
etre  cube  parfait. 

11898.  (Professor  Bhatt.\charya.) — Observations  give  results  4'1, 
4'23,  4'55,  4'56  ;  find  the  probable  error  of  the  average. 

11900.     (Professor  Orchard.) — Given  that   {x  +  y)/(x  —  y)  varies  as  | 
{y  +  .-)l{y  —  z),  and  that  x  =  1  when  y  =  2  and  z  =  S,  prove  that  ' 

12y^  +  y^{7x  +  z)  +  y-  {x-  +  ixz  —  z-)  —  8xyz-  —  Idx'z-  =  0  ;  [ 

and  interpret  geometrically. 

11910.  (D.  Biddle.) — A  square  disc  has  its  centre  fixed,  but  the 
normal  pointing  to  any  part  of  the  heavens.  .\  particle  falls  from  a 
position  which  is  over  the  square  when  the  latter  is  horizontal.  Find 
the  probability  that  it  strikes  the  square. 

11948.  (Capt.  P.  A.  MacMahon,  R.A.) — A  tangent  to  a  parabola  in- 
scribed in  a  triangle  is  inclined  at  an  angle  S  to  the  axis  ;  find  the 
envelope,  and  also  the  locus  of  the  centres  of  the  series  of  envelopes 
obtained  by  varying  5. 

Vol.  XIV.  (New  Series)  of  the  "Mathematical  Reprint  " 
is  noiv  ready,  and  may  he  had  of  the  Puhliither, 
Francis  Hodgson,  89  Farringdon  Street,  E.G.  Price 
to  Subscribers,  5s.  ;  to  Non- Subscribers,  6s.  6d. 


Thursday,  January  lith,  1908. — SirW.  D.  Niven,  President,  in  the 

Prof.  H.  P.  Stecker  was  elected  a  member. 

Mr.  W.  H.  Salmon  was  admitted  into  the  Society. 

The  President  announced  the  death  of  Mr.  G.  Heppel,  who  was  a 
member  of  the  Society  from  1883  to  1907. 

The  following  papers  were  communicated  : — 

"  The  Canonical  Form  of  a  Linear  Substitution,"  Mr.  H.  Hilton. 

"On  Octavic  and  Sexdecimic  Residuacity,"  Lieut. -Col.  A. 

"  On  Change  of  the  Variable  in  a  Lebesgue  Integral,"  Dr.  E.  W. 

"  On  Abel's  Extension  of  Taylor's  Series,"  Rev.  P.  H.  Jackson. 

"  Note  on  the  Evaluation  of  a  certain  Integral  containing  Bessel's 
Functions,"  Prof.  H.  M.  Macdonald. 

Mr.  J.  Hammond  gave  an  account  of  some  "  Researches  connected 
with  the  Solution  of  the  Quintic  Equation." 

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ENGLISH    POETRY.       Selected    with    an    Introduction    and 

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The   list  of  successful  candidates    at   the  Colonial  Centres  w/ill   be   published 
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the   March 

[^Throughout  the  following  Lists,  bracketing  of  names  implies  equaltfi/.'j 


Dodson,  F.  K. 

(Isbister  Prize.) 
Bennell,  Miss  M. 

{Pinches  Prize.) 
Jewell,  J. 
W'oodhouse,  R.  A. 

,     Spendelow,  C.  W, 
,  /  Flew.  U  VV. 
■•\Nokes.  Miss  C.  M. 
.    Marsden,  H.  M. 

1.  Bigg^s,  MissC.  M. 

2.  Thomas,  A.  E. 

3.  Du  Heaume,  H.  G. 

4.  Whipp,  ?.  S. 

General  Proficiency. 

First  Class  [or  Senior]. 
Hutton  Grammar  School. 
Crouch  End  High  School,  Hornsey. 

Second  Class  [or  Junior]. 

HuDiberstone  Foundation  School,  Grimsby. 
Weymouth  Pupil-Teacher  Centre. 
Crouch  End  High  School,  Hornsey. 
Hutton  Grammar  School. 

Third  Class. 
Crouch  End  High  School,  Hornsey. 
Froebel  House,  Devonport. 
Boys'  Collegiate  School,  Aldershot. 
Gi-ammar  School,  Shoreham. 

English  Subjects. 

Crouch  End  High  School,  Hornsey, 
Devonport  High  School. 


Oakes  Institute,  Walton,  Liverpool. 
New  College,  Heme  Bay. 

1.  Jackson,  W. 

2.  Hargrave,  D.  H. 

1.     Mercer,  F. 
2  /  Blackman,  W. 
•\Caunce,  A.  E. 

Modern  Foreign  Languages. 


The  Cusack  Institute,  Broad  Street  Place,  E.C. 
Merchant  Taylors' School,  E.G. 

Natural  Sciences. 

Oakes  Institute,  Walton,  Liverpool. 
Oakes  Institute,  Walton,  Liverpool. 
Oakes  Institute,  Walton,  Liverpool. 

Taylor  Jones  Prize  for  Scripture  History. 

Gieve,  Miss  G.  iM.  Crouch  End  High  School,  Hornsey. 

Soames  Prize  for  Scripture  History. 

Nokes,  Miss  C.  M. 


ch  End  High  School,  Hornsey. 

Fish,  F.  J. 

{Silver  Medal.) 
Smee,  H.  G. 

{Bronze  Medal.) 

Pitman  Medals  for  Shorthand. 

The  Cusack  Institute,  Broad  Street  Place,  E.C. 
Mercers'  School,  E.C. 

r#ie  following  is  a  List  of  the  Candidates  who  obtained  the  FIRST  and  SECOND  PLACES  in  each   Subject  on 
FIRST  CLASS    PAPERS.     (Only  those  who  obtained  Distinction  are  included,) 

Scripture  History. 
fBennell,  MissM.  Crouch     End     High    School. 

\.\  Hornsev. 

I,  Gieve,  Miss  G.  M.        Crouch    End     High    School, 

Kytglish  Language. 
BennelUMiss  M.  Crouch     End 

Dodsnn,  P.  K.  Hutton  G 

Mvnntt.  A.  F.  Brentwood  High  School. 

,  Holsworthy  Middle  School. 

High    School, 

Tylcoat,  Miss  L. 

■\  New  man, 

1.  Mercer.  \ 

2.  Dodson,  '. 

/'Caunce,  A.  E- 

Private  tuitic 

Private  ttiition. 
t.  Crouch     End     High    School, 

Holloway  College,  N. 


Oakes      Institute,       Walton, 

Hutton  Grammar  School. 


Canning  Street  School,  New- 

Devonport  High  School. 
Oakes       Institute,      Walton, 



Canning  Street  School,  New- 

Oakes       Institute,      Walton, 

Brentwood  High  School. 


Oakes      Institute.       Walton, 

Devonport  High  School. 
Oakes      Institute,      Walton, 


Book-keeping . 
rBeunell,  Miss  M.  Crouch    End     High    School. 

I  Hornsey. 

|.Rahtkens,  G.  A.  Grammar  School,  Shoreham, 


New  College,  Heme  Bay. 
Devonport  High  School, 


James'    liadies'    School, 

!  Magnetism  and  Electricity. 

j  1.    Dodson,  F.  K.  Hutton  Grammar  School. 

.  !      r  Mercer,  F.  Oakes      Institute, 

1.  Le  Montais,  M 

L.  R.  de  L. 

2.  Chattin,  A.  E. 

1.  Chattin,  A.  I 

2.  Welsh,  L. 

1.  Walsh,  T.  C. 

1.  Roberts,  J. 

/  Dodson,  F.  K. 
•\  Hargrave,  D.  H. 

1.    Jackson.  W. 


The  High   School   for  Boys, 

The  High    School    for  Boys, 

Mercers'  School,  E.C. 


Private  tuition, 

Private  tuition. 
Hutton  Grammar  School. 


Light  and  Heat 

..     Lovell.  E.  R. 
j'Bennell,  Miss  M, 

'*]  Fassnidge,  W.  Private  tuition. 

V  Whitfeild,  B.  "W.  Private  tuition 

Whitchurch  Grammar  School. 

Crouch    End     High    School, 


rBramer,  J.  D.  S. 

\A  Cunningham,  L. 

I.  Dodson,  F.  K. 


Hutton  Grammar  School. 
Hutton  Grammar  School. 


Athei'Stone  Gi-ammar  School. 
Hutton  Grammar  School. 
Hutton  Grammar  School. 

Natural  History. 

1.     Bisiker,  A.  M. 

rjensen.  Miss  E.  : 
2.-^  Jewell.  J. 

t  Williams,  P.  G. 

Cliftonville  College,  Margate. 
Peugwern    College,    Chelten- 

Tollington  Park  College,  N. 
Westbank  School,  Dulwich. 
Devonport  High  School. 
Froebel  House,  Devonport. 

Le  Breton,  T.  V. 

Political  Econo. 
Bennell,  Miss  M, 
Leslie,  P.  W.  L. 

Croucli     End     High 

Private  tuition. 

Fish,  F.  J. 
Smee,  H.  G. 


The  Cusack  Institute, 

Street  Place,  E.C. 
Mercers'  School,  E.C. 

Domestic  Economy. 


Private  tuition. 
Milton  House  School,  Athfr 



Feb.  1,  1909. 



N.B. — The  ^mall  italic  letters  deuote  that  the  Candidate  to  wliose  i 

;  they  are  attached  was  distinguished  in  the  following  subjects  respectively  ; — 

a.    =  Arithmetic. 

al.  =  Algebra. 

().    =  Botany. 

bk.  —  Bookkeeping. 

ch.   =  Chemistry. 

rf.    =  Drawing. 

do.  =  Domestic  Economy. 

e.  =  English. 
/.  =  French. 
(J,  =  Geography. 
ge.  =  German. 
geo.  =  Geology. 
gm,  =  Geometry, 
or.  =  Greek. 

h.   =  History. 
he.  =  Hebrew. 
1.    =  Italian. 
I.     =  Latin. 
It.  =  Light  and  Heat. 
m.  =  Mechanics. 
ma.  =  Magnetism  &  Electricity. 

ms.  =  Mensuration. 
m«.  =  Music. 
nh.  =  Natural  Histoiy. 
p.      =  Political  Economy. 
ph.    =  Physiology. 
phys.  =  Elementary  Physics, 
s.      =  Scripture. 

tr.  =  Trigonometry. 
TO.  =  Welsh. 
s.    =  Zoology. 

he  small  figures  '  ami  'prefixed  to  names  in  the  Second  and  Third  Class  Lists  denote  that  the  Candidates  were  entered  fur  the  First  and  Second  Classes  respectively. 

In  the  addresses,  Acad.  =  Academy,  C.  or  Coll.  =  College,  Coll.  S.  =  Collegiate  School,  Comm.  =  Commercial.  Couv.  =  Convent,  Elem.  =  Elementary,  End.  =  Endowed, 

Found.  =  Foundation,  H.  =  House.  Hr.  ^  Higher,  Inst.  =  Institute,  Int.  =  International, 

Inter.  =  Intermediate,  Poly  =  Polytechnic,  Prep.  =  Preparatorj-,  P.T.  =  Pupil  Teachers,  S.  =  School,  Sec.  =  Secondary,  Tech.  =  Technical,  Univ.  =  University. 

Honours  Division, 


Huttou  Gram.  S. 

Jewell,J.  DevonportHigh  S. 

Woodhouse,R.A.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

Ferraro,  R. 

Devonport  High  S. 

Mercer, F.  a.aJ-, 

Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
I  Oakes  lost.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  WilliamB,P.G. 
U  Froebel  H.,  Devonport 

Lampai'd,L.A.  DevonportHighS. 

Welsh, L.  ge.  sh.        Mercers'  School,  E.C. 
f Bisiker,A.M.  s.e.d. 
I  ToUington  Park  Coll.,  N. 

L  Huston  Gram.  S. 

Curtis, S.J.  s.e.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

Lovell.E.R.      Whitchurch  Gram.  S. 

Chattin,A.E.  al.nia.f.iie. 

High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

Taylor.P.C.C.  a.aJ.ff»i..7iis. 

New  College,  Heme  Bay 

Bell.S.J.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 


Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

Cunningham, L.  HuttonGram.S. 

Smee.H.G.      Mercers' School,  E.C. 

Fish, F.J.  sh. 

Cusack  Inst.,  Broad  St.  Place.  E.C. 
fPassnidge.W.     Private  tuition 
I  Rogers,  W.T.  al.gvi.      Brentwood  High  S. 
1  Sagger,son,E.J.  aX.g\ 
K.  Canning  Street  S.,  Newcastle-ou-T. 


Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

Mynutt,A.P.     Brentwood  Higli  S. 

Dodson,H.  iMi.d.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

Townson.C.H.  al.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

rHammer.V.M.  c.       Mercers'  School,  E.C. 
l.Jones,L.  al.d.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

Rahtkens.G.A  (it.      Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 

Colwill.G.         Camelford  Gram.  S. 

Robinson,  F.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

fArchibald.H.  ck.  Hutt'ui  Gram.  S. 

LBurbidge,  D.        St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 


Pass  Division. 

Ohoidas.T.S.  /.  Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 

Rusby.E.  e.  The  Northernlnstitute,  Leeds 

Woodcock,E.C.  ch.  Private  tuition 

,  Lee.J  H.    High  S.forBoys.Crovdon 

I  Miller, B.St. C.  ms.  'Victoria  Tutorial  Coll., 

l  Buckingham  Palace  Ed.,  S.W. 

Moore.I.S.  d.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

Pitt.V.D.  bk.d.  Gram.  S.,  Worthing 

Newman. A.  K.  HoUoway  College 

Finder  D.T.  Gram..  S.,  Shoreham 

^Garside,L  R.  Private  tuition 

'  Gray.R.B.  U.<-h.  Taunton  School 

Darnngton.C.P.  Sandwich  School 

Peyton. S.A.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

Barry, E.H.  Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 


Newcastle  Modern  S.,  Seweastle-on-T. 
f  Haward.G.  s.e.  Sandwich  School 

1  Kitson,E.W.'i. 
I  Stationers'  Co.'s  S.,  Hornsey 

rBolton,H.F  .(.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

:  Chirk, A.P.  ms.  Brentwood  Higli  S. 

fCockrell.F.W.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 
I,  Wehber.A.E.  a.iiis.  Piivate  tuition 

Caplan  S.  al.  Private  tuition 

/  Hutt,E.S.  rf. 

i  Kingsholme  S.,  Weston-s.-Marc 

V  Pearse,E.  rf.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

/'BranierJ.D.S.  AtlierstoneGram.  S. 
I  Chaidopoulos,N.  .f.  Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 
,'Loyde,H.E.  ms.  Steyne  School,  Worthing 

VMetzner,R.E.  Richmond  Hill  School 

Ferguson, G.OakesInst.,  Walton, Liverpool 
Bolton,J.N.  Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 

rMiddle,G.F.  OakesInst.,Walton,Liverpool 
l.Whitfeild,B.W.  Private  tuition 

rJameson.A.C.  e.  Gravesend  Modern  S. 
LSpry.W.B.e.  Pynsent'sGram.S.,Chudleigh 
Maddison,G.R.  Private  tuition 

f Howard,A.A.  il.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

I  Josling.H.R.  .7,.  Private  tuition 

I  Oxley,R.H.  Castle  Hill  S.,  W.  Ealing 
I  Slater,R.A.  Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 

l,\Vatson,A.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

Starkey,W.E.  e.  Epworth  Coll.,  Rhyl 

rLe  Breton,T.V.  iiiK. 

1  Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Helier 

I  Silver.H.B.  Whitchurch  Gram.  S. 

Lstokes.G.A.  ch.  Private  tuition 

Hutton  Gram.  8. 
Private  tuition 

I  Kent.L.H.  d. 
I  Ries,H.F. 
I  Oakes 


St.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
Hutton  Gram.  S. 

Forsaith.F.L.  d.  High  S.rorBovs,Crovdon 

i  Canning  Street  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

I  Mar»liall,J.L.  /.  Argyle  H.,  Sunderland 
LYoung.J.A.C.  Brentwood  High  S. 


I  Univ.  Tutorial  Coll.,  Red  Lion  S(i.,W.C. 
;  Harris,C.J.P.  W.-.rf.        Brighton  Gram.  S. 

Hick.^A.  Private  tuition 

I  Murphy ,E.F.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Crovdon 
l^ Peters  J.  Hutton  Grammar  S. 

Smythe.H.J.D.  ch.  Private  tuition 

I'Brunning.A.E.  Steyning  Gram.  S. 

I  Davey.T.F.  sh. 
I  Wallingbrook  S.,  Cliulnileigh 

Root, A. C.     Lancaster  Coll. ,  W.  Norwood 
Lwitting,T.N.     Grammars.   Scarborough 
I  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

Green, B.J.  rf.  Xaverian  Coll.,  Manchester 
(.Salman, C.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

rClarke,J.E.  Kendrick  8.,  Reading 

I  Gulbenkian,K.S.  f. 

I  St.  Paul's  S.,  W.  Kensington 

("Gosling, L.D.  St.  George's  Coll.,Weybridge 
l,Suel.son,F.  University  S.,  Southport 

('Bateman,R.J.  Grammars.,  Cowes 

I  Jackson, W. 

Cusack  Inst.,  Broad  St.  Place,  E.C. 
l.Powell,B.V.  Private  tuition 

('Ford,N.L.  High  8.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Hall.C.W.         High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

Jones, P.G.  ms. 
I  The  Greystones,  Scarborough 

LStubbs,C.A.  sim.blc.  Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 
/'Gray,J.B.  d  Stationers'  Co.'s  S.,  Hornsey 
I  Humphreys, L. 

I  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I,  Woodro£re,S.  W.  8t«yne  8.,  Worthing 

fAlderton.W.H.  Giggleswick  S.,  Settle 
I  Linley,H.H.  Ellesmere  S.,  Harrogate 
LPatersoTi.H.  s.  Bridlington  College 


Cambridge  H.,  Camden  Rd.,  N. 
LPenhale.R.H.  Holsworthy  Middle  S. 

Border.R.  Gram.  S.,  Dawlish 

CBanister,R.  d.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

I.  TurTier,  A.  G.OakesInst.,  Walton, Liverpool 

Clarke,T.P.  Cambridge  H.,Oamden  Rd.,N. 
I  Laarens.E.J.  Private  tuition  CollegiateS., Bridgwater 
I  Hinder,  R.J.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

Hughes,J.  Whitchurch  Gram.  S. 

(.Jones.B.O.  Eversley  8.,  Stamford 

Hodsnn.H.E.  rf.   University  8.,  Southport 

Evans,D.T.  Private  tuition 

Davies.J  A.  Epsom  College 


Oakes  lust ,  Walton,  Liverpool 

Weakley,H.      High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

Carpenter.JS.  Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

i''NichoIls,G.L.  Victoria  Tutorial  College, 
I  Buckingham  Palace  Rd.,  S.W. 

l..Stubbs,H.R.  Grammar  S., Worthing 

f'Higliton.J.H.  University  S.,  Southport 
I  Howcroft,R.  d.  Hutton  Gram.  8. 

1^ Roberts,  W.  Gram.  S.,  Cowbridgf 

Russell,  B.E.  Brentwood  High  8. 

CBaines.T.H.  Mossley  Hall  8.,  Congleton 
I  Nicliolls,H.B.  Private  tuition 

I  St.  Helen's  Coll.,  South 

rCarr,C.M.L.  Charlton  Academy,  Bath 
I  Northey,H.G.  Chaloner's  S.,  Braunton 
LPringle,A.  Private  tuition 


I  Oxeuford  H.,  St.  Lawrence,  Jersey 

LHarper,V.H.3i;i.CliftonvilleColl., Margate 
Carter,  A.N. 

African  Training  Inst.,  Cohvyn  Bay 
Marsland,  W.R. 

Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingh: 
CElliott,B.W.M.  Private  tuition 

I  Lloyd,J.  Whitchurch  Gram.  S. 

I  Moore.K.H.  ch. 

I      Univ.  Tutorial  Coll.,  Red  Lion  Sq.,W.C. 
LWaldegrayCj  A.H.  vis.  GravesendModernS. 
Sandwich  School 
Private  tuition 
Kendrick  8.,  Reading 
Whitchurch  Gran    ~ 
Private  tuition 
Private  tuition 
Mercers'  School,  E.C, 
Private  tuition 
inersbury  S.,  Chiswick 

(-Hogben,  F.L. 





I  Ertsforth.J.H. 


^Andrews.  A. C. 

(^  Baden,  R. 


I      Univ.  Tutorial  Coll.,  Red  Lion  Sq.,  W.C, 

kWalshjT.C.  s2>.ch.  Private  tuition 


I  Canning  Street  S.,  Newcastle 

I  Hoyle,F.W.  Oakeslnst.,Walton,Liverpool 

I  King.T.  s.  St.  Boniface's  Coll.,  Plymoutii 

l.,Shillaker,H.  Eversley  S.,  Stamford 

l'Banks,C.N.  Oakeslnst., Walton, Li verpool 

I..Doherty,J.  The  Palace  S.,  Bewdley 


Honours  Division, 


Humberstone  Foundation  S.,  Grimsby 

Weymouth  P.-T.  Centre 
Marsden,H.M.  ma.d.  Huttou  Gram.  S. 

Mercers'  School,  E.C. 
deMowbray,R.M.  Private  tuition 
Brown,  W.H. 

The  College,  Weston  s.-Mare 

Weymouth  P.-T.  Centre 
Attw^ooll,J.L.  al.phys.d. 

Weymouth  P.-T.  Centr.- 
Youug,E.W.  Mercers'  School,  B.C. 

^Buck,A.J.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
Pilbeam,L.S./.rf.  Brighton  Gram.  8. 

l^ Press, W.  bk.J.  Raleigh  Coll.,  Brixton 

Wookey,G.  R.P.  s.h.  The  CoUege.Clevedon 
I  Douglas  S.,  Cheltenham 

I  Whitbourn.T.J.C.  bk.d. 
\  Ryde  House  Comm.  8.,  Ripley 

Broniley,E.V./.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

f  Bailey.E.  al.  Hutton  Gram.  8. 

I  Christal,F.A. 

Redby  Boys'  8.,  Sunderland 
I  Lloyd. W.V.  /.rf.  Weymouth  P.-T.  Cer.tre 
I  .«iles,E.A.  f.d.  Castle  Hill  8.,  W.  Ealing 
i^Townend.B  Southport  Modern  8. 
Greenhalgh,J.  o.  Farnworth  Gram.  S. 

Shaftesbury  Grammar  8. 
LPearson.M.  e.h.g.f.  Private  tuition 

Goodchild.A.T.  hk.vm. 

St.  John's  Coll.,  Finsbury  Park 

CBurgess,J.W.  d.   'R'eymoutli  P.-T.  Centre- 
Shaw, R. 
I  Queensberry  S.,  Lungton 

rClewer,  D.  /.  Taunton  H. ,  Brighton 

LLongley,  R.  F.  /.  Steyning  Gram.  8. 

Curtis,A.T.  d.  Gram.  8.,  Ongar 

Wickett,T.  rf.  Newquay  College 

rClark.H.J.C.  a.d.     Kendrick  S.,  Reading 
I  Rankme,J.B.C.  a.bk. 
L  Hightield  S.,  Muswell  Hill,  N. 

Gabony,W.A.E.  Mercers'  School, E.C 

Ogle,G  A.       Grammar  8.,  Belper 
rMaiden.A.  d.  Hutton  Gram.  8. 

Mortou.W.  gm.d.    Arg>-|e  H., Sunderland* 
LWalker.C.R./.  Mercers'  School,  E.C. 


Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 

Norris,S.  Private  tuition 

rBlairmann,D. /.m<i. 

Haberdashers'  S. ,  Cricklewood 
I  Blandford,T.C.  rf.  Weymouth  P. -T.Centre 
l.,,W.H.  rf.  Mercers' School,  E.C. 

Russell, P.G.  al.f.  Private  tuition 

('FI>nn,F.W.  Mercers'  School,  E.C. 

I  Harlow,  F.W.  al.f. 
I       Newcastle  Modern  8.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

Proper, J. B. /.  Mercers' School,  E.C. 

L.Tuain,R.  bk.  Grammar  8.,  Shoreham 

f  Moran.F.  Private  tuition 

I  Needell.C.  Mercers'  School,  E.C. 

Waugh.J.B.  h. 
L     Newcastle  MorlemS.,  Newcastle-on-T. 
rDerry,D.     Queensbeny  8.,  Longton 
l,Rodwell,H.L.  g  d.  Private  tuition 

rDowling.A.  s. 

Oxeuford  H.,  St.  Lawrence,  Jersey 


Redby  Boys'  S.,  Sunderland 

Hiuwood.G.Y  s      The  College,  Clevedon 

Townsend,B.M.  d. 

St.  Paul's  8.,  West  Kensington 

BIanksby,F.  d.  HuttonGram.S. 

Sanmel.J.T./.  Private  tuition 

^Schreier.R.S.  bk.  Gram.  S.  Shoreham 

-Bartlett,J  R.C.  High  8  for  Boys,Croydon 

Dale.W.L.  s.  The  College,  Weston-s.-Mare 

Main  prize,  J.  V. 

Grammar  8.,  Bridlington. 
/'Ashwell,W.B.  bk. 

I  Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 

I  Austin, W.A./. 

I  Pitman's  S.,  Southampton  R"W,  W.C. 
j  Bartholumew.J.C.  Colebrook  H.,  Bognor 
l.Ingram,A.T.  d.  St.  Olave's  Gram.  S.,S  E. 
^FIeury,W./.  Jersey  Modern  8..  St.  Helier 
I  Hutchings.H.J.  S.M-.  Wilsford  H., Devizes 
I  Pratt,  H.B.  Grammar  S  ,  Shoreham 

LThomas,G.  Mer.-ers'  School,  E.C. 

('Gardeunei-,F.C.  e.f.      High  8.,  Camborne 

I  Joule.J.S. 
I  Saul.E.R.  f. 
/'Butler.  A.  E. 
I  Matthews, W.R. 
V  Buckii 

itwood  Hit 

Private  tuition 

Weymouth  Modern  8. 

Gram.  8.,  Devizes 

Victoi  ia  Tutorial  Coll., 

Cham  Palace  Rd.,  S.W. 

/'Godding.E.F.J.  d.  The  College,  Clevedou 
I  Moore,G  A.  al.  Highbury  Park  School 
VSully,R.  Gunnersbury  S.,  Chiswick 

rJohnson,H.T.  Mercers'  School,  E.C. 

Lsiggs.C.G.  D.  Boys'  High  8.,  Streatham 
f  Compton.R  8.  6fc.  Gram  S  ,  Shoreham 
I  Johnson, D.G.cft.d.St.Olave'sGram.S.,S.E 
I  Whillock.G.B  B. 

V,  The  Greystones.  Scarborough 

/'Chillingworth.H.F  /.  Privat*  tuition 

Hodge,G.  W,-.      Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 

Leadbeater,H.  al.d. 

Gi-amrnarS.,  Scarborough 

Minchin,H.N.  Grammars.,  Shoreham 
.Price.N.L.T.  bk.  Brentwood  High  S. 

('Babbage,N.J.  d. 

I  Wallingbrook  8.,  Chulmleigh 

I  Broxup,C.  s.e.  Margate  Commercial  S. 
I  Garrett,L.A.  d. 

High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Goodwin, H.  Queensberry  8.,  Longton 
I  Green,  W.J.  Oakes  lnst.,Walton,Liverpool, 

Feb.  1,  1909.] 


BOYS,  2nd  Class,  Bons.—CaiUimied. 
Kitcat,A.J.   St.  Dmistan's  Coll.,  Margate 
Parker,C.S,  Private  tuition 

Rix,S.M.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

Sainsbury.A.P.  f.d. 

St.  Paul's  S.,  West  Kensington 
Spink.S.C.  Taunton  H.,  Brigliton 

Squire.H.F.  Private  tuition 

young, P.O.  al.d. 

Newcastle  Modern  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

Private  tuition 
Private  tuition 
Private  tuition 
Penketli  School 
re  .S.,  Harrogate 
Dulwich  College 
Private  tuition 

SfCO/VO    CLASS    [or   JUNIOR}. 
Pass  Division. 

lCastle,G.  Sandwich  School 

ILyon.W.N.r./.   St.  Mary'sColl.,  Harlow 

lDodd,J.R.  Private  tuition 

ILaurens.S.J.  Jersey  Modern  S., St. Helier 
^Andrews,D.W.J.  t. 

I  Portsmouth  Grammar  School 

J  Lyne,F.H.  Private  tuition 

Moore.H.W.H.  al.  Mercers'  School,  E.C. 
l.Rodway,A.R.  Boys'  High  S.,  Streatham 
^Blackford,A.J.  s.    The  College,  Clevedon 

Bobby,F.H.  a.d. 

King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 

Came,D.F.G./.(;.  Private  tuition 

Holden,F.  vm.  Southport  Modern  S. 

Lee,C.H.  KendrickS.,  Reading 

'.WiUans,N.J.  I.         Rossall  S.,  Fleetwood 
IBrowell.H.P.  Mercers'  School,  E.C. 

Grant,  G.  ch. 

Archbp,  Holgate's  Gram.  S. ,  York 

Jinks,S.  Hutton  Gram.  S 

Robinson, H.S.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

Robinson,J.A.  </./.  Private  tuition 

lWenham,G.     High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

Willans,W.R.  a.U: 

Chaloner's  S.,  Brauuton 
rGray.J.H.  s.  Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

I  Johnson, V.R.W.       Kendrick  S  ,  Reading 

Johnston,C.D.O.  s.U.  Kendrick.S.,Readin.' 
I  Keet,C.C.  Mercers'  School,  E.G. 

l.Royley,H.  Farnworth  Gram.  S. 

rBickerstafte,T.S.  Hutton  Gram   S 

I  Corless,A.F.  d.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

Cowlin.J.  W.  /.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 
I  MacFarlane,J.iK.  GrosvenorColl., Carlisle 
l.West,J.R.  a.  Kendrick  S.,  Readinp 


Linzee,N.H.  /. 



LWoods.R.S.  id.f. 
rBedelI,A.E.  g.f. 

Burn.E.W.  td. 

Victoria  S.,  Heaton,  Neweastle-on-T 

ICochraoe.H.D.  New  College,  Heme  Bay 

Domville,S.T.  al. 

Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
LLoader,C.P.  St.John'sColL.FinsburyPark 
"Applin,G.W.H.        Mercers'  School,  B  C. 

Barnes, J.  M.  Brighton  Gram.  S. 

Lmdsay.G.P.     St.  Olave's  Gram.  S.,  S.F,. 

Livingston, R.  Colebrook  H.,  Boo-nor 

Shrimpton.G.V.  d. 

The  College,  Weston-s.-Mare 

lSkentelbery,B.T.  County  S.,  Liskeard 
l.Stanip,M.F.  Mercers'  School,  B.C. 

'lFaulkner,R.O.      Grammars.,  Shoreham 

Pox,P.W.  (j.d. 

King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 


Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 

Hopley,  >V.A.  ch.       Whitchurch  Gr 

LeMasurier,P.H. /. 

St.  James'  Coll.  S.,  Jersey 
l.Stott,H.  Hutton  Gram.  S 

rlBrasher,W.      Cliftonville  Coll.,  Margate 
I  Coplans.S.H. 
I  Simon  Langton  Boys'  S.,  C.interbury 

IMackenzic,J.S.  Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

Mnss,R.E.  d.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

■Saunders,  W.H.  Private  tuition 

fBates.T.H.  ch. 

Royal  Grammars.,  Xew.nstle-on-T 
Charnock,G.B./.  Ashland  Highs.,  Wigan 
Edgar.L.  Sandwich  School 

Hamley,  W.W.  Boys'  High  S.,  Streatham 
Hargreaves,H.  Newchurch  Gram.  S. 

Hill.R.L.  Scarborough  College 

l>ewth,F.D.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
Page.P.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  S 

Redman, R.E.  Private  tuition 


Lancaster  Coll.,  W.  Norwood 

Skerry's  Coll.,  Newcastle-on-T. 
IStott.G.H.  OakesInst.,Walton,Liverpool 

The  Polytechnic  S.,  Langham  Place,  W. 
Baker,E.  The  Gram.  S.,  Newton  Abbot 
lBrine,P.J.F.  A.shford  Gram.  S. 

Dingle,  A. T.  U:  f.  County  S.,  Liskeard 
Glick,J.  y»i./.      Thoresby  High  S.,  Leeds 

Harrison, H.  d. 

Canning  Street  S.,  Newcastle-i 

I  iStubbs,E.E.  Private  tuition 

Lwatchorn,S.C.         Bversley  8.,  Stamford 

rCoombs.A.W.  s. 

I  Milton  Coll.,  Bexley  Heath 

lFinch,F.J.  Teignmouth  College 

I  Goodwin,H.a!. 

I  St.  Martin's  Gram.  S.,  Scarborough 

Hale,F.W.  <f. 

King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
Kingsland,C.J.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
Luscombe,J.  bk.d.  St.Winifred's,Torqu.'iy 
Nelson, K.M.  /.  Private  tuition 

iRoberts,J.  w.  Private  tuition 

iThomas.D.I.  Private  tuition 

Westwater,  J.S.  /.  School  for  Sons  of 

Missionaries,  Blackheath 

St.  John's  Coll.,  Finsbury  Park 

f-Beaucbamp,W.G.  Private  tuition 

I  Beavis,F.E.  St.John'sColl., Finsbury  Park 

1  Heald,J.H.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

I  LeMasurier,C.G./. 

St.  Cle 

Lord, J. A. 


Nelson,  H. 

Oliver,  F. 

Parochial  S.,  Jersey 

Farnworth  Gram.  S. 

Private  tuition 

Farnworth  Gram.  S. 

Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

H.,  Highgate 

Anderson, B.  A.  High  S.  for  Boys,Croydi 
j  Banks,E.H.c/i.Lanca3terColl.,Morecambe 
I  Easton.W.A./.  HaileyburyColl., Hertford 
I  Evans,W.  ch.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 
I  Hodge, R.  hk.  Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 
1  Long,L.  d.  Richmond  Hill  School 

I  Ludolf,G.H.  h. 

I  Tlie  Northern  Inttitute,  Leeds 

1  Petherick.J.S.  .«.  Holsworthy  Middle  S. 
I  lTodd,F.J.  The  Greystones,  Scarborough 
I  iTraise,B.W.  Bversley  S.,  Stamford 

l^Walker.A.D.F.  RedbyBoys'S.,Sunderiand 
rCarrier,J.R.  St.  Olave's  Gram.  S, ,  S.B. 
I  Collett,H.R.P.  Private  tuitioi 

Gill.J.W.  St.  Ohive's  Gram.  S.,  S.E, 

1  Jones.F.  Whitchurch  Gram.  S. 

I  iMatthews,C.H. 

I  Broomy  Hill  Acad.,  Hereford 

I  Tasker,R.H. /. 
I.,  Bryn  Melyn  S.,  Weston-s.-Mare 

(k.  Iwood.G.B.  Gram.  S.,  Belper 

I  Bell,W.  Private  tuition 

I  iCranmer,G.P.  al.  Private  tuition 

I  Hutchinson, W.  hk. 
I  Grammar  S.,  Fulwood,  Preston 

Long,R.M.     St.  Dunstan's  Coll.,  Margate 

Mortimer.G.  hk. 

Southport  Commercial  Coll. 

Oldham, E.C.     St.  James'  Coll.  S.,  Jersey 

Ordish,P.J./.  Mercers' School,  E.C. 

I  lSimpson,8.E.M. 

I  Mossley  Hall  S.,  Congleton 

I^Warren,J.W.  h.  Private  tuition 

riAnderson.A.E.H.  d. 
I  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

I  Bernard,  A.S.  Brondesbury  College 

I  Carter Braine.J.F.  ((. 
I  St.  Paul's  S.,  W.  Kensingti 

i  Fulton,S.  Gunnersburv  S.,  Cbiswick 

]  Gaud,D.n.  Froebel  H.,  Devonport 

I  Gibson, W.S.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  iGill.R.  Private  tuition 

I  Hardy,E.A.  i(.  St.  Paul'sS.,W.Kensingb 
I  Harper.E.C.  Private  tuitii 

I  IJones.G.H.W.  Long  Ashton  S.,  Bristol 
I  Lovell,E.R.  Weymouth  P.-T.  Centre 

I  Reeves,R.A.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

IRobb.W.A.  Barton  S.,  Wisbech 

LWhiley.B.A.  Bridlington  College 

fAnibrose,L.G.  Bedford  H.,  Folkestone 
I  Christie,G.  Private  tuition 

I  Knibb,H.  Comm.  S.,  Stratford-on-Avon 
I  lLaurenson,E. 

I  Christ  Church  Hr.  Elem.  S., Southport 
I  Pearson, L.S.W.  Boys' High  S.,  Streatham 
I  Scott.T.H.H.  High  S.,  Market  Drayton 
I  Southall.P.K.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
I  Wallis.A.B.  Tynemouth  School 

LWaylett.J.R.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
f  Aitkin,  W.B.  Gravesend  Modern  S. 

I  Brierley.H.  Oakeslnst., Walton, Liverpool 

iCharoen.M.L.  in.         Arnold  H.,  Chester 

lJones,F.  Private  tuition 

Mason.C.W.J.  Mercers'  School,  E.C. 

Rycroft,E.C.         Thornton  Heath  School 

Swinscoe,A.H.   .St.  Olave's  Gram.  S.,  S.E. 


High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
(-Brown.G.  d. 

I  Canning  Street  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

I  Colley,T.  Gram.  S.,  Fulwood,  Preston 
I  Crane, W.A.  Private  tuition 

i  Hollis.H.F.  /.  Private  tuition 

1  Madge,H.M.A. 

I  South  Molton  United  Higher  S. 

I  Murphy.J.B.  Grain.  S.,  Belper 

LWenmoth,L.J.  hk.  County  S.,  Liskeard 
rBeevor,L.P.  Grammar  S.,  Belper 

I  IBi-ealey.B.W.  Private  tuition 

I  Browning, C.  Private  tuition 

I  Cnlverson,A.D.     Langharne  S.,  South 

Fr3mpton,II.L.  Steyne  S.,  Worth 

Hainsworth,W.  Hall  Gate  3.,  Donoaster 

Kingshulme  S.,  Weston-s.-Mare 
Kettlewell,N.H.  Private  tuition 

Manton,M.D.  Derwent  H.,  Baniford 

Marshall, W.B.  al.  Holsworthy  Middle  S. 
Pen»lleton,H.C.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  S. 

LTydeman.B.V.  Private  tuition 

r'Bnsh.D.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

I  Carman,B.  St.  Olave's  Gram.  S.,  S.E. 
I  Gilbertson,F.J.  Argyle  H.,  Sunderland 
I  Horton,B.K.  Cliftonville  Coll.,  Margate 
]  Meyer.H.  Mercers'  School,  E.C. 

I  Naylor,F./.  Rastrick  Gram.  S., 
LWebb.G.T.  /.  Private  tuition 

f  lBuck,E.  Private  tuition 

I  iCoote,P.E.  Cambridge  H.,CamdenBd.,N. 
I  Eason,W.  JIargate  Commercial  S. 

I  Emery,P.C.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

I  Evetts,R.C.T.  St.PaursS.,W.Ken.sington 
I  iFoster,A.D.  CoUegiateS.,  Bridgwat-r 
I  Harris, W.H.  Private  tuition 

I  Pierce, W.C.  ik.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  S. 

1  Siraonseu,W.V.  Colebrook  H.,  Bognor 
!  Summers,L.  W  Brondesbury  College 

I  Welfare,8.A.  Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 
I  lWest,D.A.  St.  Dunstan's  Coll.,  Margate 
l^WilsoUjR.L.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 
flAllen,J.B.  High  S.,  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Angwin,R.P.  Highbury  Park  School 
I  Bell,A.E.  Derwent  H.,  Baniford 

1  Day, J.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 


The  College,  Weston-s.-JIare 
Drake, D.H.  Ellesmere  S.,  Harrogate 


St.  Martin's  Gram.  S.,  Searborongh 
Rodriguez, C.E.  Gunnersbury  S.,Chiswick 

Ryde  House  Comm.  S.,  Ripley 
l,iSinith,J.W.  Private  tuition 

('Anios,T.  al.  Grammar  8.,  Sale 

I  lCandish,B.J.  W.-.  St.  Winifred's,  Torquay 
I  lGardner,W.P. 

Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
1  Glasper,W. 
I  The  Preston  Gram.  S.,  Stokesley 

Hopkins, .S.N.  Private  tuition 

I  Lack.E.B.  s.  Grove  H.,  Highgat 

I  Llarena,B.F.  Dulwich  College 

I  Poulton,A.H.  mil. 
I  Ryde  House  Coinm.  S.,  Ripley 

I  Price, H. P.  Private  tuition 

l^Williams,K.R.  w.  Private  tuition 

f  Bennett, W.L.B.  57  Lansdowne  St.,  Hovi 
I  iChester,C.C.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  S, 

1  Coombs, A. C.  d.  Beverley  S. ,  Barnes 

I  Day,6.K.  Western  Coll.,  Harrogate 

Gore-Jones,8.F.  High  S.for  Boys, Croydi 
I  Hyde,W.R.  St.John's  Coll., Finsbury  Park 
I  lOgden.J.M.  The  Greystones,Scarborougli 
LPocockjE.J.  Kendrick  8.,  Reading 

Bociin,L.A.  Argyle  H.,  Sunderland 

Caton,T.C.  Oakeslnst,  Walton, Liverpool 
Clarke,H.B.  Penketh  School 

Dodd,A.F.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 

Hewens,F.  Margate  Commercial  S, 

Hufram,J.C.  The  College,  Buxton 

Perrem,J.H.  The  Gram.  S., Newton  Abbot 
Ramsden,A.M.  Clifton  Coll.,  Harrogatt 
Roberts,M.E.  Margate  Commercial  8. 
Rook,B.H.  Froebel  H.,  Devonport 

RyanMacMahon,J.  Stonyhurst  College 
I  Sherrard.F.R.G.N-  d.  Brighton  Gram.  S 
I  Skelton,W. /.  Richmond  H.,  Saudgati 
I  Skinner,  W.T. 

Oakes  lust.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
j  Smith, C.  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
I  .Symes,H. 

1^  Highfleld  8.,  Wandsworth  Comm 

CHartridge,N.L.  ins. 

I  Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 

I  Heppell,J  G. 

I  Canning  Street  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

I  Journeaux,H. /. 

I  Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Helier 

[  Kean,J.S.  hk.  Gravesend  Modern  8. 

I  Ogden,J.R.  The  Greystones,  Scarborough 
I  Read,  W.B.I.  Brighton  College 

I  Smith, R.S.  Private  tuition 

[  Swarbrick,H. 

I  Christ  Church  Hr.  Elem.  S.,  Southport 
I  iTatton.G.F.  30  Stapleton  Hall  Ed.  " 
I  Wuod,D./.  Gram.S.,Choritou-cum-Hardy 
l.,Wood,F.E.  Douglas  8.,  Cheltenham 

f-Lelieup,E.P.  hk.  CliftonvilleColl., Margate 
I  lMasson,I.A.  Mercers'  School,  E.C 

I  Tucker,A.E.  The  Gram.  S.,  Newton  Abboj 
VWoodford,H.  TheGreystones,Scarboroug, 
('Chappell,H.R.  /.  Finsbury  Park  Coll 

I  CliB.N.D.  /.  The  High  8.,  Torquay 

I  IDenize.F.A.  Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Heli 
I  lMacdonald,A.  Private  tuiti 

I  01iver,R.G.  s.  Holsworthy  Middle 

I  Roas.J.H.  d. 
V      ChrLst  Church  Hr.  Elem.  S.,  Southport 

('Besley,D.J.  Chaloner's  S.,  Brauntot 

[  Dobson,L.J.  Brentwood  High  S, 

Harailton,M.St.C.  Arnold  H.,  Chester 
I  Lear, 'W.J.  Grammar  S.,  Dawliah 

I  Partridge.S.C.  Private  tuition 

I  Pennington, W.F. 

I  'The  Greystones,  Scarborough 

Private  tnitir 

Southport  Modern  S. 

Private  tuition 

Ever.sley  S.,  Stiiiiford 

Private  tuition 

:S.,  Dawlish 

I  Sheard.H.8.  ma. 
I  Curtis,R.L. 
I  Griffiths,T.V. 
I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 

Henry,  M .  G.  /.  Private  tuition 

Heslam.T.W.  hk.  Gronvenor  Coll.,  Cariisle 
'Huelin,J.  Jersey  Moderns.,  St.  Helier 
Jenner,  P.  A.  Brunswick  H. ,  Maid.stone 
Lockett,G.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 

Manuel, J.  Crewe  Academy 

Merrett.B.L.d.  Mercers' School,  B.C. 
Shackell.D.R. /.  Emwell  8..  Waiminster 
Sternberg,P.  (jin.f.  Private  tuition 

^Ward,H.  Private  tuition 

f  Barber.N.B.  Froebel  H.,  Devonport 

I  nirch,H.J.  Derwent  H.,  Bamford 

I  Cartmell,N.W.C.  High8.forBoys,Croydon 
I  Close,  W.G.  hk.  Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 
I  C'ooke,E.W.  Wilsford  H.,  Devizes 

Fehrenbach.F.  d. 
I  St.  Boniface's  Coll.,  Plymonth 

I  Ferrington,H.  ma.d. 

Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingham 
I  Fleming, E.G.  /.  Private  tuition 

I  Forrester,  H.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Haws.G.W.  /.  Private  tuition 

I  Jenkinson,E.  Private  tuition 

1  King.G.W.  Private  tuition 

1  Le  Cornu,J.H. 

I  Oxenford  H.,  St.  Lawrence,  Jersey 

I  Loinas.E. 

I  Southampton  Boys'  Coll.,  &  High  8. 

I  Reason,  T.  F.  Private  tuition 

I  Smith,A.M.  LancasterColl.,W.  Norwood 
I  Steele,H.R.  d.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Sykes,F.  Private  tuition 

I  Walpole,B.O.  /. 

I  Gunnersbury  S.,  Chiswick 

I^Wills.G.E.  /.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 
Chambers,S.  d.  Bversley  8.,  Stamford 
Chataway,J.D.P.  Courtenay  Lodge, 

Sutton  Courtenay,  Abingdon 
Currie,H.D.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
lEvans,J.  Private  tuition 

Horsley.L.  Private  tuition 

Smith, G.A.  Private  tuition 

Virgin,A.H.  TheSchool,  Bi.shopStortford 

Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
Bower,A.LeB.  /. 

Harleston  H.,  St.  Lawrence,  Jersey 
Cuthbert,R.B.  f.l.  Private  tuition 

lDavidson,L,F.  Castle  Hill  S.,  W.  Ealing 
Gardner,L.G.  d. 

Archbp.  Holgate's  Gram.  S.,  York 
Hollings,J.  St.  Olave's  Gram.  S.,  S.E. 
Ridley, T.  GrosvenorColl.,  Carlisle 

_lStansby,B.F.  Grammar  S.,  Ongar 

("Bilby.B.B.  Mercers' School,  E.C. 

I  Darrington,T.A.  Sandwich  School 

I  de  VerteuiljL.  Stonyhurst  College 

I  Eady,B.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 

LLangley,C.C.  hk.  Brunswick  H., Maidstone 
fCoIenian,B.L.  Sandwich  School 

,  Collis,B.  Queensberry  8., Longton 

I  Lancaster,G.C.  d.  Private  tuition 

I  Lupton.S.W. 

I  Kingsholme  S.,  Weston-s.-Mare 

I  Masters,  W.E.  Private  tuition 

1  Morre]l,A. 

I  Canning  Street  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

1  Newman.J.C.F.  Private  tuition 

I  iPercy,A.F. 

j  The  School,  Wellington  Rd.,  Taunton 
VWard,P.  Private  tuition 

rBeaver,G.H.  cK. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  Buck,A.G.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Cariisle 

I  Caunt,C.  LadyHawkins'Gram.S.,Kiiigl"n 
I  iClemmeus,B.W.S. 

I  Cambridge  H.,  Camden  Ril.,  X. 

I  Conn, W.H. 

I  W.  Jesmoiid  Senior  8.,  Newcastle-on-T. 
^,Panton,D.F.  Dulwich  College 

flCompton.J.S.  Grammar  3.,  Shoreham 
I  Croft,  W.L.  ill. 

1  Cricli  Common  S.,  Matlock  Bath 

I  Durham, W. 

I  The  Preston  Gram.  S.,  Stokesley 

Fletcher, J. H.  Southport  Modern  S. 

Private  tuition 
St,  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 
Kendrick  S.,  Reading 
St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 
I  IMaitl'and.C.'J.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Mallet,H.  Private  tuition 

I  Rowlands,!.  S. 

l^  Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingham 

rBarrett,C.A.  hk.  Grammar  3.,  Ongar 

I  Bindon,L.W.  Cliftonville  Coll..  Margate 
I  Buer,W.B.  Warner's  Coll.,  Richmond 

Hillmartin  Coll.,  Camden  Bd.,  N.W. 
Chefalino,A.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

I  Forbes,H.W. 
I  Gibbs,R.C. 
I  Hallraark.A.S, 
I  Lewis, A.  W./. 


[Feb.  1,  1909. 

BOYS,  2nd  Class,  P/jiS—C07itimted. 
I  Corpe.H.  Alargate  Commercial  S. 

I  Deaoe  G.S.  /.  De  Aston  8.,  Market  Rason 
I  Blliott.H.W.  St.  Glare's  Gram.  S.,  8.B. 
I  Holford.A.R. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  Morris,  R.  P. 

I  Emlyn  Gram.  S.,  Newcastle  Bmlyn 

I  P.arry,J.M, /,  Private  tuition 

I  Roberts, J.  Oakes  Inst.,Walton, Liverpool 
I  Saul,R. 

L  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
CBridge,G.R.  Winchester  H.,  Bristol 

I  Chadwick.B.  d. 

I  St.  Martin's  Gram.  S.,  Scarborough 

I  Cl«gue,C.E. 

I  Royal  Gram.  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

I  LeGros.J.  Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Helier 
I  Lowick.H.S. 

I  Cusack  Inst,  Broad  St.  Place,  B.C. 

I  Bose.S.H.  Bridlington  College 

Lstevens.S.  Private  tuition 


)  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

t  Follett.H.J.  Hillcroft  S.,  Mortimer 

1  IGrace.B.F.  Broomy  Hill  Acad., Hereford 

i  Johnson,  W. 

I        Newcastle  Modern  8.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

I  McGowan,H.  Private  tuition 

1  Mulliner,N.  Private  tuition 

I  Pengilly,J.A. 

I  Bradley  High  S.,  Newton  Abbot 

I  T«nton,S.A.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  8. 

I  Watkins,G.A.  W.-. 

i  Southdown  Coll.,  Eaetbournf 

^IWills,T.  Charlton  Academy,  Bath 

fBeswick,W,T.  /.  Private  tuition 

I  0arruther9,P.G.E. 

I  Bly.A  J.  gm./. 
I  Bvans,C.H.  /. 


Holmes, N.W.  a 




('Borland, D.D.  High  8.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Brown, S.D.      High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

I         King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  Evans,D.L.  Thornton  HeatJi  School 

I  Grassam.S.A.         Spalding  Gram.  School 
Jardine.D.  f.  Private  tuition 

'Jones,  H.  Private  tuition 

LlLintern,E.C.  Private  tuition 


osvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 
Kingsbridge  Gran 

Private  tuition 
Irammar  S.,  Shoreham 
Private  tuition 
i,G.H.         HolBworthy  Middle  8, 
,A.   Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Helier 
Brown, A.G.  Private  tuition 

Mallet.A.  St.  James'  Coll.  S.,  Jersey 

Romeril,A.J.  /. 

Harleston  H.,  St.  Lawrence,  Jersey 

Thompson, J. H.  Penketh  School 

VThomson,C.G.  01  Mutley  Plain,  Plymouth 

^Bannerman,S.H.  Private  tuition 

I  Brett. B.B.         Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 

I  Clarke.J.G.  Kendrick  8.,  Reading 

1  Cockerill.L.D.  J.  Forest  Gate  High  8. 

I  Elli8,A.  Parley  H.,  Peterborough 

1  Griffin,C.L.  al.  Thornton  Heath  S. 

I  Palmer,F.  Hoe  Gram.  S.,  Plymouth 

I  Peerless,H.T.        Bedford  H.,  Folkestone 

Richard«on,D.R.  Huttoii  Gram.  S. 

Rogers, R.S.  Oakeslnst., Walton, Liverpool 

Rowe,F.     St.  Boniface's  Coll.,  Plymouth 

Trethewey,L.  bk.  St.  Winifred's,  Torquay 

Way.W.E.T.       Oliftonville  Coll.,  Margate 

Weatherhogg.W.  d.  SpaldingGram  School 

Wilson,  J.C.    Littleton  H.,Knowle,Bristol 

.Wright,S.M.  Private  tuition 

fBennett.J.D.  s.,      Holsworthy  Middle  S. 

I  Denton,  J.  H.  d.  Easinewold  Gram.  S. 

I  Dodge.C.E.  Grammar  S.,  Devizes 

I  lFi8her,C.F. 

Licensed  Victuallers'  S.,  Lambeth 
Goodall,H. /. 

Newcastle  Modem  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 
Jones,  F.W.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

W.  Jesmond  Senior  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 
JMoirond,A.  /.  Private  tuition 

Pentony.J.  Stonyhurst  College 

l.Scott,E.H.  St,  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 

fB»wden,J.Y.  Farnwortb  Gram.  8. 

I  Bowles,  W.  Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Helier 
I  Davies,W.M.  mu. 

I  Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Binningham 

]  Fill, C.J.  d.  Graraujar  8.,  Ongar 

I  Leaberry,P.  Bversley  8.,  Stamford 

I  Linzee.J.l.  Warner's  Coll..  Richmond 
I  iParr,G.W.  Lancaster  Coll.,  W.  Norwood 
I  Tonikinson,C.W. 

I  Mossley  Hall  S.,  Congleton 

LWhite,C.A.  bk.  Fitzroy  S.,  Crouch  End 
rBarnett.A.E.        Douglas  S.,  Clieltenham 

Baston-Cook,A.B.  /. 
j  Grammar  8.,  Shoreham 

Ellis,D.A.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 

I  Glover,  F.  Holsworthy  Middle  8. 

I  Gritliths,R.G.  /.  Private  tuition 

I  Lee,H.  /.  Sandbach  School 

I  Letheren,S.K. 

Wallingbrook  S.,  Chulraleigh 
MacIntyre,R.H.  Boys'  HighS.,Streatliam 
Mallinson,J.F.  High  8.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
Martin,  F.  Queensberry  8..  Longton 

Roberts, T.S.  Probus  School 

Sharp,G.  Devonport  High  School 

Smith, C.F. /.  Bridlir  gton  College 

Smith,I.E.J.  Forest  Gate  High  S. 

Southall,J.  Private  tuition 

Stanfleld,C.J.  mo.  Southport  Modern  8. 
i  Wagner.H.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
(.WomersleyiCV.        St  Leonards  Coll.  S. 

St  Martin', 
I  81ater,J.A. 
I  Tucker,8.L. 
I  Winiamson,J.H. 
LWriglit,J.E.  /. 


Collins,  R.E. 

Crick, A.  Private  tuition 


Cambridge  H.,  Camden  Ed.,  " 

I  Rateliffe.G. 

I  ISkey.C.O. 
I.  Wilson, R. 

:  Academy 

High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

Oliftonville  Coll.,  Margate 

Barton  8.,  Wisbech 

tt.L.J.  d. 

Kingsholme  S.,  AVeston-s.-Mare 
Bowen,B.  St  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 


Arlington  Park  Coll.,  Chiswick 
Chapman, A.H.  Richmond  Hill  8. 


Grammar  S.,  Fulwood,  Preston 
Crofton,R.L.  d.  Bailey  S.,  Durham 

Dodsley,D.  Private  tuition 

Drever,A.  Private  tuition 

HorsfalI,E.  Lancaster  Coll.,  Morecambe 
Payne,G.V.  Bracknell  College 

LRichmond,G.H.    St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 
f  Burton, C.E.B.  d.      West  Cliff  8.,  Preston 

j  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  Cox,C.  Margate  Commercial  8. 

Farr,A.W.  Broomy  Hill  Acad.,  Hereford 
Gibbs,S.A.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 

king  Edward  VI.  Middle  8.,  Norwich 

■  3  Gram.  S. ,  Scarborough 
Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
The  Ferns,  Thatch; 
Barton  8.,  Wisbech 
The  Leys  S.,  Cambridge 
Private  tuition 
Mercers'  School,  B.C. 
Philological  8.,  Sonthses 
F.J./.    Clair-Val  S.,  Gorey,  Jersey 
Hall,R.F.G./.  Private  tuition 

Hallett,L.R.  High  bury  New  Park  Coll.,N, 
Horncastle,R.W.  Ousegate  S.,  Selby 

011is,W.H.F.  Thornton  Heath  School 
Oxley,B.H.  Lewisbam  Park  S.,  S.E 

Parsonage, F.H.  Crewe  Academy 

Pitchford,C.E.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

I  Place.T.B. 
I  Taylor,  L.  bk. 
I  Bradley  High  8.,  Newton  Abbot 

VWatts,A.E.  ToUington  Park  College,  N. 
('Allkin.s,W.H.  Private  tuition 

I  Armistead,A.  Button  Gram.  8. 

I  Ayre,A.  Chaloner's  8.,  Braunton 

i  Barker,  H. 

I  The  Preston  Gram.  S.,  Stokesley 

I  Bennie,M.  Oakes  Inst., Walton,  Liverpool 
Berry,P.  Douglas  8.,  Cheltenham 

I  Carman, L.  Blenheim  H.,  Fareham 

I  Cunmiing,H.  i(.  Hutton  Gram.  8. 

I  Green, F.N.  cli. 

1  Lancaster  Coll.,  W.  Norwood 

I  Hartree,J.R.         Emwell  S.,  Warminster 

Allen,  W.F.  Sandbach  School 

Archer,H.  Brunt's  Technical  8. .Mansfield 
Edwards, K.G.  St.  Deiniol's,  Bangor 

Gordon, H.E.  LancasterColL, W.Norwood 
Heath.S.P.  bk. 

Grammar  8.,  Longsight,  Manchester 

Oxenford  H.,  St.  Lawrence,  Jer 
Luce.W.  OxenfordH., St.  Lawrence, Jersey 
Macdonald.S.R.  Arundel  H.,  Surbiton 
Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
8.,  Shoreham 
Private  tuition 
esend  Modern  S, 
Wardeil,L.J.  /.  Mount  Academy,  Malton 
^Watson,M.G.  Private  tuition 


Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingham 
i  Bullett,G.W.  HighfieldS.,Muswell  Hill,N, 
I  Cashin.P.W.  Private  tuitioi 

I  Chambers, J. G.    .  Haughton  S.,  York 

I  Epstein, J.  Private  tuition 

I  Gallop,S.G.  Winche.ster  H.,  Bristol 

I  Highton,C.L.  Southport  Modern  8. 

I  Holloway.W.J.  The  College,  Clevedon 
Horbury,F.  gm.  Private  tuition 

Maelzer.N.H.S.  Private  tuitior 

Perkin.L.N.  Wallingbrook  S.,  Chulmleigl 
Roberts, W.S.  St.  Paul's  8.,W.Kensingtor 

W.  Jesmond  Senior  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 
Spalding.F.L.  Private  tuition 

.,iThierens,F.  Skerry's  Coll,,  Liverpool 
fBowman,J.  Oakeslnst., Walton, Liverpool 
I  Briggs,G.  ch.  Whitchurch  Gram.  " 

I  Campbell, W.S.  Private  tuit 

Fielden,F.E.  High  S.,  Leek 

I  Harrison, R.  St.  Dunstan's  Coll.,  Margate 
Marshall,  F.  Council  S.,  Queenborough 
LPurvis,G.B.  Grammars.,  Bridlington 
CBates.C.C.  Bailey  8.,  Durham 

I  Coupe,J.S.      Gram.  8.,  Fulwood,  Preston 


1  Farquharson,W, 

I  Gibbins.G.L. 

I  Bradley  High  S.,  Newton  Abbot 

I  iGodfrey,E.  Grammar  8.,  Margate 

I  Hoffmann, F.J. 

I  Bradley  High  S.,  Newton  Abbot 

I  MacPherson.N.H. 

High  S.  for  Boys,  Croyd, 

Private  tuition 

Taunton  School 

Newquay  College 

Bewdley  Gram.  8. 

Richmond  Hill  School 

Marshall, H.H. 
Norman, J.G. 
Wallif  " 

I  Ozzard,J.R.  h. 

I  Phillips,R.G. 

I  Robinson.C.C 

I  Southan,J. 



I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  8.,  Norw 

i  Goad,  A. J.  d.  Private  tuit 

l^Martyn,H.J.       Drayton  Green  S.,  Ealing 


I  Highfield  S.,  Wandsworth  Common 

I  Powell, H.W 

I  Licensed  Victuallers'  S.,  Lambeth 

I  Romeril,C. 

I.  Harleston  H.,  St  Lawrence,  Jersey 

|'Allen,8.B.  Barton  8.,  Wisbech 

I  Dale.B.       St.  Boniface's  Coll.,  Plymouth 

LSmith,C.H.  Lancaster  Coll.,  W.Ni 

CAdderley,F.A.     Boys'  Coll.  S.,  Aldershot 

I  Bayley,J.H.  Private  tuition 

I  Beach.A.H.  Private  tuit 

I  Cri.sp.A.F.  Langharne  8.,  Southsea 

IDixon,C.C.  Private  tuition 

Godsell,R.  Spalding  G: 

Greenwood, H.W. 
I  Municipal  Secondary  8.,  Hanley 

I  'Hill, A.  Pi-ivate  tuition 

I  Morgan, U.  Collegiate  8.,  Bridgwater 

I  Morris, W.B.W.  Lytham  Colli  ^ 

I  Nichols, J.  Bversley  S.,  Stamford 

I  Rose.L.  St. Martin'sGram. 8., Scarborough 
I  Sliaw,H.C.  Private  tuition 

I  Stoneman,E.A.  Hoe  Gram.  S.,  Plymouth 
Walford,T.J.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 
tWelch,G.  Chaloner's  S.,  Braunton 

Adams,R.G.H.        Maida  Vale  School,  W, 
Austin, A.T.  Private  tuition 

ChaufTourier.V.M.D.  /.        Private  tuition 
Ebbutt.H.B.     High  S.  for  Boy.s,  Croyd 
Elliot,B.  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
1  Leslie,  P.  W.  L.  3'.  Private  tniti^ 

Payne.C.A.    LancasterColL,  Morecambe 
Pike,H.T.  High  8.  for  Boys,  Croyd 

Richards,J.B.      University  S.,  Southport 
Shaw,R.P.  Harrogate  Modern  CoU. 

Thomas,F.  Hoe  Gram.  S.,  Plymouth 

.Wilson.S.  Bedford  H.,  Folkestone 

rBarrett,L.L.  Private  tuition 

I  Bolton, C. 

I       Christ  Church  Hr.  Elem.  S.,  Southport 
I  Crowe.A.A.R.  Private  tuition 

I  DHrnford,R.J.  Grammar  S.,  Devizes 

I  Giles, B.C.  aJ.  Private  tuition 

I  Ryde  House  Comm.  S.,  Ripley 

I  Graham, E.  MaryportChurch  of  England  S. 
I  Harris,  W.E.  Private  tuition 

I  Haynes,J.F.  Grammars.,  Belper 

I  Peckett,L.V.        St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow- 
Keswick  8.,  Cumberland 


'Bado,A.J.  sp. 
Edmoods.H.  Gri 
Green.B.  /. 

Eastbourne  College 
Private  tuition 
The  Ferns,  Thatcham 
S.,  Fulwood,  Preston 
Tamworth  Gram.  8. 
St  Leonards  Coll.  S. 
Mosso'p,F.H.  Clair-Val  8.,  Gorey,  Jersey 
Vincent, D.H.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
Vinson, A.  Private  tuition 

_Wilks,8.E.  Private  tuition 

.''Bland, R.L.       Guimersbury  S.,  Chiswick 
I  Bradley,R.G. 

I  15  EUerker  Gardens,  Richmond 

I  Carrington.G.  hk.        Grammar  S.,  Ongar 

i  DundasMcRae.W.  Private  tuition 

Fairlie,W.  Grammars.,  Shoreham 

Harris,R.O.  Argyle  H.,  Sunderland 

Irvine, J.  W.  Private  tuition 

Jagger,F.    Council  Secondary  S.,  Halifax 

Kappcy,C.F.G.      Grammar  8.,  Shoreham 

.  Kidner,C.H      High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

j  Monckton,E.G.  Commercial  8.,  Maid  stone 

LVeitch,J.R.  Private  tuition 

rIberson,F.H.  a.  Private  tuition 

I  Jerorae,F.E.        Boys'  Coll.  S.,  Aldershot 

I  Rowlands,  R. 

I  Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingham 

I  Seward, E.  Private  tuition 

i  Shepherd, C.J.  The  Ferns,  Thatcham 

LTilk-y,E.   Montrose  Coll.,  Streatham  Hill 
rChappell,W.  Finsbury  Park  College 

I  Cossey.S.J. 
1  Municipal  Secondary  S.,  Norwich 

I  Dickson.McT.  Holsworthy  Middle  S. 

I  Etches.A.J.E.  Grammar  S.,  Scarborough 
I  Jolly,S.M.  Cliftonville  Coll.,  Margate 

I  Mc6wan,A.  Corner  H.,  Godstone 

I  Paton,G.8.      Roseberry  H.,  Scarborough 

i    SchoolforSon90fMi8sionaries,Blackheatb 
lUlph,H.  Springfield  Coll.,  Acton 

r  Featherstone,R.  K. 

I  Mossley  Hall  8.,  Congleton 

I  Hainon,E.  Jersey  Modern  8.,  St.  Helier 
I  Heads.A.  Tynemouth  School 

I  Jarrett.F.G.  CanibridgeH.,CamdenRd.,N. 
I  Kent, J, B.  Private  tuition 

I  Pallant,F.M.  Gravesend  Modern  S. 

j  Parker,V.S.  Kendrick  8.,  Reading 

I  Shackleton,T.S.  Private  tuition 

I  Stone,W.D.  HolbornEstateGram.S.,W.C. 
I  Walklett,T.J.  Private  tuition 

tWebb,L.W.H.  Grammar  8.,  Redditch 
f  Adams, A.H.  Private  tuition 

I  Feldincke,J.D.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
I  Hollaway,H.W.  Thornton  Heath  School 
I  Hoskin,A.M.  County  8.,  Liskeard 

I  Jones. W.H.  Southport  Modern  S. 

I  Kidson.E.L.  Willow  House  Coll.,  Walsall 
LTregear.F.     Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Helier 

Honours  Division, 

Thomas,A.E.  (im.   Froebel  H.,  Devonport 


Boys'  Coll.  S.,  Aldershot 


St.  John's  Coll.,  Finsbury  Park 


Grammar  8.,  Shoreham 

Holmes.T.  d. 

Collegiate  S.,  Bridgwater 

Heeley,G.H.<;.srm.d.  M'chesterWarehouse- 
men  &  Clerks'  Orphan  8.,  Cheadle  Hulme 
l'Barlow,P.a.a;.s;m.d.  M'chesterWarehouse- 
I  men  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 
LBrooks,H.,  g.bk.        Wilsford  H.,  Devizes 

Southern,C.  M'cbcsterWarehouse- 

men  &.  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 

fArrowsmitb,E.!;.o!.ArgyleH., Sunderland 

L  Collegiate  S.,  Bridgwater 

('Andreas,G.E.  al. 

St.  John's  Coll.,  Finsbury  Park 
LTibbotts,A.H.  g.  Wilsford  H.,  Devizes 
CCook,R.H.  e.  St.Aubyn's,WoodfordGreen 
I  Kitts.H.  mil.  Jersey  Modern  S. 

Seifert,P.F.P.  al.bk. 
\_  St  John's  Coll.,  Finsbury  Park 


I  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  Perrott,A.W. 

\^  Bradley  High  S.,  Newton  Abbot 

l-Foster.W.V.  Ousegate  S.,  Selby,E.W.  Argyle  H.,  Sunderland 
('Coleroan,  St.Mary'sColl.  ,Hariow 
I  Faull,H.  Grammar  S.,  St.  Ivea 
I  Jep?on,L.W.37H.  M'chesterWarehousemen 
I  &  Clerks'  Orphan  8.,  Cheadle  Hulme 

I  Needle.E.C.  al.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydoa 
I  Warne,F.B.  ul. 

I  St.  George's  Coll.,  Wimbledon 

I  Way,E.B.  aid.      Westbury  H.,  Southsea 
i  Witting.S.N.  o.aJ. 
t.  Grammar  S.,  Scarborough 

Anderson, E.V.  al.bk. 

St.  John's  Coll.,  Finsbury  Park 
CHann,M.  ul./.  ManorH.,ClaphamCommon 
I  Jones,C.H.  e.gvi.f.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
I  Palmer.H.A. 

Littleton  H.,  Knowle,  Bristol 
l^ Welsh, R.  e.ol.  Bridlington  College 

f  Dawson, H.R.  al. 

I  Alderman  Norman's  8.,  Norwich 

I  Full.iames,L.J.  al.   Gravesend  Modern  S. 


I  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 

I  Roux,P.E.  /.  Godwin  Coll.,  Margate 

l,Wright,P.  g.  University  S., Southport 
,-Drake,S.E.  Grammar  S..  Devizes 

I  Henri,F.  f.l.  Streatham  Coll.,  S.W. 

I  Higgs,J.N. 

Manor  H.,  Clapham  Common 
l,Toye,R.H.  e.gj.  Bedford  H.,  Folkestone 
(-Alexander,J.W.E.  h. 

King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  Arnold,T.J.B. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  Day,E.  fm.  Kendrick  School,  Reading 
l^Goode,L.  Grammar  8.,  Shoreham 
rCorin,T.E.  Froebel  H.,  Devonport 

Jones,S.E.  e.d.  Bversley  8.,  Stamford 
I  Luscombe.L.A.  d.  Bversley  S.,  Stamford 
I  Roper,D.W. 

I  Bickerton  H.,  Birkdale,  Southport 

I  Taylor,H.L.  sm.<i.  ManchesterWarehouse- 
t    men  &  Clerks'Orphan  S.,CheadleHulme 

Feb.  1.  1909.J 



BOYS,  3rd  Class,  Uoss.— Continued. 
rBatley.J.W.  fjm.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
I  Emott,R.S.V.  a!.  IvelBuryS., Biggleswade 
I  Fletcher.E.A.  al.d.  Grammar  S.,  Helper 
I  Gibaut.L.J.  St.  James's  Coll.  .S.,  Jersey 
I  Metcalfe,  W.  e.  Bridlington  College 

l,Pounsett,R.F.  e.d.  Blenheim  H.,Farehani 
/'Aubrey,G.F.      Ivel  Bury  S.,  Biggleswade 

Booth, E.V.  e.g.  Taunton  H..  Brighton 
I  Hindley,A.C.a7.s?m.  M'chester  Wareliouse- 
I  men  &  Clerks'  Orphans  ,Cheadle  Hulme 
I  Turner.H.  Gram.  S.,  On-'a 

I  Wilcockson,C.H.  hk. 
I,  Cliftonville  Coll.,  Margat 

fBulman,!.  GrosvenorColl.,  Carlisl. 

I  Johnson, W.C.  Kendrick  S.,  Heading 

I  Loche.R.W.  Manor  H.,ClaMham  Common 
I  ■ffinter,H.H.  n/.rf. 

L  Alilerman  Norman's  S.,  Norwich 

('Birtles,E.G.  M-. 

I  St.  George's  Coll.,  Wimbledon 

I  Browning,H.O.  h. 

I  Gunnersbury  S.,  Chiswick 

I  Caudwell.T.  (. 

I  Westbourne  Rd.  Prep.  S.,  Sheffield 

I  Gummer,H.L.  e.l.  St. Marv'sColl.. Harlow 
I  Hayward,S.L., Reading 
I  Heasinan,G.  W.  Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

I  Hoare,W.H.  al. 

I  Southampton  Boys'  Coll.  &  High  S, 

I  Lemmon.M.I.  c.ffm.  CoIebrookH.,Bognoi 
I  Warner,F.C.F.  rf. 

I  St.  Aubyn's,  Woodford  Greer 

I  Willan,G.  al.  Manchester  Warehousemen 
L  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hul: 

rBenzie.B.A.S.  e.  CliftoiivilleColl., Margate 
I  Bnggs,F.H.  hk.  St.  Winifred's,  Torquay 
I  Child.M.D.  St.  Aubyn'.s,  Woodford  Green 
I  Kelly,K.G.  g.  Ellesmere  S.,  Harrogate 
I  Meikle,J.  d.  New  Coll  ,  Harrogate 

I  Newman,G.A.  Winche.ster  H.,  Bristol 
I  Slee.S.B.  d.  Holsworthy  Middle  S 

LSteele.D.  Cliftonville  Coll.,  .Margati 

rClineh,J.A.  Manor  H.,  Clapham  Connnoc 
I  Druce.J.G.F.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

I  Fell, W.J.  bk.  GrosvenorColl.,  Carlisle 
I  Goldmg.C.S.  a.a;.(7m.  KendrickS.,Readinf 
I  Hepworth,T.P.  gm.  M'chester  Warehouse 
I  men  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S., Cheadle  Hulmt 
I  Sargent,S.R.  a.  Grammar  S.,  Devize- 

I  Wale,V.H, 

I  Cathcart  Coll.,  Cathcart  Hill,  N 

I  Wilson.H.  Cathcart  Coll. ,CathcartHill,N. 

I  Woolverton.H.F  g. 

L        King  Edward' VI.  Middles.,  Norwich 

^AlbiD,N.  nl.d. 

I  High  S.,  South  Shore,  Blackpool 

I  Booth,  A.  C  al.  Farn  worth  Gram.  S. 

I  Helleur.S.G.  f. 

I  Harlrston  H.,  St.  Lawrence,  Jersey 

I  Hibberson,W.C. 

I  Hatfield  Coll.,  nr.  Doncaster 

I  Richards,F.R.  al. 

Spencer  Coll..  Wimbledon 
I  Saphin.H.A.  h.  Taunton  H.,  Brighton 
LThomas.R.H.E.     St.  Winifred's,  Torquay 

Pass  Division. 

iGilbert,S.F.  d.  National  S.,  Holsworthy 
rSBould.A.L.  gm.d.  St.  Lake's  S.,  Leek 
L.2Hobbs,F.A.  SouthdownColl.,Easrboarn 
P'Snailum,G.P.  The  College,  Clevedon 

LaVaughan.C.G.  al.  Newquay  Collei 

»Thompson,F.  wi. 

Philological  S.,  Southsea 

Hutton  Gi-am.  S 

Brentwood  High  S, 

Grosvenor  College,  Carlisle 

Scarborough  Collegf 

'Pilleul.D.     Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Heliei 


Canning  Street  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

'Batten,  E.C.      Ivel  Bury  S.,  Biggleswade 

'Lark.J.R.  Hoe  Gram.  S.,  Plymouth 

»Brackfteld,J.A.  Brunswick  H.,Maidston( 
f  "Flower,  J.  A./. 

I  St.  Paul's  H.,  St.  Leonards-on-Sea 

I  'Moore,E.G.  al.  Highbury  Park  S, 

L'Pearce,A.H.  Brondesbury  College 

(^Chapman.  E.J. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  'Clark,J.H.  The  College,  Weston-s.-Mare 
L'Cleeve,E.H.  Blenheim  H.,  Fareham 


I  King  Edward  VL  Middle  S.,  Non 

L'Walter,A.D.  Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

r»Bolton,P,  L.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

I  'Shipman,F.L./. 
I,  Cambridge  H..  Camden  Rd.,  N. 

=Squire,J.  St.  Bonifaee's  Coll.,  Plymouth 
r^Comben,H.  High  S.,  Market  Drayton 
I  »Simpson,R.W. 

I  Tollington  S.,  Muswell  Hill,  N. 

I  >Smithdale,A.G. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
V'Woodiuff.C.A.  Sandwich  School 

|^Hale,T.H.  d. 

King  Edward  VL  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
L2Roe,A.S.R.  Boys'  High  S.,  Streatham 
2Bath,J.A.  Newquay  College 

f2Field,W.E.  St.  Dunstan's  Coll.,  Margate 
L^Hind.R.P.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 

2Beeson,A.J.  BroomyHill Acad., Hereford 

I  Southdown  Coll.,  Eastbournt 

I  5Triandis,E.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

l..2Wigg,J.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlon 

(-aBeIl,J.S.  Tynemouth  School 

I  2Butcher,C.E.  Grammars.,  East  Finchley 
I  2Carrick,H.M.  TheHarrogateModernColl, 
I  2Firlz  L.  Sandwich  School 

I  2Ford,R.T.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

I  =Watkins,D.H 
L  Emlyn  Gram.  S.,  Newcastle  Emlyn 

2Reed,A.  Blenheim  H.,  Fareh; 

raConner,E.S.        All  Hallows  S.,  Honiton 
I  2Dixon,L.  CravenParkColleges.Harlesd 
I  2Mann,M.L.  High  S.,  Torquay 

I  2Rix,R.A.  GraniTuar  S.,  Shoreham 

I  2Rymer,J.  The  Harrogate  Modern  Coll. 
I  2SeIf,C.F. 

L  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 

I  Grammars.,  Chorltou-cura-Hard> 

1  2Ellis,C.O.  Froebel  H.,  Devonp-rt 

I  2Linfleld,W.F.  Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

I  2.Myers.jr.J.  Grammar  School,  Margate 
I  »Pirrie,R.B. 

L  Newcastle  Modern  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 
I  2Dias,J.J.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 

I  2Still,F.A.W.  High  S.,  Market  Drayton 
I  2Tliompson,N.L. 

L  Ivel  Bury  S.,  Biggleswade 

r»Flook,J.  Sandwich  School 

I  2Fuller,C.M.  bk.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  S. 
I  2King,V.  Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 

I  n"urner,G.F.  Scarborough  College 

I  2Watson,G. 

L    W- Jesmond  Senior  S.,  Newcastl( 
f» Court,J.    Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  Horswill,E.C.  d.  Grammars.,  Ongar 

I  Hubbard,J.W.    Castle  Hill  S.,  W.  Ealing 
I  Jellery,J.E. /.  Steyning  Grs 

i  =Kampe,G.E. 

I     High  S.  for  Boys,Upper  Hornsey  Ri 
I  2Nayler,G.  BroomyHill  Acad.,  Hereford 
I  ■Norden,F.L.  Craigie,  Worthin 

I  Norris.W.E.  d.  Cliftonville  Coll  ,  Margat 

/'Bennett,A.  Farnworth  Gram.  S. 

I  Calvert,  F.  Gram.  S.,  Scarborough 
I  Colgate,  A.  W.  al. 

I  Milton  Coll.,  Bexley  Heath 

I  Edridge,A.H.  Brentwood  High  S. 

I  Pry,L.T.  hk.  Collegiate  S.,  Bridgwater 
I  Gamier,T.F.  SS.  Mary  &  Peter's  S., Jersey 
I  2Graves  A.H.R.  Finsbury  Park  College 
I  2Gutch,C.G.  Hillcroft  S.,  Mortimer 

I  Hamilton, T.O'H.  h. 

I  Westbury  H.,  Southsea 

1  Hamnett.F.W.      Manchester  Warehouse- 
men &.  Clerks'  Orphan  S., Cheadle  Hulme 
I  Howes,M.W.  d. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 

I  Peters,  W.  ge.  Highfleld  S..  Chertsey 

I  2Pocklington,W.R.J.P.  .Sandwich  School 
I  Reid.J.W.  d.  Maida  Vale  S. 

I  2Warrington,H.S. 
L  Archbp.  Holgate's  Gram.  S..  York 

I  2Guy,D.S.E.         The  Kingsley  8.,  Shifnal 

I  Jennings,W  H. 

I  Gi-ammarS.,  Longsight,  Manchester 

I  Licensed  Victuallers'  S.,  Lambeth 

I  Neate,T  S.  al.  WaterloovilleColl.,  Cosham 



Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
i  Richards,  B.HF.  at./.  Steyning  Gram.  S. 
i  Roberts, T.H.a^d.  MancheaterWarehouse- 
I  men  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 
I  ShapIand,N.H. 

I  Hadfield  H.,  St.  Leonards-on-Sea 

I  8ymonds,H.V.B.  sm. 
I  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

Grammar  S.,  Dev 

Wiltshire,  W.G 
I  Blake, W.L. 
I  Butt,F.T.W.  g. 
I  Eason,F. 


Farnworth  Gr; 

Hillcroft  S.,  Mortimer 

Barton  S.,  Wisbech 

Wilton  H.,  Exeter 

C'omm.  S.,  Stratford-on-Avon 

Comm.  S.,  Stratford-ou-Avon 

I  'Britton.L.E.  ma. 
I  Bourne  Coll., 

I  Buckley,H.G. 
I  2deG™chy,R.T./. 

Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 

CI  a 

•-Val  S.,  Gorey,  Jersey 



I  Francis.C.  D.St. John'sColl.  ,FinsburyPark 
I  Hedley,B.  Argyle  H.,  Sunderland 

I  2Hotton,C.W.   St.  James'sCoU.S.,  Jersey 
I  March, J.F.  a. 

I  Licensed  Victuallers'  S.,  Lambeth 

I  2Reakes.G.R.   High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
"te,C.  g.{U.  Derwent  H.,  Ban. ford 

>,Smith,P.L.  d. 
I  2Collier,J.E.  d. 
I  2Green,W.P. 
I  =Johnsou,E.N. 

St.  Leonards  Coll.  .S. 

Cambridge  H.,  Norwich 

The  College,  Clevedon 

Private  tuition 

Southport  Modern  S. 

2Knight,A.  St.  Boniface's  Coll.,  Plymouth 
I  Matheson.F.S.  a.  County  S.,  Liskeard 
I  Nichols, A.A.  gm. 

I  Waterlooville  Coll  ,  Cosham 

I  201dreive,R.R.  Forest  Gate  High  S. 

I  2Robinson,C.  Whitchurch  Gram.  S. 

I  Sharp,A.G.  al. 

I  Manor  H. ,  Clapham  Common 

I  Sumner,H  J.  Comni.S.,Stratf.yrd-on-Ayon 
I  Smith,I.T.M.  Grammars.,  Devizes 

I,  Watson,  F.B.SouthdownColL, Eastbourne 
TArmcr.T.  The  College,  Weston-s  -Mare 
I  Barker,F.  d.  Westbury  H.,  Southsea 

I  'Bessant.F.R. 

I  Ryde  House  Coram.  S.,  Ripley 

I  Booty,  F.C.  g. 
I         King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 


Grammar  S.,  Fulwood,  Pre.ston 

Clarke, E.S.  d.  Barton  S.,  Wisbech 


King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  »Harrison,A.  Beverley  S.,  Bar 

I  Harrison, G.R.  al. 

I         King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norw 
I  Hill,L.G.  St.  M»ry's  Coll.,  Harlow 

I  yode,S.B.  Lancaster  Coll.,  W.  Nonvood 
I  2Moore,A.D.M.  Thornton  Heath  School 
I  Puddicombe,  D.R.  al.  Scarborough  C«jllege 
I  2Radclifre.H.  Southport  Modern  S, 

I  Spurgin,H.J.  c.  Blenheim  H.,  Fareham 
i  Sutclille,F.W.  ni. 

I  High  S.,  South  Shore,  Blackpool 

I  Wallis,W.  al.  Victoria  Tutorial  Coll., 

I  Buckingham  Palace  Rd.  ,S.  W. 

l,2Watson,J.P.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

rAdams,W.J.  g. 

I  Ryde  House  Comm.  S.,  Ripley 

I  Beadon.W.  Ryde  House  Comm,  S.,  Ripley 
I  Clift,V.L.  Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Helier 
I  'Ernest, A.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 

I  Licensed  Victuallers'  S.,  Lambeth 

I'Brown.B.E.  Ellesmere  8.,  Harrogate 

I  2Chapman,B.W.  Gram.  S.,  Scarborough 
I  Day.J.M.  e.  Western  Coll.,  Harro.a 
I  2Jinman,N.F.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Crovd. 
I  Judge,T.  The  Palace  S.,  Bewdley 
i  3Lee,N.  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
I  Lovett.E.W.  Comm.S.,Stratford-on-Avor 
I  Pepin,  A.  F./ 

I  Oxenford  H.,  St.  Lawrence,  Jersey 

I  =Piper,P.J.  Private  tuition 

1  2Pullen,L.P.  Winchester  H.,  Bristol 

I  Sandon.W.E.  Ivel  Bury  S.,  Biggleswade 
I  2Side.F.  The  Preston  Gram.  S.,  Stokesley 
I  Thurlby.J.  Eversley  S.,  Stamford 

I  Turner, W.J.  d.  Grammar  S.,  On 

I  Waters,R.C.  d.  Farnworth  GranL 

I  Weekes.C.W. 
I,  Hightield  S.,  Wandsworth  Comn 

f'Burbidge.N  R.        Eversley  S.,  Stamford 

|2Colly     ~    ■ 

I         King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 

I  Cryer.T  V.  Steyning  Gram.  S. 

I  Field, A.J.   CathcartColl.,CathcartHill,N. 

I  Houghton. B.A.         Gravesend  Modern  S. 


I        Buckingham  Place  Acad.,  Portsmouth 

I  Nott,R.  gm.  The  Palace  S.,  Bewdley 

I  Thompson,  P.  a. 


-  S.,  Sale 

Chaloner's  S.,  Braunton 
ligh  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
r  S.,  Shoreham 


I  Anderson, G.P.  : 

I  Besle,J.R.  gm.f. 

I  Brewer.A.  I. 

I  Westbourne  Rd.  Prep.  S.,  Sheffield 

I  Cariyle,L.J.        Collegiate  S.,  Bridgwater 

I  Collier, T.L.   St.  Dunstan's  Coll.,  Margate 

I  2Eckersley,A.L  Gr.immarS.,  Sale 

I  Ewing,A.G.  Bedford  H.,  Folkestone 

I  Gleaves.T.R.    Mossley  Hall  S.,  Congleton 

!  Gray.J.B.  Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

1  How,C.P.  a.  Derwent  H..  Bamford 

I  JPenwill.H.W.  Grammar  S.,NewtonAbbot 

I  2Pink-rton,T.R. 

!  Highljeld  S.,  Wandsworth  Common 

I  2Shaw,C.E. 

I      Chadsmoor  Boys'  National  S.,  Caunock 

I  !Suiith,H.A.    Grammar  S.,  E«st  Finchley 

I  Vernon, R.M.J. 

I  St.  John's  Coll.,  Finsbury  Park 

I  2Weller,C.G. /. 

L  St.  Paul's  H.,  St.  Leonards-on-Sea 

I  'Willia 

,  Dim  11 
I  Fnlle 
I  "Greg 

Steyne  S.,  Worthing 
raminar  S.,  Shoreham 
lornton  Heath  School 

('Barron, W.J. 
i  Brinsden,F. 
1  Brown, D.F. 
I  Davies,U.B. 
I  Christ  Church  Hr.  Elera.  S.,  Southport 
I  Easter.H.W.  Gram         '     " 

I  Eglin,A.  High  S.,  South  Shore,  Blackpool 
I  Goldberg.J.H.  d.  Mission  S.  for  Hebrew 
I  Children,  Streatham  Common 

Hayward.J.H.  Manchester  Warehouse- 
I  men  &  Clerks'Orphan  S.,CheadleHulme 
I  2Jarvis,A.C.  Gravesend  Modern  S. 

I  Keruick,0.  al.  Newquay  College 

I  Knowles.J.W.  Barton  S.,  Wisbech 

I  2Lucas,H.  Hutton  Gi 

I  2Marsden,C.E. 
I      Christ  Church  Hr.  Elem.  S.,  Southport 
I  20akes,J.  d.  Farnworth  Gram.  S. 

I  0«en,H.B.  al. 

I  Oakes  Inst., Walton,  Liverpool 

I  'Richards,  W.B. 

I  Grammar  S.,  Newton  Abbot 

I  Spreckley.A.  e.  Eversley  S.,  Stamford 
I..Wood,H.  HighS.,SouthShore,  Blackpoo, 

(-2Buchan,P.E.  Froebel  H.,  Devonport 

I  Danhy,H.N.  al.  Grammars.,  Scarborough 
Duffield,C.C.  Waterlooville  Coll.,Co.sham 
I  Farrar.T.L  Arlington  Park  Coll., Chiswick 

I  Gedge,H.W. 
I         King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  Oilbert.S.  South  Molton  United  Higher  8. 
I  'Godfrey, J. H,     Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 
I  «Uartnell-SincIair,L. 
I  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

I  Knott,H.P.  al.gvi. 

I  Littleton  H.,  Knowle,  Bristol 

2Luce,C.  Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Helier 
|2March,L.F.  Taunton  School 

I  2Mitchell,L.A.  Langharne  S.,  Southsea 
I  2Nias,A.M.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Prior,H.R.T. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  'Rainsden.A.St.Boniface'sColl., Plymouth 
I  Rabinson,J.G.  Abbotsford  S.,  Folkestone 
I  Sa«r,H.E.  Bedford  H.,  Folkestone 

I  2Salvidea,F.  sp. 

I  Victoria  Park  S.,  Manchester 


United  Methodist  Coll.,  Shebbear 
,H.E.  Lytham  College 

.ck.F.M.  Cliftonville  Coll.,  Margate 
C.H.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 


Grammar  8.,  Fulwood,  Preston 
j  2Jelferson,N.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Mackenzie, K. A.  a. 

j  Thornton  Heath  School 

I  Martin, H.W.  e.  Grammar  8.,  St.  Ives 

I  »Norman,A.  Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 
jaRinesN.B.  Scarborough  College 

I  'Sa'eed.S.  High.  8.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Sanders,F.E.  al. 

I  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  'Swift, H.G.  Private  tuition 

V        King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
('Barnes,S.  H.     Tollington  Park  College,  N. 
I  Buckin,  ham,J.e.  SunnyHillS.,Ilfracoinbe 
I  Clarke.T.W.  d.  Gram.  8.,  Ongar 

I  Eaton, C.  d.  Crewe  Academy 

I  Elgey,A.  Argyle  H.,  Sunderland 

I  Kennard,W.D.aI.  HighS.forBoys.Croydon 
I  aLemon,D.G. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  8..  Norwich 

I  Mace.C.A. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 

I  McKnight,N.  d. 

I  Southdown  Coll.,  Eastbourne 

I  Nosworthy.T.C. 

I  Pynsent'sGram.  8.,  Chudleigh 

I  Nuttall,D.K.  Clifton  Coll.,  Harrogate 
I  B"Wson,R  H.  Penketh  School 

I  Sarchet.L.L.  al.     Froebel  H..  Devonport 
I  Sargeant.S  H.     Comrnercial  Coll.,  Acton 
I  2Thoriowgood,R.W.T, 
I  Grammar  S.,  Chichester 

I  Wardlow.C 

I  Westbourne  Rd.  Prep.  S.,  Sheffield 

I  Wehrheim,F.A. 

I  Cathcart  Coll.,  Cathcart  Hill,  N. 

l^White,A.W.  d.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
-  Asbridge,W.H.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 
I  Bardsley,C.G.C.  e.f.  Grammar  S.,  Sale 
I  Baughan.A.W.  Private  tuition 

I  Brown, T.H.  Uxbridge  Preparatory  8. 
I  de  Courcy  Hamilton,J.A.  (7'"- 

Herns  H.,  Cliftonville,  Margate 
I  'Evans,  L.H.P.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  8. 

I  Henderson, J.  Margate  Commercial  8. 
!  'Hime.N.A.  ClanghtonColl.S., Birkenhead 
I  'Keith, A. G.  Commer'-ial  Coll.,  Acton 

I  Lawrence.H.C.  Langharne  8.,  Southsea 
I  'Le  Breton, A.   Jer8eyModernS.,8t.Helier 

I  Licensed  Victuallers'  S.,  Lambeth 

I  Pfggs.W.J.  Barton  S.,  Wisbech 

I  'Rushton.G.  Farnworth  Gram.  S. 

Shenton,  A.K.  WychwoodS., Bournemouth 



Emlyn  Gram.  S.,  Newcastle  Bmlyn 
j  Thompson, D.J.  d.  CauibridgeH., Norwich 
I  'Thomson,  W.J.  d. 

I  Commercial  S.,  Maidstone 

I  Tuck.D.B.   St.  Aubyn's,  Woodford  Green 
1  Tunier,A.B.  Einwell  S..  Warminster 

l.,Voss,L.J.  al.  PlymstockBoys'S., Plymouth 

/'Bilhe.H.A.B.  Steyne  8.,  Worthing 

I  Blore,W.P.  Comra.  8.,  Stratford-on-Avon 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

HOYS,  3rd  Class,  PjLSS—Continutd. 
I  Bro«d,E.T.  al.ii. 

I  Bradley  High  S.,  Newton  Abbot 

1  Chorlton.A.E.aLgfm.  M'chesterWarehouse- 
I    men  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S. ,  Cheadle  Huliiie 

2Clarke,A.E.  Grammar  S.,  Margate 

I  2Drane,D.H. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Sliddle  S.,  Norwich 
I  2Dyer,W.B.  The  College,  Clevedoii 

I  Ebbutt.F.C.  d.  HichS.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  2Fraser,J.W.  /.VictoriaParkS., Manchester 
i  Hammond, R.E. 

I  Comm.  S.,  Stratford-on-Avon 

I  Harrison.J.A. 

I  St.  Martin's  Gram.  S.,  Scarborough 

j  LeBrocq.C. 

I  Harleston  H.,  St.  Lawrence,  Jersey 

I  Lucas, J.  Jersey  Modem  S.,  St.  Helier 

I  Moore.C.H. 

1  St.  Martin's  Gram.  S.,  Scarborough 

I  Moss, P.J.  Brunswick  Hous.',  Maidstone 
I  New,R.H.  al.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 
I  Poole, J.  t/vi.  Manchester  Warehousemen 
I  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 
I  Shoppee,M.C.rf.  Cliftonv'lleColl.. Margate 
I  Smith.E.F.  Button  Gram.  .S. 

1  .Stone, S.K.  Graveaend  Modi 

I  .Swann.A.B.  Mossley  Hall  S.,  Congleton 
I  '.!Whitechurch,C.G.  CawleyS., Chichester 
L'^Worthington.G.  Grammar  S.,  Sale 

f'Badman.C.R.  Gravesend  Modern  S. 

I  Buckland,V.H.  a!.  Grammars.,  Clapham 
1  Ev8rett,W.G.A.  Manchester  Warehouse- 
I  men  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Clieadle  Hulnie 
I  Faull.F.  d.  Grammar  S.,  St.  I 

I  Foot.C.S.P.  St.  Aubyn's, Woodford  Gn 
I  aHarries,D.E.        Comm.  S.,  Wood  Gn 

Jackson, T.C.  Manchester  Warehouseu 
1  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 

I  2Jennings,N.        Qrosvenor  Coll.,  Carlish 

aKinB,W.O.  Grammar  S.,  Margat( 

I  Lale,J.W.  Grammars.,  Shorehan 

i  2Molz,L.S.  Gravesend  Modern  S 

I  Moore,  G.  A.  R.  a!. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S  ,  Norwicl 

I  Morris.H.J.  Lytham  College 

I  2Newton,T.C.  Derwent  H.,  Bamford 

I  20wens,A.L.  TheGreystones.Scarborougl 
I  Thomson.S.  Grammar  S.,  shoreham 

Toll,R.W.  Froebel  H.,  Devonport 

I  Wareham.S.W. 
I  Bradley  High  S.,  Newton  Abbot 

I  Webber, L.  A.  d.  Collegiate  S.,  Bridgwat. 
I  Wbeddon.W.A.  Collegiate S.,  Bridgwater 
LTates,A.O.  g.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  S. 


I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  aBaker.C.H.  Broomy  Hill  Acad., Hereford 
I  2Barnes,H.C.  Grammar  S  ,  Shoreh 

I  Baron. C.B. 3m.  MauchesterWareliousemen 
I  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hul: 

Crossley.O.L.        Bedford  H.,  Folkestc 
I  >Dodd,W. 

1  Highfield  S.,  Wandsworth  Common 

I  DownSjH.      Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Hel 
I  Farr,L.O.  al.  Winchester  H.,  Bristol 

I  Folingsby.T.G.  Gunnersbury  S.,  Chiswick 
Gresty.A.L.  Penketh  School 

Hodgson, G.ThePrestonGram.S.,Stokesley 
Hollas,  W.  Farnworth  Gi 

Howes,  A. C.  (d. 

Alderman  Norman's  S.,  N 
Hunt,P.  al.  The  College,  Weston-s 
2Jenkins,J.P.  Taunton  School 


Oxenford  H.,  St.  Lawrence,  Jersey 
Old, R.E.  The  Palace  S.,  BewdlfV 

Palmer,H.O.  d.  Brunswick  H.,  Maidston' 
Sequeira,B.A.  al.d. 

St.  John's  Coll.,  Finsbury  Park 
«Sme(ney,H.E.  Grammar  S.,  Helper 

aSmith.G.E.Eyde  House Comm.S., Ripley 
'Steer,  W.L.  Taunton  School 

2Stevens,J.S.R.  Taunton  School 

Welch.J.N.  Grammar  S.,Belpe: 

rBarnett,P.J.  Winchester  H.,  Bristol 

■  Bush, A  G. 

g  Edward  VI.  Middle  S. 

•Clark,  B.C. 
Clarke,  F. 
•Clark  e,H.C. 
Cowlishaw,L.  al. 
Dollin.F.E,  al. 

Froebel  H.,  Devonport 
Margate  Commercial  S. 
Froebel  H.,  Devonport 
Barton  School,  Wisbech 
Bridlmgton  Colt 


Froebel  H, 

St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harh 
Firth, N.  al.  Bridlington  College 

French, L.  Wilton  H.,  Exeter 

•Grapel,W.V.    High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
•Hancock, O.L.  Newquay  Colleiie 

Hansen, C.P.  al.  Steyning  Gram.  S. 

Lye,W.T.  Wilsford  H.,  Devizes 

•Hughes,  W.F.  Private  tuition 

•Mariano,  P.  A, 

St  Boniface's  Coll.,  Plymouth 
•Markham,S.D.  Chaloner's  S.,  Braurton 
•McCabe.S,  Commercial  S.,  Maidstone 
Pool,J.B.  al.  St.  James'  Coll.  S.,  Jersey 
Salmon, B  C.  Coram  S  .Stratford  on-Av<m 
I  'St.GeorgcL.C.  Grammar  S.,  Margate 
^'Winship.H.  Bailey  S.,  Durham 


Arlington  Park  Coll.,  Chiswick 

Bulled, H.  South  Molton  United  HigherS. 

Colea.W.L.C.  al.  CliftonvilleColl., Margate 

Collins,H.G.       Fairlawu  S.,  Leytonstone 

Dredge, F.T.L.  Cliftonville  Coll.,  Margati 


St.  Dunstan's  Coll.,  Margate 

Gebbett,A.  South  MoltonUnitedHigherS. 

Graves,C.H.  d. 

High  S.,  South  Shore,  Blackpool 

Hart,L.R.  Malvern  H.,  Folkeston 

Hetherton,  Grammars., Scarborougl 
j  •James,J.  Springlleld  Coll.,  Acton 

I  2Miller,N.J. 

I  Higher  Standard  S. 
I  Morgan,J.  B'arnworth  Gram.  S. 

I  Springlhorpe,L.      Eversley  8.,  Stamford 
I  •Whyman,W.A.  Gram.  S  ,  Blackpool 

Wil.son,W.S.  d.      The  Palace  S.,  Bewdley 
I  2Worrall,J.B. 
L  Cambridge  H.,  Camden  Rd.,  N, 

fAitkin,R.S.  a.  SteyneS.,  Worthing 

i  Ashley,  W.H. Comm. S., Stratford-on-Avon 
I  2Bo\vden,F.R. 
I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 

I  Bower8,J.F.  Grammar  S.,  Ongai 

I  Brayley.A.  SouthMoltonUnited  Higher  S 
I  •Crampin.E.H.  Private  tuition 

i  2Elce,H.  Lancaster  Coll.,  Morecambe 
I  Gammans,L.D.  LangharneS.,  South 
I  •Goddard,J.H.  Western  Coll.,  Harrogate 
I  Gowlett,H..S.  Cliftonville  Coll.,  Margate 
I  •Haworth.F.  Lancaster  Coll.,  Morecambe 
I  Hunt, W.H.  Cambridge  H.,  Norwich 

I  •Laidman,T.    Handel  Coll.,  Southampton 
I  Page,H.W.  Taunton  School 

I  Putland,A.K. 
I  Hadfleld  H.,  St.  Leonards-on-Sea 

I  Underdown,H.  Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 
I  •Wadbrook,W.H.B. 

I  Southampton  Boys'  Coll.  &  High  S. 

I  •Walker,  S.R. 

I         King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  Way.A.B.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

!  Woodward, J.  J.  Brunswick  H.,  Maidston 
LWyatt.B.T.  d.  Taunton  H.,  Brightoi 

('•Boyd,W.  Bailey  S.,  Durham 

I  »Bnmmell,J.  Langharne  S.,  Southsea 

I  Buckingham, R   Sunny  HiUS.,Ilfracombe 
I  •Cardy,R.J.      Clair-Val  S..  Gorey,  Jersey 

Cherry,C.H.    Manchester  Warehousemen 
I  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 

I  Clare,S.B.  Farnworth  Gram 

Davis,E.R.  Wilsford  H..  Dev 

Davy,T.S.  ClifK.n  ColL,  Harrogate 
I  •Fairbairn.E.C.  High  S.  for  Boys.Croyd 
I  'Gardner-Leader,F.  The  Ferns,  Thatcha 
I  Hart,  F.  A.  Oakeslnst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
I  Highton,L.R. 

I      Christ  Church  Hr.  Elem.  S.,  Suuthport 
1  Hodgkiss,E.  al.  Farnworth  Gram.  S, 

•Kelleway.M.J.      Grammar  S.,  Shorehan 
I  Lu3Combe,L. 

I  Bradley  High  S.,  Newton  Abbot 

I  Oates,E.T.  Grave.send  Modcr 

I  Pagniez,H.V.        St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 

Rumsey.P.C.  d.  Commercial  S.,  Maidstoui 
I  Russell, W.C.  d. 

I  Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingham 

I  Shoo3mith,W.     Park  House,  Broadstairs 
I  2Skyrme,F.J.  d.  Ousegate  S.,  S^lby 

I  Taylor,L,G.  e.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croyd 
I  2Taylor,T.C. 

I  Longwood  Gram.  S.,  Huddersfield 

I  Traise,E.F.  d.  Eversley  S.,  Stamford 

l..2West,R.V.L.        Thornton  Heath  School 


I  Licensed  Victuallers'  S.,  Lambeth 

I  Bernardson.I.  o.       Mission  S.  for  Hebrew 

I  Children,  Streatham  Common 

I  Buchanan,  R.V.M. 

I  Wvchwood  S.,  Bournemouth 

I  Chancellor,D.N.  rd. 

I  Highs.,  Upper  Hornsey  Rise,  N. 

I  Cooksey,W.O.  Steyning  Gram.  S. 

I  Cooper.F.S.T.  a(.  Manchester  Warehouse- 

;    men  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 

I  Crafter.H.C.  al. 

j  _         _  _  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  Craig,J.G 
I  Danby.B.A. 
I  Day.  R.E.  bk. 
I  Denton, H. P. 
I  Easthope.B.S, 


ersbury  8.,  Chis 
imar  S. ,  Scarborough 
iswick  H.,  Maidstone 
New  Coll.,  Harrogate 
S.,  Helper 

I  2Fewing,H.  .St.  Boniface's  Coll.,  Plymouth 
I  Freedman.H.  Argyle  H.,  Sunderland 

I  Gale,  P.  A.  Fairlawn  S.,  Leytonstone 

I  2Gdanitz,F.O.       Boys'  Coll.  S.,  Aldershot 
I  2Grant,G  S. 


linton,  Hirmin 
Bewdley  Gn 

I  2Hunt,A.S. 
I  2Jones,J.E. 
I  Emlyn  Gra 

I  Locke,  F.  A. 
I  Mundy.F. 

I  Oxenford  H.,  St.  La 

I  Redclifre,A.E.  h.  HoeGram.  S.,  Plymouth 
I  Robin, E  deJ.  Froebel  H..  Devonport 

I  Tunnard.R.W.  Barton  S.,  Wisbech 

Turpin,D.  Comm.  S.,  Wood  Green 

I  Verner.C.  al.  Highbury  Park  School 

Warwick, K.G.G.    Blenhe 
Williams,M.H.<?m.  Gran: 

H.,  Fareham 
r  S.,  Margate 

l'Heetham,C.W.  Gram. S.,Fulwood. Preston 
I  Cave.E.W.  al.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 
I  d'Avigrtor,A.H.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 
I  Dcxter,L.W.  RydeHouseComm.S., Ripley 

Harrison,  V.  Hoylake  College 

Home, J.  L.  Button  Gram.  S. 

I  2Howard,H.  Crewe  Academy 

I  Johnson, R.  St.  Dunstan's  Coll.,  Margate 
I  Laslett,B.  Farnworth  Gram.  8. 

I  Lewis, T.A.  Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

I  McQueen, D.R.  rjia. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  Morris,T.H.  Taunton  School 

I  2Nettleton,A. 

I  The  Preston  Gram.  S.,  Stokesley 

I  Parnell,A.R.  Godwin  Coll.,  Margate 

I  Redman, R.  Button  Gram.  8. 

I  Rogers,P.W.  al. 

I  South  Molton  United  Bigher  S. 

I  Stanford.J.B.  Gravesend  Modern  S. 

I  Towers, J.  A.  Derwent  B.,  Bamford 

I  Woollacott.A.  d. 

L  South  Molton  United  Higher  8. 

CAtkinson,W.  Manchester  Warahousemen 
I  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 

I  Bolton, B.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

I  Bullough.J.E.  Farnworth  Gram.  S. 

I  Cohen, P.H.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

I  •Darlington, B.L. 

I  Claughton  Coll.  S.,  Birkenhead 

I  Durant,J.B.  Priory  Coll..  Bornsey 

Fawcett,C.H.  Wychwood  S.Bournemouth 
I  Frampton.R.B.  .Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

I  Gilmour,B.S. 

I  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  Hardy, G.D.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Jenning3,B.C.  Radnor  S.,  Redhill 

Kitcat,G.I.  St.  Dunstan's  Coll.,  Margate 
I  Malsbury,J.  Comm.S., Stratford-on-Avon 
I  McLeod.H.  d. 

I  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  'Megginson,C.  Scarborough  College 

I  Price,T.D.  King8holmeS.,Westnn-s.-Mare 
I  RemminKton,A.E.  ThorntonBeathSchool 
'  Roberts, Z.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 

I  Rowe.T.  Grammars.,  Ongar 

I  •Smith,A.E.H.  Bewdley  Gram.  S. 

I  Stening.A.B.  RydeHouseComm.S., Ripley 
l^Widdowson,J.J.  Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 

f'Barton.A.B.  Willow  Bouse  Coll., Walsall 
I  Bird,E.  Lytham  College 

I  Dawson, C.W.  Commercial  Coll.,  Acton 
I  De  Bourcier,H.L. 

I  Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Bel 

I  Durrant.G.  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton, Liverpool 
Fifleld.F  E.  Thornton  Heath  S.  hool 

Hyde,H.F.  St.  John's  Coll., Finsbury  Park 
J"hnston,J.       Mount  Radford  S.,  Exeter 
aJoncs, B.  A.  ClaughtonColI.S., Birkenhead 
2Lockyer,W.E.  HandelColl.,Southampti 
Milton, F.F.  Gravesend  Modern  S. 

Preston,  P.  W.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
I  Rowland, P. W.  Abbot»ford  S.,  Folkestone 
I  Royley,G.C.  Farnwoith  Gran 

VSmith,T.R.        Cliftonville  Coll.,  Margate 

('Barton, G.B. 
I  Oakes  Inst,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  Burrows,C.J.Comra.S.,Stratford-on-Av 
I  Cassin,B.VanV.   St.  Mary's  dll.,  Harl 
I  Currington,S.M.  al.     Barton  S.,  Wisbech 
I  2Dowson,J. 
I  The  Preston  Gram.  S.,  Stokesley 

I  Dunster,T  H. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  Fell.W.R.  Christ  Church  S.,  Bootl 

I  ■2Ga.sking,C.T.  Private  tuition 

I  Hunt,W.J.  RydeHouseComm.S., Ripley 
I  King.A.F.  al.  St.  Mary's  C.dl.,  Harlow 
I  King,W.  Hoylake  College 

I  Land.L.N.  Grammar  S..  Shoreham 

I  Lee.H.F.  al.  Taunton  School 

I  McLellan.R.B.  Taunton  .School 

I  Norman, W.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 

I  Platt,J.T.  Grammar  S.,  Fulwood,  Preston 
I  Purry,A.B.  Soutlidown  Coll.,  Eastbourne 
I  Robirson.J.N.  Button  Gram.  S. 

I  Schute,E.B.  Clifton  Coll.,  Harrogate 

I  Scott,A.  Portland  Coll.,  Chiswick 

I  Tadraan.W. 

I  St.  Martin's  Gram.  S.,  Scarborough 

l,Waight,D.E.         St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 

rAinsley,F.  d.  Bailey  8.,  Durham 

I  Beadle. I.A.  Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 
i  Brooks,E.J.  Chaloner's  8.,  Braunton 

I  Clough.N.  Bridlington  College 

I  Crease, A. J.  P.  The  College,  Clevedon 

I  Even.^H.  Grammar  S.,  Southend-on-Sea 
I  Jones, H.N.S.  Collegiate  8.,  Bridgwater 
I  Lee,J.G.  Taunton  H.,  Brighton 

I  Lorenzen,A.E.  Grammars., East Finchley 
I  McTurk.H.A.D.  Brentwood  HigllS. 

.Mnrris.T.H.  al.  Hoe  Gram.  S.,  Plymouth 
I  011ive,L.H.  Grammar  S.,  Margate 

I  Porritt,A.  Huddersfield  Coll.  Modern  8. 
I  Shorter,  B.J.  Gravesend  Modern  8. 

I  Smith. D.A.  Grammar  S.,  Ongar 

I  Sngg.F.R.  Oakeslnst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
I  Tarr.F.W.  Hjde  House  Comm.  S.,  Ripley 

Vioarey,R.  al.  Comm  S.,  Wood  Green 
Wheater,W.L.  Clifton  Coll.,  Harrogate 
Winship,A.  /.  Bailey  S.,  Durliam 


Bickerton  B.,  Birkdale,  Southp.-rl 

fAshton.A.J.  HoeGram.  S.,  Plymouth 
Billot,P.E.  Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Heliei 
Boys.C.D.B.  Castle  Hill  S.,  W.  Ealing 
Bnggs,G.G.  Bridlington  College 


Southdown  Coll.,  Eastbourne 
Carling,A.  Private  tuition 

Carman,C.R.  Blenheim  H.,  Fareliain 

Clements,E.T.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 

Cliffe.C.R.  Taunton  Schoid 

Cornelius,B.C.J.  al 

Bradley  High  8.,  Newton  Abbot 
Cross, W.G.  Grammar S.,Fulwood,Preston 

Bradley  Bigh  S.,  Newton  Abbot 
Barvey.  A.  Brunswick  B.,  Maidstone 

Ibbotson.H.R.  Button  Oram.  S. 

Jeffrey.R.  Bighfield  8.,  Chcrt.scy 

Marshall,E.  Grammars.,  Shoreham 

Reeves, W.JI.  Emwell  S..  Warminster 
Rush.  W.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 

Smith, D.  Margate  Commercial  8. 

Smith, N.B.  Collegiate  S.,  Reading 

Verrall,S.R.  Gram.  S.,  On,gar 

2Walker,G.S.  Famham  Gram.  S. 

2Walker,B.E.  Willow  Bouse  Coll., Wal.sall 

LWaIton,C.D.  Penketh  School 

rAlford.B.E.  St.  Dunstan's  ColL,  Margate 
Barton, J. L.  Oakeslnst.,  Walton, Liverpool 
2Berry,B.  Private  tuition 

Bouts, H.  Margate  Commercial  S. 

2Carrington,R.W.  Taunton  School 

Hey  worth,  W.N. 

Kilgrimol  S.,  St.  Annes-on-Sea 
Jollifre,J.S.  Holsworthy  Middle  S. 

Lyne.G.H.  Radnor  8.,  Redhill 

2Nicholls,B.F.  Cromwell  High  8.,  Putney 
Pigg,R.W.P.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 
spotter, W.B.  Private  tuition 

Priest,W.G.  Richmond  Bill  School 

Reeves,G.V.  Taunton  School 

Rigg,J.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 

i  Stratford, F.J.  Ik.         Grammar  S.,  Ongar 
LThoinpson,A.W.M.  RosemontB., 

rAbram.R.  Button  Gram.  S. 

I  Ash,J.B.      Manchester  Warehousemen  & 
I  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulnie 

I  Baker,B.G.        Gunnersbury  S.,  Chiswick 
I  Baker.L.G. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 

I  Barber.J.  Christ  Church  S.,  Boolle 

I  Beardsall.S.B.  ManehesterWarehousemen 
I  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 

I  Bryant,C  G.  Froebel  H.,  Devonport 

I  2Collin.s,W. 

Sutton-in-Ashfield  Hr.  Standard  S. 



Kingsholrae  S.,  Weston-super-Mare 
i  Findlay,W.D.H. 

King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  Fuller,H.S.  al.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Barlow 
I  Gamble,J.F.  The  Harrogate  Modern  Coll. 
I  Goodale,E.W. 

I  St.  Catherine's  Coll..  Richmonil 

I  Grey,C.  Alcester  Grammar  8. 

I  Ball.E.E.  Highbury  Park  School 

]  Bigson,J.K.  al. 

I  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpoed 

I  Bolloway,L.  The  Barrogate  Modern  Coll. 
I  aoyles,B.J.  Comm.  S., Stratford-on-Avon 
I  Bumpliry,B.H.  South  Norwood  College 
I  Karnofsky,M.B.  Private  tuition 

I  Langford.H.  Lancaster  Coll.,  W.Norwocd 
I  Marten, C.W. 

I  St.  Martin's  Gram.  S.,  Scarborough 

I  Pollard, F.G.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  8. 

I  Price,H.  Manchester  Warehou.semen  &. 
I  Clerks'  Orphan  8.,  Cheadle  Hulme 

I  2Rahmy,M.A.  King's  8.,  Warwick 

I  Schreier,B.  Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 

1  Tebbitt,M.L.  Abbotshill,  Kilbura 

I  Yates. A. 
V  Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingham 

/'liourue,S.A.  Derwent  B.,  Bamford 

I  Comes,L.A.  Abbotsford  S.,  Folkestone 
Cove,B.E.  Grammar  S.,  Ongar 


Emlyn  Gram.  8..  Newcastle  Emlyn 
Dickson, A.H.  Holsworthy  Middle  .S. 

Gaudard,P.T.  St.  John's  Coll.,  Brixton 
Hartley,  H.  Farnworth  Gram.  S. 


Gratnmar  S.,  Fulwood,  Preston 
Holmes, S.J.  Grammar  8.,  Ongar 

2Huglies,J.  Huddersfield  Coll.  Modern  S. 
Keepin.A.W.  Caversham  B.,Caversham 
2Kevern,C.  Private  tuition 


King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
Pitt,B.E.  Eversley  S.,  Stamforil 

2Rundle.R.  Newquay  College 

Stanners.E.C.  The  Palace  S.,  Bewdley 
Watt«rs,H.R.  Langharne  S.,  Southsea 
Whitehead, A. D.  Grammars.,  Shoreham 
L2Williams,8.  Private  tuition 

Feb.  1,  1909.] 




BOYS,  3rd  Class,  Pass— Co>i(i>u(fri. 
rBradley,B.  Ryde  House  Comiii.  S.,  Ripley 
I  Brei]iner,G.B.S. 

I  Lancaster  Coll.,  W.  Norwood 

I  de  Courcy.G.L.  Eversley  S.,  Stamford 
I  Edwards.A.S.  St.  Deiniol's,  Bangor 

I  Falkne'.V.M.  n(. 

I  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

Griffin.H.W.  Scarborougli  College 

aHargreaves,C.G.  Rusholme  High  S. 

»Howse,F.W.F.  Grammar  S.,  Margate 
Huntley.E.S.  d. 

Elmhurst  S.,  Kingston-on-Thamos 
Jordan, J. B.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 
LeMasurier,  P.  R.  West  End  S. ,  Jersey 
Lowe,  A.  V. 

Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingham 
)n,H.         High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
Pink,B.T.  Blenheim  H.,  Fareham 

Grammar  S.,  Redditch 
Chaloner's  S.,  Braunton 
Thornton  Heath  'Chool 
Eversley  S.,  Stamford 
I  Simpson, M.JIcR.  Godwin  Coll.,  Margate 
I  Thompson, R.D.  Grammar  S.,  Shorehara 
I  Walkdeu,J.N.  gm,  ManchesterWarehouse- 
i,  men  &  Clerks' Orphan  S.,CheadleHulme 

fAkhurst.N.W.  Sandwich  School 

Bartlett,J.S.  St.  John's  Coll.,  Brixton 
Blackburn, F. 

Bickerton  H.,  Birkdale,  Southport 
Burgess,  K.R.  Scarborough  College 


St.  Aubyn's,  Woodford  Green 
Coopc,E.T.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

2Craig,C  C.  Claughton  Coll.S.,  Birkenhead 
Elliott, F.W.  Taunton  School 


Cambridge  H.,  Camden  Rd.,  N. 
Gordon-Ralph, L.  s.  Henfleld  Gram.  S. 
Hazel.H.  Barton  S.,  Wisbech 

Howse.J.H.  The  College,  Clevedon 

Moore,T.G.  CollettH.,  Bournemouth 

Morcom,F.C.  County  S.,  Liskeard 

Olliver.J.  Margate  Commercial  S. 


Bourne  Coll., Quinton,  Birmingham 
Rigby.F.J.  Willow  House  Coll.,  Walsall 
Stansby.J.M.  Grammar  S.,  Ongar 

Stoekley,M.G.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
Thompson, A.F.W.  RosemontH., Newport 
Tingley,W.G.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

'Vickers.J.C.  OakesInst.,Walton,Liverpool 

V.White,H.G.     Handel  Coll.,  Southampton 


King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
Buck,  R.  A.  Weymouth  Modern  School 
Chapman, F.  Barton  School,  Wisbech 

Cole.M.  Highfield  S.,  Cheitsey 

Gale.H.G.  Blenheim  H.,  Fareham 

Gillett,F.E.  St.  John's  Coll.,  Brixton 

yukes,M.  Taunton  School 

Laborde,H.  Hoe  Gram.  S.,  Plymouth 

Linney,L.A.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

Mabbott,T.A.D.  Scarborough  College 

(  =Mahler,A.K. 

I  Grammars.,  Chorlton-cum-Hardy 

I  Millard, W.H.  The  College,  Clevedon 

I  Moring.F.  Collegiate  S.,  Reading 

I  Murphy,  D.V.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

I  Noakes.J.  Margate  Commercial  S. 

I  Ogden,J.H. 

I  High  S.,  South  Shore,  Blackpool 

I  Parker.C.L. 

Bickerton  H.,  Birkdale,  Southport 

j  Pickup.S.F. 

I  Bickerton  H.,  Birkdale,  Southport 

Swan.E.M.  Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

Taplin.C.L.L.  Kendrick  S.,  Reading 


St.  Aubyn's,  Woodford  Green 
Tucker,  N.  Chaloner's  S.,  Braunton 

2Turle,G.P.  Taunton  School 

..Warren, E.H.      CollettH.,  Bournemouth 

/'Badman,W.H.  Gravesend  Modern  S. 

Duncan,  R.  L. 

Woolston  Coll.,  Nr.  Southampton 
ans.G.  Steyning  Gram.  S. 

rri.son,.!.  Penketh  School 

King  Edward  'VL  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
Johnson, H.E.  Taunton  School 


Hadtield  H.,  St.  Leonards-on-Sea 
Pitchford.A.R.  Grammars.,  Shoreham 
Renison,H.  Penketh  School 

Scott,  K.C.  Private  tuition 


Oxenford  H. ,  St.  Lawrence,  .Jersey 

I  Smyth, F.W.L.    Mary  Street  H.,  Taunton 
I  Ward, J. G. 

I         King  Edward  VL  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
I  =Warner,B.T.  Whitchurch  Gram.  S 

VWiles,M.M.  Grammars.,  Devizes 

rBacon,H.W.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 
I  Baker,A.T.  Weymouth  Modern  School 
I  Bedford, W.  The  Palace  S.,  Bewdley 

I  Brook3,M.C.C.  Brentwood  High  S. 

I  Cooper,  L.  Hightield  S.,  Chertsey 

I  Cowie.J.D.  Cliftonville  Coll.,  Margate 
I  Davey,A.R.        Wilton  Grove  S.,  Taunton 

Earl,E.A.  Hoe  Gram.  S.,  Plymouth 

j  Eastwood,  F.  HuddersfieldColl.ModernS. 
I  Evans,A.J.  Taunton  H.,  Brighton 

I  Gregg,G.P.  Kilgrimol  S.,St.  Annes-on-Sea 
I  Hammond, W.R.  Gravesend  Modern  S. 
I  Hobden.R.D.  Gram.  S.,  Shoreham 

I  Jackson, S.L.  Uxbridge  Preparatory  S. 
I  Meade, R.O.  Conin)ercial  Coll.,  Acton 

1  PerolZjN.  Priory  Coll.,  Hornsey 

I  Saundry,E.A.  Grammar  S.,  St.  Ives 

I  Searle,A.E.T.  The  College,  Clevedon 

Sirajud.Din,D.M.  Privat*  tuition 

LSmith,S.H.  Steyne  School,  Worthing 

rBeer,R.G.  Cliftonville  Coll.,  Margate 

2Brough,W.  d.  St.  Luke's  School,  Leek 
Chapman,  B. 

Grammar  S.,  Longsight,  Manchester 
Chappell,L.F.  Grammars.,  Ongar 

Cole,G.  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
Cramp,C.J.  Grammars.,  Shoreham. 

Crowe,  D.  R.  al.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
Dyer,  F.J.  Chaloner's  S.,  Braunton 

Highwood.C.J.  Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 
Knee.N.H.  The  College,  Clevedon 


Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
Prizeman, F.  d.  Chaloner's  S.,  Braunton 
j  Smith,A.  Ryde  House  Comin.  S.,  Ripley 
I  Smyter,H.D.  Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 

I  2Southwood,J.E.C.  Keyford  Coll.,  Frome 
1  Tune,T.F.  Manchester  Warehousemen  k 
I  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 

I  Wilkin, A.B. 
V        King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 

/'Anderson, F.J.  Grammar  13.,  Ongar 

I  Ashcroft,G. 
I  Bickerton  H. ,  Birkdale,  Southport 

j  Baden, P.  Gunnersbury  S.,  Chiswick 

I  Baeldean,J.H.G.  /.  Athol  H.,  Brighton 
I  Black,A.N.  Taunton  School 

I  Brvce,K.MallBd.MiddleS., Hammersmith 
I  Chaplin,P.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 

I  Clare.G.T.  Farnworth  Gran    ~ 

I  Ford,H.W.  Ryde  House  Comm..S.,  Ripley 
I  Herbert, A. J.  Barton  S.,  Wisbech 

I  Houusom,W.A.F.     Kendrick  S.,  Reai 
I  Kantorowicz,C.G.  Clifton  Coll., Harrogate 
I  2Lang-Broune,A. 

I         The  School,  Wellington  Rd.,  Taunton 
I  Letheren.E.H.N. 
I  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

Mills.E.C.  AlcesterGran    " 


King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
Needham.H.  Kilgrimol  S.,  St.Annes-on-S. 
Nevard.C.R.  St.  John's  Coll.,  Brixton 
Palmer.S.L.  Cambridge  H.,  Norwich 

Pigott.E.  W.  Manor  H.,Clapham  Common 
Reid.B.R.  a.d. 

Bickerton  H.,  Birkdale,  Southport 
Roper, W.F.  Hoe  Gram.  S.,  Plviuouth 
Smith, H.W.  Eversley  S.,  Stamford 

I  2Sparkes,G.H.  Taunton  School 

I  Spiwton.F.M.C. 

Breydon  U.,  Bournemouth 
L.2Wildy,C.W.  Private  tuition 


King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
Braden,R.  Margate  Commercial  S. 

Bradley,H.E.  St.  Winifred's,  Torquay 
Carbines,J.C.  cd. 

Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
Dyer.P.O.  Chaloner's  S.,  Braunton 

2Fou]kes,W.  Crewe  Academy 


Kilgrimol  S.,  St.  Annes-on-Sea 
Harker.J.E.  Grammars.,  Shoreham 

Johnson. G.A.  Lytham  College 

Kelvin,G.D.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 
Morgan, D.B.  The  College,  Westoo-s.-Mare 

St.  Martin's  Gram.  S.,  Scarbor.mah 
Paddock, G.W.  Grammar  S.,  Ealing 

Pearman,J.C.        The  Palace  S.,  Bewdley 

I  Pennington, G. 

I  The  Greystones,  Scarborough 

1  Poole-Connor.M.  Arundel  H.,  Surbiton 
I  Powell.G.A.  e.  Blenheim  H.,  Fareham 
Stokes.F.W.  Ryde  HouseConim.S., Ripley 
I  Watkins,J.P. 

I  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  White.J.A.    St.  DnnsUn's  Coll.,  Margate 
I  Wilkinson, B. 
L        King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 


I  King  Eilward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 

I  2Chaniber]ain,T.  Taunton  School 

I  Eyre,F.  Mossley  Hall  S.,  Congleton 

I  Horne,J.H.  The  College,  Weston.s..Mare 
I  Horne.S.F. 

I  Cathcart  Coll.,  Cathcart  Hill,  N. 

I  Humphreys, L. 

I  Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

I  Jackson,J.E.  High  S.,  Market  Diayton 
Lawrence,N.A. /.  Bedford  H.,  Folkestone 
I  Marlee,N.A.  Argyle  H.,  Sunderland 

Myhill.W.R.  Saham  Coll.,  Watton 

Needham,R.A.  Grammars.,  Shoreham 
Norton, J. H.  Elm  H.,  Southend-on-Sea 

Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 
Stansby,J.W.  d.  Grammars.,  Ongar 


King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.,  Norwich 
Taylor,G.C.  The  Palace  S.,  Bewdley 

Ward.G.  BickertonH., Birkdale  Southport 
V,Wells,T.  Margate  Commercial  S. 

('Carman.P.  Margate  Commercial  S. 

2Crouch,W.A.RydeHouseComm.S., Ripley 
I  Gardner,E.J.  Swindon  High  8. 

I  Grape, D.H.  Lancaster  Coll.,  W.  Norwood 
t  Humphrey, A.H.  Barton  S.,  Wisbech 

I  JMcCarthy.E.J. 

I  W.  Jesmond  Senior  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 
1  Norman, R.W.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Carlisle 
I  Parren.L.  Barton  S.,  Wisbech 

I  Peaty,L.F.  Castle  Hill  S.,  W.  Ealing 

j  Potter, C.W.  Southdown  Coll., Eastbourne 
I  Richmond,D.E.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  S. 
I  2Simpson,J.  Crewe  Academy 

I  Sniedley,P.E.  Granmiar  S.,  Belper 

I  Soper,L.V.  Taunton  School 

l..White,G.  Newquay  College 

King's  S.,  Warwick 

Newquay  College 

Grammar  S.,  Ongar 

Ousegate  8.,  Selby 

'  House  Coll.,  Walsall 

I  2Dinnis,W.W. 
I  Hinde.O. 
I  Hudson.T.A. 

Perry.L.E.     Will 
I  Shepherd, G.E. 
I  Bickerton  H.,  Birkdale,  Southport 

I  Williamson,T.A.  al 
I  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 

LWright,R.F.  Cillegiato  S.,  Read; 


Bickerton  H.,  Birkdale,  Southport 
aBirkett,R.A.  LancasterColl.,Morecambe 
I  !Bolton,H.A. 

I  Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingham 

I  Dver,R.B.  Taunton  School 

I  Ganniclifrt,A.L.  The  College,  Clevedon 
I  Gifford,A.W.  York H.,  Folkestone 

I  Hansford, A.U.  Grammar  8.,  Shoreham 
I  Huntlev,W.J. 

I  Elmhurst  S.,  Kingston-on-Thames 

I  Kirkham,I.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

i  Lace,  A.  C.  Haughton  S.,  Y'ork 

I  McConnell,J.H.  Grammars.,  Shoreham 
I  Muspratt.K.K. 

[  Wychwood  S.,  Bournemouth 

I  Rowbottom,H.A. 

I  King  Edward  VI.  Middle  S.    Norwich 

I  Shackleton,J.  Lytham  College 

I  Simpson,A.E.  Western  Coll.,  Harrogate 
I, Wiltshire, B.C.   CoUett  H.,  Bournemouth 


I  Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingham 

I  Collings,J.I.        Hoe  Gram.  S.,  Plymouth 

Edridge,C.B.  Brentwood  High  S. 

I  Goldman, L.H.  Maida  Vale  School,  W. 
I  Higham.C.  Cambridge  H., Camden  Rd.,N. 
I  Hodgkinson,F.V. 

I  Mossley  Hall  S.,  Congleton 

[  Jackson,  J.  Lancaster  Coll.,  Morecanibe 
I  Knowles,S.  Western  Coll.,  Harrogate 

j  Leigh,  W.M.    67  Lansdowne  Street,  Hove 

2Lucas,M.  Ryde  House Comm.  S.,  Ripley 
LMacfarlane,J.A.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 


I  Kingsholme  S.,  Weston-s.-Mare 

I  Minshall.F.B.    High  S.,  Market  Drayton 

I  Mitchell, F.E.  d.  Taunton  School 

I  (•richard,H.E.  Taunton  School 

I  Taylor,E.C.        Brunswick  H.,  Maidstone 
Webb.N.E.  Swindon  High  School 

LWhite,P.  Derwent  H.,  Bamford 


I       Buckingham  Place  Acad.,  Portsmouth 
I  Goldberg,C.  Maida  Vale  School,  W. 

I  Holden,F.  Gram.S.,  Belper 

I  Lamb,W.T.  The  Kingsley  8.,  Shifnal 

I  Ryde  House  Comm.  S.,  Ripley 

I  Reuter,L.  Mission  3.for  Hebrew  Children, 
I  Streatham  Common 

i  Snob  Private  tuition 

Springate,E.C.  Clair-Val  S.,  Gorey,  Jersey 
I  Tanton,C.H.  St.  Leonards  Coll.  S. 

I  •Tremain,R.  Newquay  College 

I  Walker, W.J.  Lancaster  Coll.,  Morecambe 
I  Whitc,C.  Tutorial  S.,  Penarth 

I  =Wild,A.R.  Whitchurch  Gram.  8. 


1  Bonck,H.E. 
I  Flowers.J.A. 
I  Gordon, K.M. 

I  Hunt,B.O. 
I  Mannering,R.S. 
I  Playdon,A.J. 
I  Woolston  Coll 

I  =Preston,G.R. 
I  Ryde  Housf 

I  Soper,S.H.  d. 


Grammar  S. ,  On.gar 
Grammar  S.,  Shoreham 
Taunton  H.,  Brighton 
EUesmere  8.,  Harrogat* 
The  Palace  S.,  Bewdley 
Taunton  H.,  Brighton 
Taunton  H.,  Brighton 

.  Southampton 

Comm.  3.,  Ripley 
Taunton  School 
Ansdell  School 
Private  tuition 


I  Cambridge  H.,  Camden  Rd.,  N. 

I  Cole.J.C.O. 

I  Arlington  Park  Coll.,  Chiswick 

CoUett, O.  Alcester  Grammar  S. 

Dean,  A.B. 

Bickerton  H.,  Birkdale,  Southpoit 

Arlington  Park  Coll.,  Chiswick 
Heap,J.A.  Lytham  College 


Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  LiTerpool 
Parrott,L.L.  St.  Mary's  Coll.,  Harlow 
PiUer.H.J.  St.  Mary's  Coll  ,  Harlow 

Towler,H.        High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

The  Greystones,  Scarborough 


I         Convent  Day  S.,  St.  LeonarJs-on-Sea 
I  Deans, W.  Boys'  Coll.  8.,  Aldershot 

1  Freeman, C.N.  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 


Oakes  Inst.,  Walton,  Liverpool 

Howes, H. 

Bourne  Coll.,  Quinton,  Birmingham 

Jones, A.S.  Cambridge  H.,CamdenRd.,N. 

Lee,H.  Highfield  8.,  Chertsey 

=Lesmond,G.L.  Private  tuition 


Bickerton  H.,  Birkdale,  Southport 

Nock.H.S.  The  Palace  8.,  Bewdley 

Phillips,E.A.  Collegiate  S.,  Reading 

I  Ricketts,D.T.        Bedford  H.,  Folkestone 
I  2Romney,C.A.  Taunton  School 

I  Rutter,F.W.  Bailey  S.,  Durham 

I  Sibson,F.H.         EUesmere  S.,  Harrogate 
I  Thurnhill,E.L.  Hutton  Gram.  S. 

I  Treglown,J. 
I  Walls,K.J. 
I  Weber,  L. 

I  Oxford  Coll.,  Waterloo,  Liverpool 

I  Worthington.H.B. 
I.,  High  S.  for  Boys,  Croydon 

('Adams,V.L.  EUesmere  S.,  Harrogate 

Christopher,E.O.  Newquay  College 

■  -    ■  -  ■      -    •  Lytham  College 

Taunton  School 

Highbury  Park  S. 

St.  Deiniol's,  Bangor 

New  Coll.,  Harrogate 

The  College.  Clevedon 

CritchIey,F.  d. 
I  Dudley.G.R. 
I  Fileman,H. 
I  Garth,B. 
I  Jaggar,R. 
I  Kiddle,C.F. 
I  LeLicvre.S.St.J. 

I  Jersey  Modern  S.,  St.  Hclier 

I  Shepherd,H.N.  High  S.  for  Boys.Croydoii 

I  Kilgiiraol  S.,  St.  Annes-on-Sea 

I  White,G.R.  Hoe  Gram.  8.,  Plymontli 

I  Whitelaw,D.H. 
L       King  Edward  VL  Middle  S.,  Norwich 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 


(-For  list  of  abbreviations,  see  page  86.) 

Honours  Division, 

BennelljM.  s.e.g.bk.U.p. 

Crouch  End  High  S.,  Hornsey 
Rowtcliff,  4.G.  ."i.e.  Holsworthy  Middle  S. 
Green, J. M. 

Crouch  End  High  S.,  Horn.scy 
Gieve.G.M.  s.d. 

Crouch  End  High  S.,  Hornsey 
Truscott.D.V.R.  bk.d. 

Crouch  End  High  S.,  Horu-sey 

FIRST    CLASS      or  SENIOR]. 
Rass   Division, 

Greenland.E.l.s.f.  Ein\vellS.,Warmin.'iter 
Cheatle.H.B.  s.clo.  Milton  H.,  Atherstone 
RatcIitte.K.B.  Private  tuition 

Keen.F.H.  Private  tuition 

Grattan.M.Mc.D.  Beighton  H.,  Sheffield 
Buck.D.G.  s.  EmwellS.,  Warminster 
Taylor.D.A.W.  e.  Private  tuition 

Moran,A.G.  Private  tuition 

Tylcoat.L.  e.  Private  tuilion 

LeMontaiSjL.R.deL.  /. 

St.  James'  Ladies'  S.,  Jersey 
Waddell.C.  e. 

Liverpool  Coll.,  Huyton,  Liverpool 
Marshall, D.S.  d.  London  Coll.,Goodmaye.'* 
Parkin, M.M.  d.  Wood  End,  Buxton 

Jordan. K.C.S.  Private  tuition 

/■Taylor,G.  e.  Private  tuition 

VWilliaras,N.  Crouch  End  High  S., Hornsey 
fFrank.G.  Beightou  H.,  Sheffield 

LHarris.L.M.  Emwell  S.,  Warminster 


I  Brunt's  Technical  S.,  Mansfield 

L,Turner,A.V.  do.  Private  tuition 

rDay.D.       Cambridge  H.,  Camden  Rd.,  N. 
LGardner,G.O.  Lynn  H.,  Croydon 

Speed, CM.  BeaurivageS.,Weston-s.-Mare 
Johnson,  E. 

Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 
Forbes.H.C.  Argyle  H.,  Sunderland 

■Walker.D.B.  St.  Bdmundsbary,  Cardiff 
Harrop,F.  Inglewood  S.,  ilobberley 

Honours  Division, 


Crouch  End  High  S.,  Hornsey 

Kearus.E.  aLphijs.d. 

Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

Adams.L.C.  € 

Oakover  Girls'  S.,  Burnhani 
f  Dewev,M.D.  f.  Devizes  Secondary  S. 

LWatt,E. I.  s.aZ.CrouchBndHighS., Hornsey 


Hemdean  H.,  Cavershani 
r'Dunkley,L.R.  al.f.d. 
I  Weymouth  P.-T.  Centrf 

LKiog,G.H.  f.cli.  Devizes  Secondary  S. 

rBevan,C.A.  s.Mii 
I  Oakover  Girls' S.,  Burnhani 

Forbes, W.M.  Belle  Vue,Herne  Bay 
I  Meade, M. 
L  -   Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 


Sunfleld  H.,  Wellington 
rBurtles.M.  Girls'  Gram.  S.,  Levenshulme 
1  Pnllen.M.  h.iiiu. 

I  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

I  Singleton,M.  aid. 

I  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

l,White,M.C.M.  f.d.  Weymouth  P. -T.Centre  NewcastleH., Lewes 
CFarrell,  A.  h. 
I  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

l.Matten,D.F.  Weymouth  P.-T.  Centi 

Cartwright,G.  s.f. 

Bestreben  High  S.,  Brondesbur 

Peeke.H.H.  /.  Private  tuition 

Newman,  E.k.e.jf.rfo.FelixH., East  Dulwich 
rCalcutt.E.G.  ch.d. 

1  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

LPrice,G.E.  do.  Newcastle  H.,  Lewes 


Beaurivage  S.,  Weston-s.-Mare 
LSharpe.P.M.  s.d.  St.  Maur  Coll.,Chepst. 
("Martin,  LW.  d. 

i  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

Sargeant,W.K. /.rfi. 
Portsmouth  Girls'SecondaryS.,Southsea 
1  Sturridge,  K./. 
L  Bestreben  High  S.,  Brondesbury 


I  Conway  H.,  Farnborough 

Garfoot.B.  ch. 
1  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

i  Harker,M.     Pengwern  Coll.,  Cheltenham 
i,Stevenson,N.F.s.MiddleClassS., Stockport 

Pass  Division. 

('Jensen.E.M.  f.d.  Westbank  S.,  Dulwich 
I  Mulvey.M. 

I  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

l,Nieholsou,C.  s.        Grosvenor  Coll.,  Bath 

Turner,  D.  ch. 


Hooker,D.M.  mii.  Private  fuition 

fBaylis.E.  qe.  Redditch  Secondary  S. 

LLester,G.I./.)im.  Suntield  H.,  Wellington 
rBrown,G.L.  Whitgift  H.,  Croydon 

I  ICurtis.M.F.  Girls' Gram. S., Levenshulme 
I  Hill.M.  Loreto Cunv.,Hulme,Manchester 
I  M.',  Linwood  S.,  Altrincham 
I  ilh..iMMin,K.McC.s.  SomervilleH., Clifton 
I  iWilbral]ani,E.M. 

I.  Brunt's  Technical  S.,  Mansfield 

f  Broomhead.H.o/.  QueensberryS.,Longtou 


I  Hraton  Pk.Rd. Councils., Newcastle-onT. 
I  Cross.lC.G.  Mil.  Bourne  H.,  Eastbourne 
LWrisbcrg.L.M.L.rf.WeymouthP. -T.Centre 
fHayes.V.A.JL  iiiii.  Glenarm  Coll.,  Ilford 
I  McDonald, E.A. 

I  Cambridge  House  High  S.,BatterseaPark 
I  Stock,S.A. 

1^  Clark's  College  High  S.,  Holloway 


(  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

I  Newell,  E.M./.jiA. 

I.  Pengwern  Coll. ,  Cheltenham 

rAngell,E.L.G.  d.  Weymouth  P.-T.  Centre 
I  Coward.E.  s.  Spalding  Grain.  S. 

ULay.A.L.  s.  Private  tuition 

Lenton,A.M.  c?i. 

Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 
f  Cox, V.  E.  Clark's  College  High  S.  Holloway 
I  Goodwin, G.I.  6;.-.  Sirsa  H.,  Cheltenham 
LSmith,K.E.  d.        Eastrop  H.,  Chichester 

rHoather.W.G.  d.    Hounslow P.-T.  Centre 

I  Hudson, T. 

I  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

|^Kenward,W.N.  Newcastle  H.,  Lewes 


I  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

I  lGrosse,A.M.  17.  Private  tuition 

I^Sinith,S.G./)iui.  Brookville,  Filey 

rBlunsuuLO.  s.e.  Woodford  High  S. 

I  Gibbs,E.M.  d.  Holt  H.,  Fakenham 

I  lHaworth,J. 

I  Breck  Coll.  S.,  Poulton  le  Fylde 

i  Hobbs.K.M.  s.     Alexandra  Coll.,  Shirley 

I  Marsland,N.B.  sj. 

K_  Brook  Green  Girls'  Coll.,  W. 

flWaddingtnn,N.  e.  FyldeColl.,Morecambe 

Whittaker.O.M.  mu. 
[  Pencraig  Coll.,  Newport 

f  lMcuntfield,JL  Private  tuition 

I  Ussher.B.N.  hk.  Wilsford  H.,  Devizes 
1  Warburton,J.  d.  Private  tuition 

I^W right, LM.  s.    CranleyH.,  Muswell  Hill 
fHeaps.J.  y<in.         Eastrop  H.,  Chichester 
I  Kaye,G.M. 
i         Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

MarchantjM.  ch.  Devizes  Secondary  S. 
I  Robinson, J.M.  do.  Private  tuition 

I  Waite,S.C. 

I  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 
LWiltshire  O.G.  St.  Hilda's,  Heme  Bay 
fBrown.F.M.  ran.  Weatbourne  H.,  Cowes 
i  Buxton, M.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 

Coulson.E.T.  d. 
Westoe  High  S.  for  Girls,  South  Shields 

Coward. CM.  Private  tuition 

lLeather,A.  Avenue  S.,  Leigh 

Richardson, M. 
I  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

I  Woodward,  M.D.s. 

L  Clark's  College  High  S.,  Holloway 

f  Auckland, L. 

I  St.  Mary's  Conv.,  Middlesbrough 

I  Blacklock.M.  d. 
I  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 


Woolston  Ladies  Coll.,  Southaniptoi 
I  McGowan.A. 
i^  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  M.incheste 

rBallad,F,A.  Temple  Square  S.,  Aylesbury 
I  Billington.M.  Queen.sberry  S.,  Longton 
I  Faircloth,D.M.  s.  Holt  H.,  Fakenham 
I  Kenny.E. 

I  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

I  iLeoDard,H.M,  Abercorn  Coll.,  Dublin 
VMoss,C.G.  s.a.  Private  tuition 

rBurton.M.C./.  Private  tuition 

I  Crease. H.M.  Larchmount  Hall,  Yatton 
]  Levrero,M.L.  sp.  Loreto  Conv  , 

I  St.  Francis  Xavier's,  Gibraltar 

Lstapleton,D.  St.  Agnes  S.,  Willesden 


I  Clark's  Colllege  High  S.,  Holloway 

I  Dickins,K.  mu.  Parnella  H.,  Devizes 

I  Frankling,E.J.M. 

Clark's  College  High  S.,  Holloway 

I  O'Sulli 

I  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

I  Palmer, D.M. 

I  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

[  iPowell.M.D.  f/.  LulworthHouse.Caerleon 

',Rookledge,B.M.        Easiligwold  Gram.  S. 

fBrazil.B.  raw. 

I  Teddington  Coll.,  Upper  Teddington 

I  Ed  wards,  H.L. 

I  Clark's  College  High  S.,  Holloway 

I  IMcGrath.S.  Avenue  S.,  Leigh 

l.Pitt»,E.M.G.  ran.    Westbourne  H.,  Cowes 

("Elsey.M.M.  ch. 

I  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

I  Ivens.s.M.  mu.       Westbourne  H.,  Cowes 

l^Smallpeice,F.Z.         Newcastle  H.,  Lewes 

rColboume.K.  Alleyne  H.,  Hove 

I  CoUins.J.H.  s.d. 

j     Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Claphain  Junction 

I  Ford.K.  d.  Hemdean  H.,  Caversham 

I  Swinburne,L.M. 

L      ElswickRd.CouncilS.,Newcastle-on-T. 

('Hammersley.F.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 

j  Sh3ehan,G. 

I,  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 


I  Brunt's  Technical  S,,  Mansfield 

j  Linday.M.G.      Cranley  H.,  Muswell  Hill 

I  Siddons,H.M.SomervilleH., Northampton 

l^Starck.A. /.  St.  James'  Ladies'  S.,  Jersey 

I'Daplyn.E.M.  Holt  H.,  Fakenham 

LWhite,M.J.  s.  Spalding  Gram.  S. 

rHubert,F.L.  S.  James'  Ladies'  S.,  Jersey 
I  Guzman, F.  s.e.h.  Spalding  Gram.  S 

I  iPerryman.D.M.  AlwyneColl.,Canonbury 
I  Spindler.G.M.  Private  tuition 

UThomas.E.E.  Private  tuition 

fICooke,N.E.  Private  tuition 

I  ^Draysey,D.L. 

I  Pengwei'n  Coll.,  Cheltenham 

LHank.i,G.  Beighton  House,  Sheffield 

f  Burd, M.  LoretoConv. , Hulme, Manchester 
I  Evans, M.  Private  tuition 

1  Glover,M.  s.  Private  tuition 

I  Hamblen, L.E.  Devizes  Secondary  S. 

I  Ingram, B.H.  mti.  South  Farnboro'High  S. 
I  Neaverson.H.M. 

i  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 
^.Rosser.M.E.  Preswylfa  High  S.,  Cardiff 
CEversley,E.H.  Private  tuition 

I  Hayes, E.A.  Spalding  Gram.  S. 

i  Hutchings,O.E.  c.  Private  tuition 

I  Johnceline,E.S.  mu. 

I  Highfield  S.,  Addiscombe,  Croydon 

I  Leese,M.  Beighton  H.,  Sheffield 

I  Leinnion,V. 

j  Firth  Pk.  High  S.,  Pitsmoor,  Sheffield 
I  lNewnian,L.  St.  Maur  Coll..  Chepstow 
I  Phang.R.E.A.  s.f.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Bath 
i  Prime,E.W.M.  Weymouth  P.-T.  Centre 
LScott,M.  Workington  Secondary  S. 

Braby,D.E.  ch. 

Portsmouth  Girls' Secondary  S  ,Soutlisea 
fDodd,W.M.  s.  HopeLodgeS.,BexleyHeath 
1  Schuhiuacher,D.  Wirral  S.,  Heswall 

i  iTribhout.A.A./.  Private  tuition 

L  'Skerry's  Coll.,  Liverpool 


St.  Cuthbert's  CoU.,  Forest  Hill 
Batty.H.  s. 

Firth  Pk.  High  8.,  Pitsmoor,  Sheffield 

Stapleton  Hall  S.,  Stroud  Green 
Johuson.N.  Ivy  H.,  Hanwell 

Price, CM.  Ladies'  Coll.,  Nantwich 


Hazelcroft,  Weston-s.-Mare 

Secondarv  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

.' Gaggero,  M.  sp.mti.  LoretoConv., 

I  St.  Franci-s  Xavier's,  Gibraltar 

I  Norris,L.  St.Mary'sConv., Middlesbrough 

I  Reeve,H.M.  d.  Private  tuition 

I  ISpence.A.  Private  tuition 

I  Toogood.E.M.  s. 

I  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

I  Willerton,M.S. 

L         Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

f  Liclitenberg,L. 

I  Stapleton  Hall  S.,  Stroud  Green 

I  Pesterfield.E. 

!  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 

I  Purchase.E.B.      Weymouth  P.-T.  Centre 

I  Roberts,M.E.  PengwernColl., Cheltenham 

I  Wilson,  K.C. 

1^  High  Trees  Coll.,  Bournemouth 

rHill,N.M.  Emwell  S.,  Warminst«r 

I  Need, A. 

I  Saxonholme  High  S.,  Whalley  Range 

Private  tuition 

St.  Margaret's,  Cardiff 

Crescent  S.,  Norwich 

Private  tuition 

Belle  Vue,  Heine  Bay 

I  Clarke.M.W./. 
I  Duffleld,R.C. 
]  iGraham.G.B.L. 
I  Minter,D.E.D. 
I  Plummer.M.H. 
I  High  Trees  Coll.,  Bournemouth 

I  lStacey,D.  Private  tuition 

I  Sutherland, L.  d.nw. 
I  Saxonholme  High  S.,  Whalley  Range 

I  Young.M. 

L  Portsmouth  Girls'  Secondary  S.,SouthseA 
fCabedo,M.  s]h 

1  LoretoConv., St.  FrancisXavicr'fi,Gibralt»r 
j  Cordon, G.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 

I  Falkner,M.K./.  Radway  S.,Sidniouth 
I  Jenkin.H.M.  s.  Gram.  S.,  Hayle 

I  Mills,F.E.S./. 

1  .Stonyhurst  Convent,  East  Molesey 

I  Swift,  E.J. 

1,  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 
rHeasall,D.K.  Alexandra  Coll.,  Shirley 
I  Jackson, M.S. 

I  Belgrave  Terrace  S.,  Huddersfield 

l_Wright,G.I.  Glenarm  Coll.,  Ilford 

f  Armatys.L.E.  Beighton  H.,  Sheffield 

I  Gass,E.P. 

I  Elswick  Rd.  Council  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 
I  Webb,E.  Hounslow  P.-T.  Centre 

l^lWren,E.  Private  tuition 

f  Arrowsmitli,F.  al. 

i  St.  Mary's  Conv.,  Sliddlesbrough 

I  Clapshew,A  M.  mu 

\  Ryde  House  Comm.  S.,  Ripley 

l,Dallaway,D.E.  Private  tuition 


I  Stapleton  Hall  S.,  Stroud  Green 

I  IHowes.A.  Private  tuition 

I  Pocklington.F. 

I  Brunt's  Technical  S.,  Mansfield 

UTickle,M.L.  Private  tuition 

.'Phillips, A.  St.  Maur  Coll.,  Chepstow 
I  Wilbraham.F.  d. 

\^  Brunt's  Technical  S.,  Mansfield 

rCook,E.  Woodford  High  S. 

I  Hunt,M.D.  Blenheim  H.,  Fareham 

I  Knight.E.M.  Radway  S.,  Sidmoutb 

I  Wilkes,J.C. 

l^  PortsmouthGirls'SecondaryS.  ,Southsea 
('Cleverdon,I.R.  Steyne  S.,  Wortliing 

I  Counsell,M.H.  Dayfield,  Birkdale 

I  Dymond,S.E.      Hoe  Gram.  S„  Plymouth 
Knvvet-Wilson.A.B.  hf. 

s'Matlock  Rd.,  Thorpe  Hamlet.Norwich 
I  Ran.sford,M.H.  Private  tuition 

I  Shandel,K.  5.  Somerset  H.,  Ramsgate 
LSpringford,A.  Parnella  H.,  Devizes 

rMorris.H.A.O.  Sunfield  H.,  Wellington 
I  Taylor.G.M. 

L  Stapleton  Hall  S.,  Stroud  Green 

rBright,J.  Girls'  Gram.  S.,  Levenshulme 
1  Dutfy,C.  LoretoConv., Hulme, Manchester 
I  Mather,J.U.  Rutland  High  S.,  Dublin 
j  Millard, M.B.  Private  tuition 

I  iOxford,G.E. 

Gro>venor  House  High  S.,  Cricklewood 
I  Purdv.H.A. 

I  Elswick  Rd.  Council  S.,  Xewcastle-ou-T. 
I  Rochester.R.E.  /. 

I  Beaurivage  S.,  Weston-s.-Mare 

l^Scott.J.L.  Private  tuition 

('Gosltng,E.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 

I  Linington,W.M.  ik. 

Thorntonville  Girls'  S.,  Thornton  Heath 
I  McEwen,E. 
I  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

Feb.  1,  1909.] 



GIRLS,  2sD  Class,  Fash— Cnnti nurd. 

I      W.  Jesmond  Senior  S.,  Newcastle-oii-T. 
j  Vickery.D.M.  Radway  S.,  Siilinouth 

l,Whiteside,M.M.  Fylde  Coll.,  Moiecainbe 
f  Colclough,  D.       Queensberry  S.,  Longton 

Couchnian.C./.  Cranley  H.,  Muswell  Hill 


TeddinfTton  Coll.,  Upper  Teddington 

Freeborn, D.I.  Daylield,  Birkdale 

LWiglitwick,G.J.  WellingtonCoU., Hastings 
(-Baker.A.C.  Elm  H.,  Ealing 

1  Boulter,L.O.  Maindee  Lawn  S.,  Newport 
I  Cristol.R.  s,  Somerset  H.,  Ranisgate 

I  Kerry,G.I. 

1  Girls'  Coll.,  Sfancliester  Rd.,  Soutliport 
i  Lidbetter.K.M. 

I  Cambridge  H.,  Camden  Rd.  N 

VPotter.M.B.  Crescents.,  Norwich 

rBoO'h.E.  Avenue  S.,  Leigl: 

I  Chalmers,M.C.  Devizes  Secondary  S. 

1  Giddings,  H.A.  Devizes  Secondary  S. 

I  Jackson, D.  s.  Richmond  High  S.,  Li.scard 
Uones,D.E.  Brook  Green  Girls'  Coll.,  W. 
CTruman,R.A.  s.  Spalding  Gram.  S. 

L'Vates,E.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 

rrantliug.D.  Whitgift  H.,  Croydon 

I  Corston.H.JI.  Holt  H.,  Fakenham 

I  Mason, D.E. 

I  Commercial  S.,  High  Rd.,  Wood  Green 
I  Pike,D.B.  mu.  Emwell  S.,  Warminster 
I  Thorne,R.M.PearcloseS.,HolconibeRogus 
I,M.  St.  Paul's  Conv.,  Kilflnane 

LWilliams.K.M. /.  Southernhay  S.,  Exeter 
rBevan,A.H.  Highwood  H.,  Liskeard 

I  Bineham.M.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 
I  Brown, E., 

I  Westoe  High  S.  for  Girls,  South  Shields 
I  Brown, M,B.  Private  tuition 

I  Harvey,  A.  Queensberry  S.,  Longton 

l.Kelly,H.  St.Mary's  Conv., Middlesbrough 
rAvery,L.  Osborne  H.,  Redditch 

i  Harmer,M.I.  Hounslow  P.-T.  Centre 

I  Scott,A.A.  Laucelyn  H.,  Kew  Gardens 
I  Sherriff.F.E.  Highwood  H.,  Liskeard 

LSimpson,E.E.  Spalding  Gram.  S. 

rCIeaver,M.H.  Durham  H.,  Hove 

I  Davidson, M.E.  Private  tuition 

I  Kimber,H.M.  6;.-.  Alexandra  Coll.,  Shirley 
I  King,R.E.  Friends' S.,  Fritchley 

'.^LeRoy.E.  Clark's  Colleges., Brixton  Hill 

I  Roanoake  Coll.  S.,  Palmer's  Green 

I  Margetts.W.F. 

i.  Somerville  H.,  Northampton 

rBrown,R.M.  The  Kingsley  S. ,  Shifnal 
I  Harse,D.L. 

I   Central  Council  Girls'  S.,  Weston-s.- 
I  Levesley.C.  Spalding  Grai 

i  Smithurst,L.A.  West  Hill  S.,  Hedne->ford 
v,iWhite,E.  Private  tuition 

rAbbott,E.  Leek  High  S. 

I  lBamlett,E.M.  Private  tuition 

I  Cooper.A.E.  Wcvmouth  P.-T.  Cent., 

I  Stuart.M.  Summerland  S.,  Richmond 

I  Wheeler,N. 

L  Beulah  House  High  S.,  Upper  Tootin 
fCreasy.E.  Breakspear  Coll.,  Brockley 
I  Green, H.  Hounslow  P.-T.  Centi 

I  Ingamells.E.F. 

I  High  Trees  Coll.,  Bournemouth 

I  Kerigan.M.F. 
I  Municipal  Secondary  S.,  Manchester 

I  McElhone,R. 

L  St.  Mary's  Conv.,  Middlesbrough 


I  Licensed  Victuallers'  Girls'  S..  Lambeth 
I  Clarke,E,  Brunt's  Teclmical  S.,  Mansfield 
I  Day,  n.  Summerland  S.,  Richmond 

I  iLaverick,J.  Private  tuition 

LSinis,A.  L.  Cambourne  S.,  Richmond 

rMacdonald.F.E.  WestbourneH.,Chiswick 
I  Robinson.J.L 

L  Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 
rEva.K.M.  Hounslow  P.-T.  Centre 

LNorth.G.  Spalding  Gram.  S. 

^Abram.K.M.  Elmstone  H..  Ranisgate 
I  Dobson.E.  .St.  James'  Ladies'  S.,  Jersey 
I  Ridge, E  T.  The  Magnolias.  .Southsea 

I  Rule.G.G.  Grammar  .S..  Hayle 

I  Silvester,6.  Blenheim  H  ,  Fareham 

LSlater.M.  Fylde  Coll.,  Morecambe 


I  Lorcto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

'vHodgkiss,E.  Private  tuition 

rBeetlestnne.P.M.  The  Kingsley  S. ,  Shifnal 
I  iColling.E.  Argyle  H..  SuTiderland 

I  ■Whiteside,I.D. 

L  Clark's  College  High  S.,  Holloway 


I  Girls'  S.,  TheChnroh  lust.,  Ilkeston 

I  Rell.E.  CanuingStreetS.,Ni'Wcastle-ou-T. 
I  Emmett.C. 

I  High  S.,  The  Green,  Twickenham 

I  Jackson, H. 

I  St.  Mary's  Conv.,  Middlesbrough 

i  Jones.O.I.  S.  Margaret's,  Cardiff 

I  iThomas.B.  Private  tuition 

I  TordolT.L. 
I  lMinter,W.A. 

Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 


Honours  Division. 


Crouch  End  High  S.,  Hornsey 

Carboni,P.  o.a/./.sp.Htn.        Loreto  Conv., 

St.  Francis  Xavier's,  Gibraltar 

Clutterbuck,G.M.  ni. 

Crouch  End  High  S.,  Hornsey 
^Cootc,D.A.  Glenarm  Coll.,  Ilford 
I  Penson,L.M.  h.oLgm.f. 
I  39  Butler  Avenue,  Harrow-on-the-Hill 
j  Torres, E.  al./.sp.d.  Loreto  Conv., 

L  St.  Francis  Xavier's,  GibralUr 

Ussher,M.P.  bk.  Wilsford  H.,  Devizes 
Martin, I. 

Stoke  Public  Girls'  S.,  Devonport 
rBird,L.K.  e.g.d. 

I  The  Chestnuts,  Wiusconibe 

I  Dobson,D. 

L  St.  James'  Ladies' S.,  Jersey 

Parkin, D.B.  s.  St.  George's  H.,  Doucaster 
fAndrews.M.  sp.d.  Loreto  Con 

I  St.  Francis  Xavier's,  Gibraltar 

1  Jeram.K.F.  h.a.alj.  Manor  H.,  Havant 
I^Miles,E.A.  s.d.  Sunfield  H.,  Wellington 
rCrewe.E.  imi. 

Beech  Tree  H.,  Market  Drayton 
LLle\vellin,I.M.L.  g.f.  Private  tuition 

Brown, M.H.  s.d. 

Girls'  Gram.  S.,  Levenshulm 
f  Curtis,G.L. 

j  Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
1  Izdebski.G.G.D.  e/. 

1  Le  Coin,  St.  Ouen's,  Jersey 

I  Lavarello, J. /.sp.  Loreto  Conv., 

L  St.  Francis  Xavier's,  Gibraltar 

f  Bateman,N.M.  h.  Quarry  H.,  Guildford 
I  Coghlan,V.I./.  Fulford  Field  H.,  York 
i  Poulain.A.M.  f.d.  St.  Andrew's 

I  R.C.  School,  St.  Heliers,  Jersey 

White.H.M. /. 
L  Queeu's  3.,  Cliftonville,  Margate 

Shores,A.M.T.  s.e./.d. 

Belle  Vue,  Heme  Ray 
Huthwaite,N.I.W.  g.  Private  tuition 

f'Baily,W.G.  a.lfk.  Alexandra  Coll.,  Shirley 
I.  Cannon, J.  Queen's  S., Cliftonville,  Margate 
f  Forbes,D.W.M.  ul.  Shenley  H.,  Highgate 

1     Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
LTurner.E.V.A.  mil.  Beigh ton  H.,  Sheffield 
Bulnjer,M.C.  g. 

Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
Lloyd,  L.M.  d.  Westbouroe  H.,  Cowes 
Sloper,G.M.  BeaurivageS.,Weston-s.-Mare 
Thoruely,  B.E.       Manchester  Warehouse- 

lie  Hul: 

<  'ii  '  ' '■ '     ''..Hnrnham 

'  '  "■  ' '  "Jiurnham 
■  ■'  '  '  ■  1  -'  ^  li.,  I  loncaster 
;.  i-.i...,ie.,..i  Coll.,  Batli 
Haliover  Girls'  S.,  Buriihani 
Cambridge  House  High  S.. 

f  Bevan,B.M.  i 
I  Brooker,V.A. 
1  Crosby,  W.M. 
i  Phang,R.I.M 
I  Pruen,K.B.  a 
i  Rust,H.M. 

I  Batter.sea  Park.'S.W 

I  Turner,O.A.  s.g. 
L  Hope  Lodge  S.,  Bexley  Heath 

Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 

Kendall,M  Uriel  S.  a.  HolsworthyMiddleS 

Hewlett.H.  ul 

Stoke  Public  Girls'  S.,  Devonport 

f2Bowen,A.G.  Private  tuition 

(,2Cliff,M.G.  Private  tuition 


Colne  Valley  S.,  Rickmansworth 


St.  David's  Coll.,  Moreton-in-Marsh 
('2Ransouie,D.E.  vtit. 

I  Ryde  House  Comm.  S.,  Ripley 

L2Smith,I.  Wilsford  H.,  Devizes 

2Price,M.E.  Alleyn  Coll.,  Margate 

r 'Mary, Y.  /.  NotreDame  High S. , Plymouth 
L'Woodhouse.W.M.  FyldeColl,,Mi 
r»Coolev,S.E.  Spalding  G; 

]  =Grahani,W.M. 

I  Cornwallis  High  S.,  Hi 

L'-^Hill,B..M.  Clark's  Colleges.,  Brixt 
r'Greenwood,F.M.  Alexandra  Coll.,  Shirley 
L^Mann.R.D.  Pengweru  Coll.,  Cheltenha 
r»Norris,V.St.Mar\-'sConv., Middlesbrough 
I  20chs,B.M.  Fairlight,  Croydi 

L2Waugh,S.W.  Pencraig  Coll.,  Newport 
("JClare.G.M.  St.  Margaret's,  Cardiff 

InVebber.H.V.  Felis  H.,  Bast  Dulwich 
rBolton,G.M.  Woodford  High  S. 

I  Cabedo,M./.sp.  Loreto  Conv., 

I  St.  Francis  Xavier's,  Gibraltar 

I  Leahong.M.F.B.  Grosvenor  Coll.,  Bath 
I  2Tubb,I.L. 

L         St.  Winifred's  High  S.,  Southampt^ 
('2Drew,M.G.  Collingwood  Coll.,  Lee 

I  2Green,D.  s.  Spald        ^ 

I  SLangner.P.M.E.  Alleyn  Coll.,  Margate 
I  Speller.H.M. 

I  Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
I^Sumner.C.L.  Fern.side,  Grautha 


I  Clark's  College  S.,  Brixton  Hill 

I  Ellis, W.F.  bk.  St.  Winifred's,  Torquay 
I  Horwood,D.R.e.  Hemdean  H.,  Cavershani 
I  Smith,W.H.  h.  Harley  H.,  Hereford 

t  Squires,  E.  g.f. 

I  Stoke  Public  Girls'  S.,  Devonport 

I  Vaughan,M.E.  s. 

I  Harringay  Park  High  S.,  Hornsey 

I  Walton.M.  rf.  The  High  S.,  Stechford 

I  2Wright,F. 

L  BrinsleyChurchofEuglandS., Nottingham 
r=Clarkson,M.G.  Private  tuition 

I  Courlander,K.G.L.  li. 
I  Cambom-ne  S.,  Richmond 

I  Frost.C.A.  Beighton  H.,  Sheffield 

I  2Gibbs,H.M.  Private  tuition 

I  2Hamilton,H.F.R.B. 
L  Workington  Secondary  S. 

^Biggs,LL.  al. 

I  Crouch  End  High  S.,  Hornsey 

I  Bradley,E.C.  Wilsford  H.,  Devizes 

I  Brown, F.A.  The  Limes,  Buckhurst  Hill 
I  2Chidlow,S.J.  County  Secondary  S  ,  Hyde 
I  Clifford,D.  e. 

I  Friedenfels,  St,  Leonards-on-Sea 

I  2Jones,H.M.  West  Ham  High  S. 

I  Mountstephen,'W. 

Stoke  Public  Girls'  S.,  Devonport 

I  Huut,E.M.  g.  The  Manse,  Buntingford 
I  Nunan,M.  St.  Paul's  Conv.,  Kilttnane 
I  Priddy.L.L.  Oakover  Girls  S  ,  Burnhani 
I  SQuinlan, Madge  St. Paul's  Conv., Kiltinane 
I  2Taylor,B.M.  Private  tuition 

\  Woodhams,M.D'A.     Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

I  Hawson,D.  mi 

I  Mayoss,G.A. 
I  Quinlan,B. 

Roderick, A.  d. 

Spalding  Gram.  S. 

'.  Arundel  H.,  Scarborough 

Trinity  H.,  BexhiU-on-Sea 

Alexandra  Coll.,  Shirley 

St.  Paul's  Conv.,  Kilflnane 

St.  MaurCoU.,  Chepstow 


Rass  Dii/lston. 

2Tliorlev,G.  Ik.f. 

Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 
!Bradley,E.A.  s.  Sunfleld  H.,  Wellington 

W.  Jesmond  Senior  S.,  Newcastle-on-T 
2Curtis,M.s.  Woodford  High  S. 

2Izod,W.A.  Crouch  End  High  S..Hornsev 

Clark's  College  High  S.,  Holloway 
Thorutouville  Girls'  S.,  Thornton  Heath 
2Luke,V.  Abercorn  Coll.,  Dublin 

Thorntonville  Girls'  S.,  Thornton  Heath 
2Corden,W.  J.  iiiii.  Emwell  S., Warminster 
r2Jones,A.B.  Technical  Day  S.,Stalybridge 
I  •3Stoddart,N.  1M. 

L  W.  Jesmond  Senior  S.,  Newcastle-on-T 
■2Ridley,M.  St.Hilda'sColl.,Hexham-on-T. 

I  Municipal  Secondary  S.,  Manchester 

l,2Manning,R.  Holsworthy  National  S. 
2Buck,N.A.  Emwell  S.,  Warminster 

2Burt,G.N.  s.  Spalding  Gram.  S. 

I  201sen,L.A. 

I    Central  Con 



I  Barter,  D.K. 

I     Licensed  Victuallers'  Girls'  S.,  Lambeth 

I  Burdon.A.M. 

I     Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapli 

I  2Clancy,S.         St.  Paul's  Conv.,  Killinane 

I  Hodgkinson,W.  d. 

1     Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junctior 

I  2Michie,E.L.  CambridgeH.,CamdenRd.N. 

I  Nicholson.S.B.  Girls' High  S.,  Castleford 

I  Shearer,J.C.  Wellington  Coll  ,  Hastings 
I  Soper,D.M.  h.  Girionville  Coll  ,  Aintree 
I  Wallis,K.W.  Alexandra  Coll.,  Shirley 

2White,G.M.  Emwell  S.,  Warminster 

I  aWoods,B.H. 
L    W.  Jesmond  Senior  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 


I  Borough  Coll.  S.,  Rotherham 

I  Barton,M.  d.  Castle  Dene,  Newport 

j  ^Featherstflne  E.F. 

I  King's  Cliff  Endowed  S.,  Wansford 

I  2Greenwood,M.  A.  Private  tuition 

I  !Haikney,E.D. 

I  HeatonPk.Rd. Councils., Newcastle-on-T. 
I  "Maguire,E.F. /.  Rutland  High  S.,  Dublin 
Oakes,M.  Somerville  H.,  Northampton 
I  "Palfreyman.M  .M.  Spalding  Gram.  S. 
I  2Palmer,I.L.  Holly  Bank  S.,  Bridgwater 
k,2Tunstall,H.B.  Bleak  H.,  Brentwood 

The  High  S.,  Stechford 

1  Girls'  S. ,  We.ston-s.-Mare 

Bleak  H.,  Brentwood 

St.  Elmo's  Coll.,  Totton 

C2Cole,A.L.  Park  Girls'  S.,  Stratford 

I  2Condon,K.A.       St.  Mary  and  St.  Petei 

S.,  St.  Heliers,  Jersey 
I  Gilmour.M.A.  g.d. 

I  Radley  H.,  Wandsworth  Common 

I  2Hall,E.M.  Ladies'  Coll.,  Nantwich 

I  2Holdup,E.M.J. 

I         Secondary  S.  for  Girls,  Peterborough 
I  Lawrance,D. 

Royal  Mas 
I  2Mitchiner,D.E. 
I  Orange,  B. 
I  Smith,  R.E.  n. 
I  Queei 

I  2Stone,L.P. 
I  2Tideswell,N. 
I  H 

lust.,  Clapham  Junction 
Fairlight,  Croydon 
Woodford  High  S. 

sthorpe,  Cosham,  Hants 
Weymouth  P.-T.  Centre 
Seven  Thorns  S., 
*.  Openshaw,  Manchester 
■WestcliffS.,  Southport 
D'Arcy  Hey,  Bosconibe 

I  2Farwell,D. 
I  2Humphrey,H.A. 

Girls'  High  S.,  London  Rd.,  Maidstone 
I  Matthews,  K.H. 

I  Clark's  College  High  S.,  Holloway 

I  01den,C.M.  St.  Elmo's  Coll.,  Totton 

LQuuiton.C.M.  Castle  Dene,  Newport 

[      Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 

2Dudley,P.W.  Brook  Gr. 
Fleck, D.R. 
Boyal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
Gardner, A.M./.  Elm  Lodge,  Petersham 

Stoke  Public  Girls'  S.,  Devonport 
Keay.H.D.  d.  Girtonville  Coll.,  Aintree 
Lang.D.  Stoke  Public  Girls'  S.,  Devonport 

Stoke  Public  Girls'  S.,  Devonport 
Roberts.E.B.  al. 

Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
I  St  Peter's  Girls' S.,  Bournemouth 

I  2Tabor,E.C. 
I.,  St.  Cnthbert's  Coll.,  Forest  Hill 

f2French,A.  Easingwold  Gram.  S. 

I  Holnies,G.E.  «.        Lonsdale  H.,  Norwich 

I  2Hornibrook,E.E.I.  Private  tuition 

I  2Loveday,E.d.  Thrapston  High  S.for  Girls 

I  North,D.A. 

[  Radley  H.,  Wandsworth  Common 

I  2Thomas,N.  Osborne  H.,  Redditch 

I  2Whitehead,E.I. 

L  Licensed  Victuallers'  Girls'  S.,  Lambeth 

f~Ahitr,h.  f.  Private  tuition 

I  Bickerstatl'.M.  Girtonville  Coll.,  Aintree 
I  Clogq.C.  h.  Highwood  H.,  Liskeard 

I  Flint,I.F.  ;i.i;. 

I  Stapleton  Hall  S.,  Stroud  Green 

I  Forrest,G.I.  g.  Wellington  Coll.,  Hastings 
I  Harrison, D.G. 

I  Crouch  Bud  High  S.,  Hornsey 

I  Keeley,B.A.  Woodford  High  S. 

I  !Ki.stnick,E.M.   Hemdean  H.,  Caver.sham 
I  Osbaldiston.M. 
I     Roval  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
LWalter.V.W.  d.         Froebel  H.,  Worthing 
rCaton,B.K.  Roden  H.,  Ongar 

I  Cox.G.F.L.  Temple  Square  S.,  Aylesbury 
I  Crouch, A. L.  RydcHouseComm.S., Ripley 
i  2Denyer,F.E. 

I  St.  Peter's  Girls'  S.,  Bournemouth 

I  Glasspool,V. 

I  Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
I  2Heslop,A.B.  Municipal  Evening  S.  of 
I  Commerce,  Manchester 

I  Jarvis.M.J. 

I  St.  Peter's  Church  S.,  Bayswatcr 

I  Needliam,V.  LarchmountHall,  Vatton 
20'Donnell,X.  St.  Paul's  Conv.,  Kilflnane 
Sin  pson.D.M.  Headingley  Hill  S.,  Leeds 
Spender,C.C.  Harley  H.,  Hcreforxl 


Stapleton  Hall  S.,  Stroud  Green 
(^      W.  Jesmond  Girls'  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

('2Ausell,G.W.  Alleyn  Coll.,  Margate 

I  Beaumont.H.R.  Elsmcre  S.,  Reading 

I  'Chcsters,K.  Ladies'  Coll.,  Nantwich 

I  2Curtis,E.  HighS., The  Green, Twickenham 
Haiiuen,M.H.G.  h.  Private  tuition 

I  Peacock,  K.E.  rf.  Holt  H.,  Fakenham 

I  "Pope,B.D.  109  Uxbridge  Rd.,  Ealing 
I  =Sclioflcld,E.  Technical  Days., Staly bridge 
I  2Wilkinsou,J. 

I  Maryport  Church  of  England  S. 

l..2Wri!;ht,E.H.         Fylde  Coll.,  Morecambe 


I      Roval  Masonic  lust.,  Clapham  Junction 

I  Hart; V. CM.  LlanfairH..  Kington 

I  Johnson, C.J. 

I      Licensed  Victuallers' Girls'  S.,  Lambeth 

I  Maggs,J.V.M./.  Private  tuition 

I  Martin, E.M.        St.  Maur  Coll.,  Chep.stow 

I  McDougall,0.K.       Belle  Vue,  Heme  Bay 

I  Newman, D.E.TempleSquareS., Aylesbury 



[Feb.  1,  1909. 

GIRLS,  3rd  Class,  Pass.— Coii/iniKrf. 
I  0'R«illy,K.  d.  Loreto  Conv., 

1  St.  Francis  Xivier's,  GibralUr 

I  ^Robinson, L.  Eastgat.e,  Stafford 

I  White.D.M.A.  d. 

I  Queen's  S.,  Cliftonville,  Margate 

CBrewer,B.E.  Privat*  tuition 

I  Briggs.A.H.  Girtonville  Coll.,  Aintree 
I  Dodsworth.M.H.  Froebel  H.,  Worthing 
I  Gale.H.  gm.  Manchester  Warehousemen  & 
I  Cleri;s'  Orphan  S.,  Cheartle  Hulrae 

I  Hudson,  W. 

t  Loreto  Conv.,  Hulmc,  JIanchester 

I  2Jenkins,A.M. 

I  SumnieiTield  Hall,  Maesycwmmer 

I  2Martin,B.  BreckColl.S.,Poulton.Ie-Fylde 
I  2Roberts,A.  20  South  Terrace,  Cork 

Towneud,B.5!.  d.  Private  tuition 

I  Willett,G.  70  Dyke  Rd.,  Brighton 

L2Williams,E.  Private  tuition 


I  Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
I  2Brownc,E  M.  Belle  Vue  H.,  Norwich 
I  Carter, B.M.L. 

I  Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
I  -CottelI,D.M.  Private  tuition 

I  Doe,L,C.  EdgehiU  Girls'  Coll  ,  Bideford 
I  Hawkes.K.J.G.  Collingwoort  Coll.,  Lee 
I  Heuner,B.N.A.c!.CarlyleCollege,Brighton 
1  Moignard,L.A. 

I  Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Juijction 
I  Osborn.E.  niii.  Stamford  House,  Bourne 
I  Parr,D  I. 

i  Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
Proctor,E.  cd.  Private  tuition 

I  2Shayer,E.J. 
L  Central  Higher  Grade  S.,  Acton 

rBlyth.F.M.  Lonsdale  H.,  Norwich 

I  'Carey,J.  St.  Paul's  Conv.,  Kiltinane 

i  Cash,E.V.  d.  Denvent  H.,  Margate 

Crack.N.  /.  70  Dyke  Rd.,  Brighton 

I  2Day,G.E.  Weymouth  P.-T.  Centre 

I  Fisher,D,M.  Pencraic;  Coll.,  Newport 

I  2Ford,D.B. 

I  Clark's  College  High  S.,  Holloway 

I  Gower,E.M.  <(.  Boldrewood,  Redhill 

I  Le  Sauteur.B.M.  Vauxhall  S.,  Jersey 

I  Merrett,M.E. 

i  Licensed  Victuallers' Girls'  S.,  Lambeth 
I  Morris,E.M.  ,«.  ManchesterWarehousemeii 
I  &  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 


Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 

Pouting  EM.  «.OakoverGirls'S.,Burnham 

L     Commercial  S.,  High  Rd.,  Wood  Green 

Beech,O.A.  nl. 

Boyal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
Borrow,  W.M. 

Queensthorpe,  Cosham,  Hants 
Brown, I.K.  Westbournc  H.,  Cowes 

Grant,A.M.  Braunstone  H.,  Newport 

3McCall,E.M.  Private  tuition 

Nippin,D.H.  Temple  Square  S.,AylesburT 
Pitten,E.G.  Lulworth  H.,  Caerieon 

Poulton,C.M.BydeHouseComm.S., Ripley 
Sumner.M.A.G.  rf. 

Colne  Valley  S.,  Rickmansworth 
Taylor.D.M.  Wendover  Coll.,  Bowes  Park 
I  White,C.H.  e.d. 

J  St.  Hilda's  Coll.,  Hexham-on-Tyne 

LWoodfin.E.E.        Sunfield  H.,  Wellington 


Free  School  Lane  Council  S.,  Lincoln 
Betts,P.M.  StapletonHallS.,StroudGreen 
St.  Catherine's,  JerninghamRd.,NewCr03s 
Collin, M.  Girtonville  Coll..  Aintree 

Cupit,M.E.  SomervilleH., Northampton 
Hannah,  A.S,  Manchester  Warehousemen 
&  Clerks'  Orphan  S.,  Cheadle  Hulme 
Hanii.s,H.M.  EdgehillGirls'Coll, Bideford,B.A.  Edersleigh  High  S., Sheffield 
LoTi.lon.D.E.  Lulworth  H.,  Caerieon 

Pritchard.G.M.  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
2Rcnton,A.  Bleak  H.,  Brentwood 

Tempcst.D.M.  Hcadingley  Hill  S.,  Leeds 
Walton.E.  Colville  H.,  Eastbourne 


W.  Jesniond  Senior  S.,  Newcastle-on-T. 

SomerviUe  H.,  Northampton 

Bell,M.  City  of  Durham  S.  for  Girls 

Bennett,  H.M. 

St.  Kilda'3  Coll.,  Clifton,  Bristol 

Licensed  Victuallers'  Girls'  S.,  Lambeth 
Christian, D.M. 

High  S.,  The  Green,  Twickenham 

Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 
Jones,L.A.  Brook  Green  Girls'  Coll.,  W. 
Markham,D.M.  Glenarm  Coll.,  Ilford 
Port,M.  Prep.S., Portland  Rd.,Edgbaston 

Cumberland  Coll.,  Acock's  Green 
I  Stewart,G.K./.  Harley  H.,  Hereford 

I  Udall.I.R.  Larchmount  Hall,  Tatton 

Loreto  Conv.,  Hulme,  Manchester 

rBach,G.M.  Llanfair  H.,  Kington 

I  Butcher,C.A.E.  Bleak  H.,  Brentwood 
I  Johnson, G.  Wilsford  H.,  Devizes 

I  Jones,M.S.A.  St.  Margaret's,  Cardiff 

1  Lewis.E.M.  St.  Maur  Coll.,  Chepstow 
I  'Lewry,H.M.  Selhurst  Park  School, 

I  >S.  Norwood 

I  Millman,V. 

I  Stoke  Public  Giris'  S.,  Devonport 

Pape.H.S.  Rock  Hill,  Chulmleigh 

.Scott,V.R.  Brook  Green  Girls'  Coll.,  W. 
Smith,L.L.  St.  Maur  Coll.,  Chepstow 

Taylor,D.       Rougemont  Coll.,  Blackpool 
Thomas.B.E.      The  College,  Nightingale 
Lane,  Clapham  Common 
(.Williams.F.     Breakspear  Coll.,  Brockley 


I  Licensed  Victuallers'  Girls'  S.,  Lambeth 
=Guy,I.A.E.  The  Kingsley  S  ,  Shifnal 

I  Kendall, Mays.  Holsworthy  Middle  S. 
I  Kewley,L.  Aintree  High  S.,  Liverpool 
I  2Lynes,J. 

:  Firth  Park  High  S.,  Pitsmoor,  Sheffield 
I  Mallet,L.M.  /. 

I  Ash  ton  H.,  St.  Clement's,  Jersey 

I  Mounsey,A.M. 

Breck  Coll.  S.,  Poulton-le-Fylde 
I  Rice,H.M.  Private  tuition 

I  Roberts.A.I.  PengwernColl.,  Cheltenham 
I  Smith, M.I.  Girtonville  Coll.,  Aintree 

I  Talbot.I.M.  Stuart  H.,  Gravesend 

I  West.G.A.  Steyne  S.,  Worthing 

I  Williams,I.V.  Cambridge  H.,  York 

I  Williams,M.M.  cf.  ElsmereS.,  Reading 
l.Williarasou,D.V.       AUeyn  Coll.,  Margate 

r' Ashton ,  B.  M.  Aven  ue  S. ,  Leigh 

I  Dryland,  W. A.  Westbourne  H.,  Cowes 
I  Edwards.V.A.  St.  Maur  Coll.,  Chepstow 
I  2Harrison,M.W.  Ousegate  S.  Selby 

I  SHutchins, H.M.  BcaeonsneldH., Brighton 
I  Kistruck,K.S.  Hemdeati  H.,  Caversham 
I  Lang.E.V.  The  Elms,  S.  Norwood 

I  Musgrave,E.R.  French  Protestants., 

I  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  W.C. 

I  Smith, R.M.  King's  H.,  Muswell  Hill 

L2Tucker,A.M.  Private  tuition 


I  United  Girls' S.,  S.  Molton 

I  Bruce.D.B.  Private  tuition 

I  Danicl.L.M.  EdgehillGirls'Coll., Bideford 

I  Dunster,R. 

I  Stoke  Public  Girls'  S.,  Devonport 

Gardner,B.L.  Fylde  Coll.,  Jlorecambe 
I  Hopkins,  H.K.        , 

I     Licensed  Victuallers'  Girls'  S.,  Lambeth 
I  Mackay,M.L 
I      Royal  Masonic  Inst.,  Clapham  Junction 

Pidslev.B.B.  d.  Bleak  H.,  Brentwood 
I  Pike.I.M.  Private  tuition 

I  2Stephens,D.  Private  t